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Lorenz K, Lynn J, Morton SC, et al. End-of-Life Care and Outcomes. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2004 Dec. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 110.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of End-of-Life Care and Outcomes

End-of-Life Care and Outcomes.

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Appendix B. Search Strategies

Appendix B1. NLM Search Strategy

First Strategy for End of Life from NLM in PubMed - Trajectory Issues NOT included

April 8, 2004

  1. palliative care[mh] OR attitude to death [ mh] OR death [ mh:noexp] OR terminal care[ mh:noexp] OR hospice care[ mh] OR hospices [ mh] OR bereavement [ mh] OR terminally ill[ mh] OR “death and dying”[ All Fields] OR “dying loved one”[ All Fields] OR “dying patient”[ All Fields] OR “dying patients”[ All Fields] OR “dying people”[ All Fields] OR “dying person”[ All Fields] OR “end of life”[ All Fields] OR “limited life expectancies”[ All Fields] OR “limited life expectancy”[ All Fields] OR “limited life span”[ All Fields] OR “limited life spans”[ All Fields] OR “limited lifespan”[ All Fields] OR “limited lifetime”[ All Fields] OR “imminent death”[ All Fields] OR “imminent demise”[ All Fields] Limits: All Adult: 19+ years, Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human
    Total: 10,543
  2. health care quality, access, and evaluation[ mh] OR “outcome and process assessment (health care)” [ mh] OR consumer satisfaction[ mh] OR personal satisfaction[ mh] OR quality of life[ mh] OR quality of health care[ mh] OR value of life[ mh] OR questionnaires [ mh] OR interviews [ mh] OR psychological tests [ mh] OR clinical trial[ pt] OR clinical trials[ mh] OR psychotherapy[ mh] OR reproducibility of results[ mh] OR predictive value of tests[ mh] OR psychiatric status rating scales [ mh] OR (rating AND (scale OR scales))
    Total: 789,126
  3. #1 AND #2
    Total: 7,870
  4. sociology [ mh] OR continental population groups[ mh] OR socioeconomic factors [ mh] OR education [ mh:noexp] OR health education [ mh] OR age factors [ mh] OR sex factors [ mh] OR sexuality[ mh] OR life style[ mh] OR interpersonal relations [ mh] OR morale [ mh] OR internal-external control [ mh] OR social distance [ mh] OR cooperative behavior [ mh] OR attitude to health [ mh] OR religion [ mh] OR personality [ mh] OR emotions[ mh] OR mental competency[ mh] OR family[ mh] OR caregivers[ mh] OR friends[ mh] OR sexual partners [ mh] OR social environment [ mh] OR visitors to patients [ mh] OR communication[ mh]
    Total: 261,455
  5. #1 AND #4
    Total: 5,258
  6. palliative care[ mh] OR attitude to death [ mh] OR death [ mh:noexp] OR terminal care[ mh:noexp] OR hospice care[ mh] OR bereavement [ mh] OR terminally ill[ mh] OR “death and dying”[ All Fields] OR “dying loved one”[ All Fields] OR “dying patient”[ All Fields] OR “dying patients”[ All Fields] OR “dying people”[ All Fields] OR “dying person”[ All Fields] OR “end of life”[ All Fields] OR “limited life expectancies”[ All Fields] OR “limited life expectancy”[ All Fields] OR “limited life span”[ All Fields] OR “limited life spans”[ All Fields] OR “limited lifespan”[ All Fields] OR “limited lifetime”[ All Fields] OR “imminent death”[ All Fields] OR “imminent demise”[ All Fields] Limits: All Adult: 19+ years, Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human
    Total: 10,395
  7. health services needs and demand [ mh] OR health facilities [ mh:noexp] OR academic medical centers [ mh] OR health facilities, proprietary [ mh] OR health facility environment [ mh] OR health facility size [ mh] OR hospital administration [ mh] OR hospital units [ mh:noexp] OR intensive care units [ mh] OR hospitals [ mh] OR residential facilities [ mh] OR community health services [ mh:noexp] OR community mental health services [ mh] OR home care services [ mh] OR home care agencies [ mh] OR counseling [ mh] OR suburban health services [ mh] OR urban health services [ mh] OR rural health services [ mh] OR women's health services [ mh:noexp] OR health services for the aged [ mh] OR health services, indigenous [ mh] OR health services [ mh:noexp] OR community health nursing [ mh] OR professional-patient relations [ mh] OR public relations [ mh] OR decision-making, organizational [ mh] OR decision support systems, clinical [ mh] OR institutional management teams [ mh] OR patient care management [ mh] OR role [ mh] OR health personnel [ mh] OR attitude of health personnel [ mh] OR patient care [ mh:noexp] OR critical care [ mh] OR nursing care [ mh] OR life support care [ mh] OR health care economics and organizations [ mh] OR resource allocation [ mh] OR government [ mh] OR government programs [ mh]
    Total: 158,202
  8. #6 AND #7
    Total: 4,465
  9. #3 OR #5 OR #8
    Total: 8,944
  10. terminal care/economics OR terminal care/psychology OR terminal care/standards OR terminal care/trends OR terminal care/utilization OR terminal illness/psychology OR hospice care/economics OR hospice care/psychology OR hospice care/standards OR hospice care/trends OR hospice care/utilization
    Total: 1,570
  11. #9 OR #10
    Total: 9,154
  12. letter [ pt] OR news [ pt] OR editorial [ pt]
    Total: 83,393
  13. #11 NOT #12
    Total: 8,778
  14. #9 NOT #12
    Total: 8,585
  15. euthanasia [ mh] OR suicide, assisted [ mh] OR pregnancy [ mh] OR pregnancy complications [ mh] OR fetal death [ mh]
    Total: 60,908
  16. #13 NOT #15
    Total: 8,018
  17. #14 NOT #15
    Total: 7,912
  18. (palliative care OR bereavement OR grief OR terminal care OR hospice care OR terminally ill OR hospice OR hospices OR Kubler-Ross OR (attitude* AND death) OR “death and dying”[ All Fields] OR “dying loved one”[ All Fields] OR “dying patient”[ All Fields] OR “dying patients”[ All Fields] OR “dying people”[ All Fields] OR “dying person”[ All Fields] OR “end of life”[ All Fields] OR “limited life expectancies”[ All Fields] OR “limited life expectancy”[ All Fields] OR “limited life span”[ All Fields] OR “limited life spans”[ All Fields] OR “limited lifespan”[ All Fields] OR “limited lifetime”[ All Fields] OR “imminent death”[ All Fields] OR “imminent demise”[ All Fields] ) AND (in process [ sb] OR publisher [ sb] ) AND 1990:2004 [ pdat]
    Total: 447
  19. #16 OR #18
    Total: 8,465
  20. #17 OR #18
    Total: 8,359
  21. #19 NOT case reports [ pt]
    Total: 7,047
  22. #20 NOT case reports [ pt]
    Total: 6,961

Appendix B2. Q2-Trajectories Search Strategy

QUESTION #2:

DATABASE SEARCHED: PUBMED

TIME PERIOD COVERED: 1990-2004

OTHER LIMITERS: ENGLISH ONLY, HUMAN ONLY

SEARCH STRATEGY 1A:

heart failure, congestive OR dementia OR neoplasms

AND

terminally ill OR chronic disease OR critical illness OR metasta* OR advanced

AND

patients[majr] OR patient*[ti] OR family[majr] OR family[ti] OR families[ti]

AND

spirituality OR pain OR emotions OR dyspnea OR depression OR attitute to death OR population characteristics OR psychology[sh]

AND

quality of life OR quality of health care OR patient satisfaction OR patient advocacy OR decision making

NOT

gene OR genetic* OR chromosom* OR surgery[sh] OR radiotherapy OR drug therapy[sh] OR pathology OR epidemiology OR case report OR treatment outcome

SEARCH STRATEGY 1B:

heart failure, congestive OR dementia OR neoplasms

AND

terminally ill OR chronic disease OR critical illness OR metasta* OR advanced

AND

health care facilities, manpower and services OR quality of health care OR health services research OR health services OR insurance, health OR patient care management

AND

quality of life OR quality of health care OR patient satisfaction OR patient advocacy OR decision making

NOT

gene OR genetic* OR chromosom* OR surgery[sh] OR radiotherapy OR drug therapy[sh] OR pathology OR epidemiology OR case report OR treatment outcome

NUMBER OF ITEMS RETRIEVED FOR BOTH SEARCHES: 961

Appendix B3. DARE Search Strategy

DARE -Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects

We searched DARE using the following individual terms:

Caregiver, coordination, continuity, advance care planning, advance care, DNR, resuscitation orders, communication, dyspnea.

We also searched for systematic reviews in the area of pain by combining ‘pain’ with the following disease-specific terms:

Cancer, neoplasms, COPD, CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, dementia, cirrhosis. The term ‘pain’ was combined with all other disease categories.

Category:Number of Citations
caregiver(s)31
advance care planning0
resuscitation21
DNR1
dyspnea12
continuity20
coordination20
communication103
pain + disease-specific terms92

One of us (KL) completed a title review on all citations identified, yielding a set of citations that was subjected to formal abstract review (using our systematic review screener).

Appendix B4. RAND Search Strategy

REVISED STRATEGY FOR END OF LIFE QUESTION 1, PUBMED

Roberta Shanman, 4/20/04

#1 Search death[ti] OR death[mh:noexp] OR “dying loved one” OR “dying patient” OR “dying patients” OR “dying people” OR “dying person” OR “last year of life” OR “end of life” OR “terminal illness” OR “terminal illnesses” OR terminal care OR “death and dying” OR “limited life expectancies” OR “limited life expectancy” OR “limited life span” OR “limited lifespan” OR “limited life spans” OR terminally ill OR critical illness OR frail elderly Field: All Fields, Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:16:25 40006

#2 Search delivery of health care OR quality assurance, health care OR “outcome and process assessment (health care)” OR quality of life OR quality indicators OR quality of health care OR patient care management OR continuity of care OR outcome[ti] OR outcomes[ti] OR consumer satisfaction OR patient satisfaction OR personal satisfaction Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:17:11 1418497

#3 Search pain/th OR pain/psychology OR “pain management” OR “pain assessment” OR “relieve suffering” OR “relieve symptoms” OR palliative care[mh] OR pain[ti] OR “pain relief” OR discomfort OR “physical comfort” OR “comfort care” OR “symptom distress” OR “symptom burden” OR “symptom control” OR “symptom intensity” OR “symptom management” OR “symptom relief” OR “pain distress” OR “pain easing” OR “pain free” Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:18:17 72663

#4 Search “psychological distress” OR psychology[sh] OR wellbeing OR “well being” OR anxiety OR anxious OR anxiety disorders[mh] OR depression OR depressive disorder[mh] OR depressed OR “attitude to death” OR neoplasms/psychology OR “emotional health” OR spiritual OR emotions OR support[ti] OR supportive OR communication OR relationships OR religion OR religiosity OR “treatment decision” OR decisionmaking OR “decision making” Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:19:56 445112

#5 Search home care services/standards OR home nursing/st OR hospice care/st OR “nursing assistance” OR nursing homes/st OR residential facilities/st OR intensive care units/st OR life support care/st OR “home care” OR hospice* OR “nursing homes"[tiab] OR “nursing home"[tiab] OR “intensive care"[tiab] OR icu[tiab] OR icus[tiab] OR “place of death” OR health care facilities, manpower and services OR caregiver* OR caregivers OR “care giving” OR family[mh] OR family[tiab] OR families[tiab] OR “social services” OR “social support” Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:20:48 247909

#6 Search #1 AND #2 Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:21:30 22453

#7 Search #3 OR #4 OR #5 Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:21:51 669678

#8 Search #6 AND #7 Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:22:07 14020

#9 Search #8 NOT (letter[pt] OR news[pt] OR editorial[pt] OR case reports[pt]) Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:22:56 11505

#10 Search #9 NOT (ethics[mh] OR euthanasia[mh] OR suicide, assisted[mh] OR pregnancy[mh] OR pregnancy complications[mh] OR fetal death[mh]) Limits: Publication Date from 1990 to 2004, English, Human 16:24:59

TOTAL TITLES 8,284

When compared with NLM search, 3,748 new and unique titles identified by this search strategy.

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