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Buscemi N, Vandermeer B, Pandya R, et al. Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2004 Nov. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 108.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders.

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References for Evidence Tables

    Evidence Table C-1: References

    1.
    Almeida Montes L G, Ontiveros Uribe M P, Cortes Sotres J. et al. Treatment of primary insomnia with melatonin: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003;28(3):191–196. [PMC free article: PMC161743] [PubMed: 12790159]
    2.
    Garfinkel D, Laudon M, Zisapel N. Improvement of sleep equality in elderly people by controlled-release melatonin. Lancet. 1995;346(8974):541–544. [PubMed: 7658780]
    3.
    Haimov I, Lavie P, Laudon M. et al. Melatonin replacement therapy of elderly insomniacs. Sleep. 1995;18(7):598–603. [PubMed: 8552931]
    4.
    McArthur A J, Budden S S. Sleep dysfunction in Rett syndrome: a trial of exogenous melatonin treatment. Develop Med Child Neurol. 1998;40(3):186–92. [PubMed: 9566656]
    5.
    Serfaty M, Kennell-Webb S, Warner J. et al. Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial of low dose melatonin for sleep disorders in dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17(12):1120–7. [PubMed: 12461760]
    6.
    Shamir E, Barak Y, Shalman I. et al. Melatonin treatment for tardive dyskinesia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(11):1049–52. [PubMed: 11695951]
    7.
    Smits M G, Van Stel H F, Van Der Heijden K. et al. Melatonin Improves Health Status and Sleep in Children With Idiopathic Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Am Acad Child & Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42(11):1286–1293. [PubMed: 14566165]
    8.
    Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Johnson R. et al. Comparative study to determine the optimal melatonin dosage form for the alleviation of jet lag. Chronobiol Int. 1998;15(6):655–66. [PubMed: 9844753]

    Evidence Table C-2: References

    1.
    Aldous M, Franey C, Wright J. et al. Plasma Concentrations of Melatonin in Man Following Oral Absorption of Different Preparations. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985;19:517–521. [PMC free article: PMC1463812] [PubMed: 3994899]
    2.
    Benes L, Claustrat B, Horriere F, Geoffriau M, Konsil J, Parrott K A. et al. Transmucosal, oral controlled-release, and transdermal drug administration in human subjects: a crossover study with melatonin. J Pharm Sci. 1997;86:1115–9. [PubMed: 9344167]
    3.
    Cagnacci A, Elliott J A, Yen, SS Melatonin: a major regulator of the circadian rhythm of core temperature in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;75(2):447–52. [PubMed: 1639946]
    4.
    Cagnacci A, Soldani R, Laughlin G A. et al. Modification of circadian body temperature rhythm during the luteal menstrual phase: role of melatonin. J Appl Physiol. 1996;80(1):25–9. [PubMed: 8847311]
    5.
    Cavallo A, Ritschel W A. Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in human sexual maturation. J Clin Endocrinol Metabolism. 1996;81(5):1882. [PubMed: 8626852]
    6.
    Dawson D, Gibbon S, Singh P. The hypothermic effect of melatonin on core body temperature: is more better? J Pineal Res. 1996;20(4):192–7. [PubMed: 8836952]
    7.
    Deacon S, Arendt J. Melatonin-induced temperature suppression and its acute phase-shifting effects correlate in a dose-dependent manner in humans. Brain Res. 1995;688(1-2):77–85. [PubMed: 8542325]
    8.
    Debus O M, Lerchl A, Bothe H W. et al. Spontaneous central melatonin secretion and resorption kinetics of exogenous melatonin: a ventricular CSF study. J Pineal Res. 2002;33(4):213–7. [PubMed: 12390503]
    9.
    Di W-D, Kavda A, Johnston A. et al. Variable Bioavalability of Oral Melatonin. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(14):1028–129. [PubMed: 9091795]
    10.
    Dollins A B, Lynch H J, Wurtman R J. et al. Effect of pharmacological daytime doses of melatonin on human mood and performance. Psychopharmacol. 1993;112(4):490–6. [PubMed: 7871062]
    11.
    Dollins A B, Zhdanova I V, Wurtman R J. et al. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 1994;91(5):1824–8. [PMC free article: PMC43256] [PubMed: 8127888]
    12.
    Helrich E, Neef C, Merkus F W. Population pharmacokinetics of intranasally administered low dose melatonin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002;53:543–544.
    13.
    Hoffmann H, Dittgen M, Hoffmann A. et al. Evaluation of an oral pulsatile delivery system for melatonin in humans. Pharmazie. 1998;53(7):462–6. [PubMed: 9699222]
    14.
    Kane M A, Johnson A, Nash A E. et al. Serum melatonin levels in melanoma patients after repeated oral administration. Melanoma Res. 1994;4(1):59–65. [PubMed: 8032220]
    15.
    Kovacs J, Brodner W, Kirchlechner V. et al. Measurement of urinary melatonin: a useful tool for monitoring serum melatonin after its oral administration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(2):666–70. [PubMed: 10690873]
    16.
    Lee B-J, Ryu S-G, Choi H-G. et al. Batch variation and pharmacokinetics of oral sustained release melatonin-loaded sugar spheres in human subjects. Arch Pharmacal Res. 1997;20(6):555–559. [PubMed: 18982259]
    17.
    Lewy A J, Bauer V K, Ahmed S. et al. The human phase response curve (PRC) to melatonin is about 12 hours out of phase with the PRC to light. Chronobiol Int. 1998;15(1):71–83. [PubMed: 9493716]
    18.
    MacFarlane J G, Cleghorn J M, Brown G M. et al. The effects of exogenous melatonin on the total sleep time and daytime alertness of chronic insomniacs: a preliminary study. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30(4):371–6. [PubMed: 1912128]
    19.
    Niederhofer H, Staffen W, Mair A. et al. Brief report: melatonin facilitates sleep in individuals with mental retardation and insomnia. J Autism Dev Disord. 2003;33:469–72. [PubMed: 12959427]
    20.
    Rajaratnam S M, Dijk D J, Middleton B. et al. Melatonin phase-shifts human circadian rhythms with no evidence of changes in the duration of endogenous melatonin secretion or the 24-hour production of reproductive hormones. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;88(9):4303–9. [PubMed: 12970302]
    21.
    Shah J, Langmuir V, Gupta S K. Feasibility and functionality of OROS melatonin in healthy subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 1999;39(6):606–12. [PubMed: 10354964]
    22.
    Shirakawa S-I, Tsuchiya S, Tsutsumi Y. et al. Time course of saliva and serum melatonin levels after ingestion of melatonin. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998;52(2):266–267. [PubMed: 9628188]
    23.
    Shirakawa S I, Sakamoto T, Uchimura N. et al. Effect of melatonin on sleep and rectal temperature of young healthy evening types. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55(3):301–302. [PubMed: 11422883]
    24.
    Van Den Heuvel C J, Kennaway D J, Dawson D. Thermoregulatory and soporific effects of very low dose melatonin injection. Am J Physiol - Endocrinol Metab. 1999;276(2 39-2):E249–E254. [PubMed: 9950783]
    25.
    Wright J, Aldhous M, Franey C. et al. The effects of exogenous melatonin on endocrine function in man. Clin Endocrinol. 1986;24(4):375–82. [PubMed: 3742833]
    26.
    Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, Regan MM et al. Melatonin treatment for age-relat.

    Evidence Table C-3: References

    1.
    Ando K, Kripke D F, Cole R J. Light mask 500 lux treatment for delayed sleep phase syndrome. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1999;23(1):15–24. [PubMed: 10368853]
    2.
    Arnulf I, quintin P, Alvarez J C. et al. Mid-morning tryptophan depletion delays REM sleep onset in healthy subjects. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001;23(5):843–51. [PubMed: 12431858]
    3.
    Bougrine S, Mollard R, Ignazi G. et al. Appropriate use of bright light promotes a durable adaptation to night-shifts and accelerates readjustment during recovery after a period of night-shifts. Work Stress. 1995;9(23):314–26. [PubMed: 11539393]
    4.
    Boulos Z, Macchi M M, Sturchler M P. et al. Light visor treatment for jet lag after westward travel across six time zones. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2002;73(10):953–63. [PubMed: 12398256]
    5.
    Budnick L D, Lerman S E, Nicolich M J. An evaluation of scheduled bright light and darkness on rotating shiftworkers: trial and limitations. Am J Ind Med. 1995;27(6):771–82. [PubMed: 7645572]
    6.
    Bunnell D E, Treiber S P, Phillips N H. et al. Effects of evening bright light exposure on melatonin, body temperature and sleep. J Sleep Res. 1992;1(1):17–23. [PubMed: 10607020]
    7.
    Burgess H J, Sletten T, Savic N. et al. Effects of bright light and melatonin on sleep propensity, temperature, and cardiac activity at night. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(3):1214–22. [PubMed: 11509518]
    8.
    Buxton O M, L'Hermite-Baleriaux M, Turek F W. et al. Daytime naps in darkness phase shift the human circadian rhythms of melatonin and thyrotropin secretion. Am J Physiol - Reg Integr Comparative Physiol. 2000;278(2):R373–82. [PubMed: 10666138]
    9.
    Cajochen C, Zeitzer J M, Czeisler C A. et al. Dose-response relationship for light intensity and ocular and electroencephalographic correlates of human alertness. Behav Brain Res. 2000;115(1):75–83. [PubMed: 10996410]
    10.
    Cole R J, Smith J S, Alcala Y C. et al. Bright-light mask treatment of delayed sleep phase syndrome. J Biol Rhythms. 2002;17(1):89–101. [PubMed: 11837952]
    11.
    Costa G, Kovacic M, Bertoldi A. et al. The use of a light visor during night work by nurses. Biol Rhythm Res. 1997;28(1):16–25.
    12.
    Danilenko K V, Cajochen C, Wirz-Justice A. Is sleep per se a zeitgeber in humans? J Biol Rhythms. 2003;18(2):170–8. [PubMed: 12693871]
    13.
    Danilenko K V, Wirz-Justice A, Krauchi K. et al. The human circadian pacemaker can see by the dawn's early light. J Biol Rhythms. 2000;15(5):437–46. [PubMed: 11039921]
    14.
    Daurat A, Aguirre A, Foret J. et al. Disruption of sleep recovery after 36 hours of exposure to moderately bright light. Sleep. 1997;20(5):352–8. [PubMed: 9381057]
    15.
    Daurat A, Foret J, Touitou Y. et al. Detrimental influence of bright light exposure on alertness, performance, and mood in the early morning. Neurophysiol Clin. 1996;26(1):8–14. [PubMed: 8657100]
    16.
    Dijk D J, Beersma D G M, Daan S. et al. Bright morning light advances the human circadian system without affecting NREM sleep homeostasis. Am J Physiol - Reg Integr Compar. Physiol. 1989;256(1):25–1. [PubMed: 2912203]
    17.
    Dollins A B, Lynch H J, Wurtman R J. et al. Effects of illumination on human nocturnal serum melatonin levels and performance. Physiol Behav. 1993;53(1):153–160. [PubMed: 8434055]
    18.
    Ecker A J, Schaechter J, Price N J. et al. Changes in plasma melatonin secretion following chronic sleep restriction. Sleep. 2000;23(Supp 2):A184–185.
    19.
    Goh V H, Tong T Y, Lim C L. et al. Effects of one night of sleep deprivation on hormone profiles and performance efficiency. Mil Med. 2001;166(5):427–31. [PubMed: 11370208]
    20.
    Goichot B, Weibel L, Chapotot F. et al. Effect of the shift of the sleep-wake cycle on three robust endocrine markers of the circadian clock. Am J Physiol. 1998;275(2 Pt 1):E243–8. [PubMed: 9688625]
    21.
    Gordijn M C, Beersma D G, Korte H J. et al. Effects of light exposure and sleep displacement on dim light melatonin onset. J Sleep Res. 1999;8(3):163–74. [PubMed: 10476002]
    22.
    Gordijn M C, Beersma D G, Korte H J. et al. Testing the hypothesis of a circadian phase disturbance underlying depressive mood in nonseasonal depression. J Biol Rhythms. 1998;13(2):132–47. [PubMed: 9554575]
    23.
    Higuchi S, Motohashi Y, Liu Y. et al. Effects of VDT tasks with a bright display at night on melatonin, core temperature, heart rate, and sleepiness. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(5):1773–6. [PubMed: 12533495]
    24.
    Horne J A, Donlon J, Arendt J. Green light attenuates melatonin output and sleepiness during sleep deprivation. Sleep. 1991;14(3):233–40. [PubMed: 1896724]
    25.
    Horowitz T S, Cade B E, Wolfe J M. et al. Efficacy of bright light and sleep/darkness scheduling in alleviating circadian maladaptation to night work. Am J Physiol. Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281(2):E384–91. [PubMed: 11440916]
    26.
    Jelinkova-Vondrasova D, Hajek I, Illnerova H. Adjustment of the human circadian system to changes of the sleep schedule under dim light at home. Neurosci Lett. 1999;265(2):111–4. [PubMed: 10327181]
    27.
    Jimerson D C, Lynch H J, Post R M. et al. Urinary melatonin rhythms during sleep deprivation in depressed patients and normals. Life Sci. 1977;20(9):1501–8. [PubMed: 559896]
    28.
    Kelly T L, Kripke D F, Hayduk R. et al. Bright light and LEET effects on circadian rhythms, sleep and cognitive performance. Stress Med. 1997;13(4):251–8. [PubMed: 11542396]
    29.
    Koorengevel K M, Gordijn M C, Beersma D G. et al. Extraocular light therapy in winter depression: a double-blind placebo-controlled study(erratum appears in Biol Psychiatry 2002; Jan 15;512.:194) Biol Psychiatry. 2001;50(9):691–8. [PubMed: 11704076]
    30.
    Kubota T, Uchiyama M, Suzuki H. et al. Effects of nocturnal bright light on saliva melatonin, core body temperature and sleep propensity rhythms in human subjects. Neurosci Res. 2002;42(2):115–22. [PubMed: 11849730]
    31.
    Lavoie S, Paquet J, Selmaoui B. et al. Vigilance levels during and after bright light exposure in the first half of the night. Chronobiol Int. 2003;206:1019–38. [PubMed: 14680141]
    32.
    Lushington K, Galka R, Sassi L N. et al. Extraocular light exposure does not phase shift saliva melatonin rhythms in sleeping subjects. J Biol Rhythms. 2002;17(4):377–86. [PubMed: 12164253]
    33.
    Morris M, Lack L, Barrett J. The effect of sleep/wake state on nocturnal melatonin excretion. J Pineal Res. 1990;9(2):133–138. [PubMed: 2277324]
    34.
    Partonen T, Vakkuri O, Lamberg-Allardt C. et al. Effects of bright light on sleepiness, melatonin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. in winter seasonal affective disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;39(10):865–72. [PubMed: 9172707]
    35.
    Rao M L, Pelzer E, Papassotiropoulos A. et al. Selective slow-wave sleep deprivation influences blood serotonin profiles and serum melatonin concentrations in healthy subjects. Biol Psychiatry. 1996;40(7):664–7. [PubMed: 8886302]
    36.
    Redwine L, Hauger R L, Gillin J C. et al. Effects of sleep and sleep deprivation on interleukin-6, growth hormone, cortisol, and melatonin levels in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(10):3597–603. [PubMed: 11061508]
    37.
    Ross J K, Arendt J, Horne J. et al. Night-shift work in Antarctica: sleep characteristics and bright light treatment. Physiol Behav. 1995;57(6):169–74. [PubMed: 7652039]
    38.
    Salin-Pascual R J, Ortega-Soto H, Huerto-Delgadillo L. et al. The effect of total sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin and cortisol in healthy human volunteers. Sleep. 1988;11(4):362–9. [PubMed: 3206055]
    39.
    Samel A, Wegmann H M, Vejvoda M. Pre-adaptation to shiftwork in space. Acta Astronaut. 1993;29(8):593–9. [PubMed: 11541639]
    40.
    von Treuer K, Norman T R, Armstrong S M. Overnight human plasma melatonin, cortisol, prolactin, TSH, under conditions of normal sleep, sleep deprivation, and sleep recovery. J Pineal Res. 1996;20(1):7–14. [PubMed: 8648563]
    41.
    Wakamura T, Tokura H. The influence of bright light during the daytime upon circadian rhythm of core temperature and its implications for nocturnal sleep. Nurs Health Sci. 2000;21:41–9.
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    Wehr T A. The durations of human melatonin secretion and sleep respond to changes in day length photoperiod. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1991;73(6):1276–80. [PubMed: 1955509]
    43.
    Weibel L, Spiegel K, Gronfier C. et al. Twenty-four-hour melatonin and core body temperature rhythms: Their adaptation in night workers. Am J Physiol - Reg Integr Comparat Physiol. 1997;272(3413):R948–R954. 1997. [PubMed: 9087659]
    44.
    Yoon I, Jeong D, Kwon K. et al. Homeostatic and circadian factors in improving adaptation of rapidly rotating night shift workers. Sleep. 2000;23(Supp 2):A186.

    Evidence Table C-4: References

    1.
    Almeida Montes L G, Ontiveros Uribe M P, Cortes Sotres J. et al. Treatment of primary insomnia with melatonin: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003;28(3):191–196. [PMC free article: PMC161743] [PubMed: 12790159]
    2.
    Andrade C, Srihari B S, Reddy K P. et al. Melatonin in medically ill patients with insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(1):41–5. [PubMed: 11235927]
    3.
    Dahlitz M, Alvarez B, Vignau J. et al. Delayed sleep phase syndrome response to melatonin. Lancet. 1991;337(8750):1121–4. [PubMed: 1674014]
    4.
    Edwards B J, Atkinson G, Waterhouse J. et al. Use of melatonin in recovery from jet-lag following an eastward flight across 10 time-zones. Ergon. 2000;43(10):1501–13. [PubMed: 11083131]
    5.
    Folkard S, Arendt J, Clark M. Can melatonin improve shift workers' tolerance of the night shift? Some preliminary findings. Chronobiol Int. 1993;10(5):315–20. [PubMed: 8261530]
    6.
    Holmes A L, Gilbert S S, Dawson D. Melatonin and zopiclone: the relationship between sleep propensity and body temperature. Sleep. 2002;25(3):301–6. [PubMed: 12003160]
    7.
    Mishima K, Satoh K, Shimizu T. et al. Hypnotic and hypothermic action of daytime-administered melatonin. Psychopharmacol. 1997;133(2):168–71. [PubMed: 9342783]
    8.
    Petrie K, Conaglen J V, Thompson L. et al. Effect of melatonin on jet lag after long haul flights. Br Med J. 1989;298(6675):705–7. [PMC free article: PMC1835985] [PubMed: 2496815]
    9.
    Satomura T, Sakamoto T, Shirakawa S. et al. Hypnotic action of melatonin during daytime administration and its comparison with triazolam. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55(3):303–4. [PubMed: 11422884]
    10.
    Terlo L, Laudon M, Tarasch R. et al. Effects of low doses of melatonin on late afternoon napping and mood. Biol Rhythm Res. 1997;28(1):2–15.
    11.
    Zhdanova I V, Wurtman R J, Lynch H J. et al. Sleep-inducing effects of low doses of melatonin ingested in the evening. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1995;57(5):552–8. [PubMed: 7768078]

    Evidence Table C-5: References

    1.
    Attenburrow M E, Cowen P J, Sharpley A L. Low dose melatonin improves sleep in healthy middle-aged subjects. Psychopharmacol. 1996;126(2):179–81. [PubMed: 8856838]
    2.
    Baskett J J, Broad J B, Wood P C. et al. Does Melatonin Improve Sleep in Older People? A Randomised Crossover Trial. Age Ageing. 2003;32(2):164–170. [PubMed: 12615559]
    3.
    Cajochen C, Krauchi K, Danilenko K V. et al. Evening administration of melatonin and bright light: interactions on the EEG during sleep and wakefulness. J Sleep Res. 1998;7(3):145–57. [PubMed: 9785269]
    4.
    Cajochen C, Krauchi K, Mori D. et al. Melatonin and S-20098 increase REM sleep and wake-up propensity without modifying NREM sleep homeostasis. Am J Physiol. 1997;272(4 Pt 2):R1189–96. [PubMed: 9140019]
    5.
    Dollins A B, Zhdanova I V, Wurtman R J. et al. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance. Proceed Nat Acad Sci USA. 1994;91(5):1824–8. [PMC free article: PMC43256] [PubMed: 8127888]
    6.
    Ferini-Strambi L, Zucconi M, Biella G. et al. Effect of melatonin on sleep microstructure: preliminary results in healthy subjects. Sleep. 1993;16(8):744–7. [PubMed: 8165389]
    7.
    Holmes A L, Gilbert S S, Dawson D. Melatonin and zopiclone: the relationship between sleep propensity and body temperature. Sleep. 2002;25(3):301–6. [PubMed: 12003160]
    8.
    James S P, Mendelson W B, Sack D A. et al. The effect of melatonin on normal sleep. Neuropsychopharmacol. 1987;1(1):41–4. [PubMed: 3509066]
    9.
    Luboshitzky R, Levi M, Shen-Orr Z. et al. Long-term melatonin administration does not alter pituitary-gonadal hormone secretion in normal men. Hum Reprod. 2000;15(1):60–5. [PubMed: 10611189]
    10.
    Matsumoto M. The hypnotic effects of melatonin treatment on diurnal sleep in humans. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;53(2):243–5. [PubMed: 10459700]
    11.
    Mishima K, Satoh K, Shimizu T. et al. Hypnotic and hypothermic action of daytime-administered melatonin. Psychopharmacol. 1997;133(2):168–71. [PubMed: 9342783]
    12.
    Nave R, Peled R, Lavie P. Melatonin improves evening napping. Eur J Pharmacol. 1995;275(2):213–6. [PubMed: 7796857]
    13.
    Nickelsen T, Demisch L, Demisch K. et al. Influence of subchronic intake of melatonin at various times of the day on fatigue and hormonal levels: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Pineal Res. 1989;6(4):325–34. [PubMed: 2732892]
    14.
    Pires M L, Benedito-Silva A A, Pinto L. et al. Acute effects of low doses of melatonin on the sleep of young healthy subjects. J Pineal Res. 2001;31(4):326–32. [PubMed: 11703562]
    15.
    Reid K, Van den Heuvel C, Dawson D. Day-time melatonin administration: effects on core temperature and sleep onset latency. J Sleep Res. 1996;5(3):150–4. [PubMed: 8956204]
    16.
    Satomura T, Sakamoto T, Shirakawa S. et al. Hypnotic action of melatonin during daytime administration and its comparison with triazolam. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55(3):303–4. [PubMed: 11422884]
    17.
    Seabra M L, Bignotto M, Pinto L R Jr. et al. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial, controlled with placebo, of the toxicology of chronic melatonin treatment. J Pineal Res. 2000;29(4):193–200. [PubMed: 11068941]
    18.
    Terlo L, Laudon M, Tarasch R. et al. Effects of low doses of melatonin on late afternoon napping and mood. Biol Rhythm Res. 1997;28(1):2–15.
    19.
    Zhdanova I V, Wurtman R J, Lynch H J. et al. Sleep-inducing effects of low doses of melatonin ingested in the evening. Clin Pharmacol Therap. 1995;57(5):552–8. [PubMed: 7768078]
    20.
    Zhdanova I V, Wurtman R J, Morabito C. et al. Effects of low oral doses of melatonin, given 2–4 hours before habitual bedtime, on sleep in normal young humans. Sleep. 1996;19(5):423–31. [PubMed: 8843534]
    21.
    Zisapel N, Tarash R, Laudon M. Effects of fast- and controlled-release melatonin formulations on daytime sleep and mood. 7th Colloquium 1996; Sitges, Spain; Pineal update: from molecular mechanisms to clinical implications.

    Evidence Table C-6: References

    1.
    Ando K, Kripke D F, Cole R J. et al. Light mask 500 lux treatment for delayed sleep phase syndrome. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1999;23(1):15–24. [PubMed: 10368853]
    2.
    Bunnell D E, Treiber S P, Phillips N H. et al. Effects of evening bright light exposure on melatonin, body temperature and sleep. J Sleep Res. 1992;1(1):17–23. [PubMed: 10607020]
    3.
    Burgess H J, Sletten T, Savic N. et al. Effects of bright light and melatonin on sleep propensity, temperature, and cardiac activity at night. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(3):1214–22. [PubMed: 11509518]
    4.
    Cagnacci A, Soldani R, Yen S S. The effect of light on core body temperature is mediated by melatonin in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76(4):1036–8. [PubMed: 8473378]
    5.
    Cajochen C, Zeitzer J M, Czeisler C A. et al. Dose-response relationship for light intensity and ocular and electroencephalographic correlates of human alertness. Behav Brain Res. 2000;115(1):75–83. [PubMed: 10996410]
    6.
    Costa G, Kovacic M, Bertoldi A. et al. The use of a light visor during night work by nurses. Biol Rhythm Res. 1997;28(1):16–25.
    7.
    Danilenko K V, Wirz-Justice A, Krauchi K. et al. The human circadian pacemaker can see by the dawn's early light. J Biol Rhythms. 2000;15(5):437–46. [PubMed: 11039921]
    8.
    Daurat A, Aguirre A, Foret J. et al. Disruption of sleep recovery after 36 hours of exposure to moderately bright light. Sleep. 1997;20(5):352–8. [PubMed: 9381057]
    9.
    Daurat A, Foret J, Touitou Y. et al. Detrimental influence of bright light exposure on alertness, performance, and mood in the early morning. Neurophysiol Clinique. 1996;26(1):8–14. [PubMed: 8657100]
    10.
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    Evidence Report C-7: References

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    Andrade C, Srihari B S, Reddy K P. et al. Melatonin in medically ill patients with insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(1):41–5. [PubMed: 11235927]
    3.
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    Beaumont M, Batejat D, Pierard C. et al. Caffeine or melatonin effects on sleep and sleepiness after rapid eastward transmeridian travel. J Appl Physiol. 2004;96(1):50–8. [PubMed: 12959951]
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    15.
    Jockovich M, Cosentino D, Cosentino L. et al. Effect of exogenous melatonin on mood and sleep efficiency in emergency medicine residents working night shifts. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(8):955–8. [PubMed: 10958143]
    16.
    Jorgensen K M, Witting M D. Does exogenous melatonin improve day sleep or night alertness in emergency physicians working night shifts? Ann Emerg Med. 1998;31(6):699–704. [PubMed: 9624308]
    17.
    Kayumov L, Brown G, Jindal R. et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effect of exogenous melatonin on delayed sleep phase syndrome. Psychosomat Med. 2001;63(1):40–8. [PubMed: 11211063]
    18.
    McArthur A J, Budden S S. Sleep dysfunction in Rett syndrome: a trial of exogenous melatonin treatment. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998;40(3):186–92. [PubMed: 9566656]
    19.
    O'Callaghan F J K, Clarke A A, Hancock E. et al. Use of Melatonin to Treat Sleep Disorders in Tuberous Sclerosis. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1999;41(2):123–126. [PubMed: 10075098]
    20.
    Serfaty M, Kennell-Webb S, Warner J. et al. Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial of low dose melatonin for sleep disorders in dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17(12):1120–7. [PubMed: 12461760]
    21.
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    25.
    Smits M G, Van Stel H F, Van Der Heijden K. et al. Melatonin Improves Health Status and Sleep in Children With Idiopathic Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42(11):1286–1293. [PubMed: 14566165]
    26.
    Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Hofer I. et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of melatonin and zolpidem for the alleviation of jet lag. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001;72(7):638–46. [PubMed: 11471907]
    27.
    Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Johnson R. et al. Comparative study to determine the optimal melatonin dosage form for the alleviation of jet lag. Chronobiol Int. 1998;15(6):655–66. [PubMed: 9844753]
    28.
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    Evidence Table C-8: References

    1.
    Andrade C, Srihari B S, Reddy K P. et al. Melatonin in medically ill patients with insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(1):41–5. [PubMed: 11235927]
    2.
    Arendt J, Borbely A A, Franey C. et al. The effects of chronic, small doses of melatonin given in the late afternoon on fatigue in man: a preliminary study. Neurosci Lett. 1984;45(3):317–21. [PubMed: 6728321]
    3.
    Baskett J J, Broad J B, Wood P C. et al. Does Melatonin Improve Sleep in Older People? A Randomised Crossover Trial. Age Ageing. 2003;32(2):164–170. [PubMed: 12615559]
    4.
    Claustrat B, Brun J, David M. et al. Melatonin and jet lag: confirmatory result using a simplified protocol. Biol Psychiatry. 1992;32(8):705–11. [PubMed: 1457626]
    5.
    Dahlitz M, Alvarez B, Vignau J. et al. Delayed sleep phase syndrome response to melatonin. Lancet. 1991;337(8750):1121–4. [PubMed: 1674014]
    6.
    Dodge N N, Wilson G A. Melatonin for treatment of sleep disorders in children with developmental disabilities. J Child Neurol. 2001;16(8):581–4. [PubMed: 11510929]
    7.
    Edwards B J, Atkinson G, Waterhouse J. et al. Use of melatonin in recovery from jet-lag following an eastward flight across 10 time-zones. Ergon. 2000;43(10):1501–13. [PubMed: 11083131]
    8.
    Ellis C M, Lemmens G, Parkes J D. Melatonin and insomnia. J Sleep Res. 1996;5(1):61–5. [PubMed: 8795804]
    9.
    Fraschini F, Cesarani A, Alpini D. et al. Melatonin Influences Human Balance. Biol Signals Recept. 1999;8(1-2):111–119. [PubMed: 10085472]
    10.
    Garfinkel D LMNDZN. Improvement of sleep equality in elderly people by controlled-release melatonin. Lancet. 1995;346(8974):541–544. [PubMed: 7658780]
    11.
    Hood E H, Buttross S, Parks B. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of melatonin in the management of sleep disturbances in children with behavioral disorders. J Invest Med. 1999;47(2.):14A.
    12.
    James M, Tremea M O, Jones J S. et al. Can melatonin improve adaptation to night shift? Am J Emerg Med. 1998;16(4):367–70. [PubMed: 9672452]
    13.
    Jan J E, Espezel H, Appleton R E. The treatment of sleep disorders with melatonin. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1994;36(2):97–107. [PubMed: 8132132]
    14.
    Jean-Louis G, von Gizycki H, Zizi F. Melatonin effects on sleep, mood, and cognition in elderly with mild cognitive impairment. J Pineal Res. 1998;25(3):177–83. [PubMed: 9745987]
    15.
    Jockovich M, Cosentino D, Cosentino L. et al. Effect of exogenous melatonin on mood and sleep efficiency in emergency medicine residents working night shifts. Acad Emerg Med. 2000;7(8):955–8. [PubMed: 10958143]
    16.
    Jorgensen K M, Witting M D. Does exogenous melatonin improve day sleep or night alertness in emergency physicians working night shifts? Ann Emerg Med. 1998;31(6):699–704. [PubMed: 9624308]
    17.
    Kayumov L, Brown G, Jindal R. et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effect of exogenous melatonin on delayed sleep phase syndrome. Psychosom Med. 2001;63(1):40–8. [PubMed: 11211063]
    18.
    Matsumoto M. The hypnotic effects of melatonin treatment on diurnal sleep in humans. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999;53(2):243–5. [PubMed: 10459700]
    19.
    McArthur A J, Budden S S. Sleep dysfunction in Rett syndrome: a trial of exogenous melatonin treatment. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998;40(3):186–92. [PubMed: 9566656]
    20.
    Monti J M, Alvarino F, Cardinali D. et al. Polysomnographic study of the effect of melatonin on sleep in elderly patients with chronic primary insomnia. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1999;28(2):85–98. [PubMed: 15374088]
    21.
    Naguib M, Samarkandi A H. Premedication With Melatonin: a Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled Comparison With Midazolam. Br J Anaesthes. 1999;82(6):875–880. [PubMed: 10562782]
    22.
    O'Callaghan F J K, Clarke A A, Hancock E. et al. Use of Melatonin to Treat Sleep Disorders in Tuberous Sclerosis. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1999;41(2):123–126. [PubMed: 10075098]
    23.
    Paccotti P, Terzolo M, Torta M. et al. Acute administration of melatonin at two opposite circadian stages does not change responses to gonadotropin releasing hormone, thyrotropin releasing hormone and ACTH in healthy adult males. J Endocrinol Invest. 1987;10(5):471–7. [PubMed: 2828458]
    24.
    Petrie K, Conaglen J V, Thompson L. et al. Effect of melatonin on jet lag after long haul flights. Br Med J. 1989;298(6675):705–7. [PMC free article: PMC1835985] [PubMed: 2496815]
    25.
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    26.
    Seabra M L, Bignotto M, Pinto L R Jr. et al. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial, controlled with placebo, of the toxicology of chronic melatonin treatment. J Pineal Res. 2000;29(4):193–200. [PubMed: 11068941]
    27.
    Serfaty M, Kennell-Webb S, Warner J. et al. Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial of low dose melatonin for sleep disorders in dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002;17(12):1120–7. [PubMed: 12461760]
    28.
    Shamir E, Barak Y, Plopsky I. et al. Is melatonin treatment effective for tardive dyskinesia? J Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61(8):556–8. [PubMed: 10982197]
    29.
    Shamir E, Barak Y, Shalman I. et al. Melatonin treatment for tardive dyskinesia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(11):1049–52. [PubMed: 11695951]
    30.
    Smits M, Van Stel H, Van Der Heijden K. et al. Melatonin Improves Health Status and Sleep in Children With Idiopathic Chronic Sleep-Onset Insomnia: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42(11):1286–1293. [PubMed: 14566165]
    31.
    Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Hofer I. et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of melatonin and zolpidem for the alleviation of jet lag. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001;72(7):638–46. [PubMed: 11471907]
    32.
    Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Johnson R. et al. Comparative study to determine the optimal melatonin dosage form for the alleviation of jet lag. Chronobiol Int. 1998;15(6):655–66. [PubMed: 9844753]
    33.
    Van Wieringen S, Jansen T, Smits M G. et al. Melatonin for chronic whiplash syndrome with delayed melatonin onset: Randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Drug Invest. 2001;21(12):813–820.
    34.
    Wright J, Aldhous M, Franey C. et al. The effects of exogenous melatonin on endocrine function in man. Clin Endocrinol. 1986;24(4):375–82. [PubMed: 3742833]
    35.
    Wright S W, Lawrence L M, Wrenn K D. et al. Randomized clinical trial of melatonin after night-shift work: efficacy and neuropsychologic effects(comment) Ann Emerg Med. 1998;32(3 Pt 1):334–40. [PubMed: 9737496]

    Evidence Table C-9: References

    1.
    Ferini-Strambi L, Zucconi M, Biella G. et al. Effect of melatonin on sleep microstructure: preliminary results in healthy subjects. Sleep. 1993;16(8):744–7. [PubMed: 8165389]
    2.
    Holmes A L, Gilbert S S, Dawson D. Melatonin and zopiclone: the relationship between sleep propensity and body temperature. Sleep. 2002;25(3):301–6. [PubMed: 12003160]
    3.
    Satomura T, Sakamoto T, Shirakawa S. et al. Hypnotic action of melatonin during daytime administration and its comparison with triazolam. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55(3):303–4. [PubMed: 11422884]
    4.
    Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Hofer I. et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of melatonin and zolpidem for the alleviation of jet lag. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001;72(7):638–46. [PubMed: 11471907]
Bookshelf ID: NBK37433

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