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Holtzman J, Schmitz K, Babes G, et al. Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions to Modify Physical Activity Behaviors in General Populations and Cancer Patients and Survivors. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2004 Jun. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 102.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions to Modify Physical Activity Behaviors in General Populations and Cancer Patients and Survivors

Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions to Modify Physical Activity Behaviors in General Populations and Cancer Patients and Survivors.

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Listing of Excluded Studies—Cancer Population

(reason for exclusion is provided in italics following each reference)

Astrup A. Physical activity and weight gain and fat distribution changes with menopause: current evidence and research issues. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1999;31(11 Suppl):564–7. [PubMed: 10593529]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 2.
    Baldwin M K, Courenya K. Exercise and Self-Esteem in Breast Cancer Survivors: An Application of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 1997;19:347–58.
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 3.
    Beger H G, Schwarz A, Bergmann U. Progress in gastrointestinal tract surgery: the impact of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Surgical Endoscopy. 2003;17(2):342–50. [PubMed: 12457213]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 4.
    Bensenor I M, Cook N R, Lee I M. et al. Active and passive smoking and risk of colds in women. Annals of Epidemiology. 2001;11(4):225–31. [PubMed: 11306340]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 5.
    Berger K, Ajani U A, Kase C S. et al. Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of stroke among U.S. male physicians. New England Journal of Medicine. 1999;18(341):1557–64. [PubMed: 10564684]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 6.
    Blanchard C M, Courneya K S, Laing D. Effects of acute exercise on state anxiety in breast cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2001;28(10):1617–21. [PubMed: 11759309]
  • not an exercise intervention / examined effect of an acute bout of exercise.
  • 7.
    Bremer B A, Moore C T, Bourbon B M. et al. Perceptions of control, physical exercise, and psychological adjustment to breast cancer in South African women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1997;19(1):51–60. [PubMed: 9603678]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 8.
    Brown J K. Nutrition and Physical Activity During and After Cancer Treatment: An American Cancer Society Guide for Informed Choices. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003;53:268–91. [PubMed: 14570227]
  • review.
  • 9.
    Caan B J, Flatt S W, Rock C L. et al. Low-energy reporting in women at risk for breast cancer recurrence. Women's Healthy Eating and Living Group. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2000;9(10):1091–7. [PubMed: 11045793]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 10.
    Cerulli J, Malone M. Outcomes of pharmacological and surgical treatment for obesity. Pharmacoeconomics. 1998;14(3):269–83. [PubMed: 10186466]
  • review.
  • 11.
    Chlebowski R T. Breast cancer risk reduction: strategies for women at increased risk. Annual Review of Medicine. 2002;53:519–40. [PubMed: 11818488]
  • review.
  • 12.
    Chlebowski R T. The American Cancer Society Guide for Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Survivors: A Call to Action for Clinical Investigators. CA Cancer J Clin. 2003;53(5):266–7. [PubMed: 14570226]
  • review.
  • 13.
    Chlebowski R T, Aiello E, McTiernan A. Weight loss in breast cancer patient management. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2002;20(4):1128–43. [PubMed: 11844838]
  • review.
  • 14.
    Chung K C, Walters M R, Greenfield M L. et al. Endoscopic versus open carpal tunnel release: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery. 1998;102(4):1089–99. [PubMed: 9734428]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 15.
    Courneya K S. Exercise in Cancer Survivors: An Overview of Research. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003;35(11):1846–52. [PubMed: 14600549]
  • review.
  • 16.
    Courneya K S, Freidenreich C M. Framework PEACE: An Organizational Model for Examining Physical Exercise Across the Cancer Experience. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2001;23(4):263–72. [PubMed: 11761343]
  • review.
  • 17.
    Courneya K S, Friedenreich C M. Relationship between exercise pattern across the cancer experience and current quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors.[comment] Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine. 1997;3(3):215–26. [PubMed: 9430325]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 18.
    Courneya K S, Friedenreich C M. Relationship Between Exercise During Treatment and Current Quality of Life Among Survivors of Breast Cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology. 1997;15(3/4):35–57.
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 19.
    Courneya K S, Friedenreich C M. Physical exercise and quality of life following cancer diagnosis: a literature review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 1999;21(2):171–9. [PubMed: 10499138]
  • review.
  • 20.
    Courneya K S, Friedenreich C M, Arthur K. et al. Physical exercise and quality of life in postsurgical colorectal cancer patients. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 1999;4(2):181–7.
  • review.
  • 21.
    Courneya K S, Keats M R, Turner A R. Physical exercise and quality of life in cancer patients following high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Psycho-Oncology. 2000;9(2):127–36. [PubMed: 10767750]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 22.
    Cunningham A J, Edmonds C V, Jenkins G P. et al. A randomized controlled trial of the effects of group psychological therapy on survival in women with metastatic breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 1998;7(6):508–17. [PubMed: 9885092]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 23.
    Dally D L, Dahar W, Scott A. et al. The impact of a health education program targeting patients with high visit rates in a managed care organization. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2002;17(2):101–11. [PubMed: 12471862]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 24.
    Daneryd P. Epoetin alfa for protection of metabolic and exercise capacity in cancer patients. Seminars in Oncology. 2002;29(3 Suppl 8):69–74. [PubMed: 12082657]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 25.
    de Waard F, Ramlau R, Mulders Y. et al. A feasibility study on weight reduction in obese postmenopausal breast cancer patients. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 1993;2(3):233–8. [PubMed: 8490542]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 26.
    Decker W A, Turner-McGlade J, Fehir K M. Psychosocial aspects and the physiological effects of a cardiopulmonary exercise program in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute leukemia (AL) Transplantation Proceedings. 1989;21(1 Pt 3):3068–9. [PubMed: 2650427]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 27.
    DeMarini D M. Dietary interventions of human carcinogenesis. Mutation Research. 1998;400(12):457–65. [PubMed: 9685704]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 28.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Clipp E C, McBride C. et al. Design of FRESH START: a randomized trial of exercise and diet among cancer survivors. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003;35(3):415–24. [PubMed: 12618570]
  • no data.
  • 29.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Morey M C, Clipp E C. et al. Leading the Way in Exercise and Diet (Project LEAD): intervening to improve function among older breast and prostate cancer survivors. Controlled Clinical Trials. 2003;24(2):206–23. [PubMed: 12689742]
  • no data.
  • 30.
    Dimeo F, Bertz H, Finke J. et al. An aerobic exercise program for patients with haematological malignancies after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation. 1996;18(6):1157–60. [PubMed: 8971388]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 31.
    Dimeo F, Rumberger B G, Keul J. Aerobic exercise as therapy for cancer fatigue. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1998;30(4):475–8. [PubMed: 9565925]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 32.
    Durak E P, Lilly P C. The Application of an Exercise and Wellness Program for Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Outcomes Report. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 1998;12(1):3–6.
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 33.
    Friedenreich C M. Physical activity and cancer prevention: from observational to intervention research. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2001;10(4):287–301. [PubMed: 11319168]
  • review.
  • 34.
    Friendenreich C M, Courneya K S. Exercise as rehabilitation for cancer patients. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 1996;6(4):237–44. [PubMed: 8894336]
  • review.
  • 35.
    Gann P H, Ma J, Giovannucci E. et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Research. 1999;59(6):1225–30. [PubMed: 10096552]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 36.
    Goel V, Sawka C A, Thiel E C. et al. Randomized trial of a patient decision aid for choice of surgical treatment for breast cancer. Medical Decision Making. 2001;21(1):1–6. [PubMed: 11206942]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 37.
    Goodwin P, Esplen M J, Butler K. et al. Multidisciplinary weight management in locoregional breast cancer: results of a phase II study. Breast Cancer Research & Treatment. 1998;48(1):53–64. [PubMed: 9541189]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 38.
    Greenwald P, Clifford C K, Milner J A. Diet and cancer prevention. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2001;37(8):948–65. [PubMed: 11334719]
  • review.
  • 39.
    Gustavsson A, Bendahl P O, Cwikiel M. et al. No serious late cardiac effects after adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in premenopausal women with early breast cancer. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 1999;42(4):745–54. [PubMed: 10098429]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 40.
    Hicks JE. Exercise for Cancer Patients. 5 ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1990.
  • review.
  • 41.
    Hoffman-Goetz L. Physical activity and cancer prevention: Animal-tumor reviews. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003;35(11):1828–33. [PubMed: 14600546]
  • review.
  • 42.
    Irwin M L, Crumley D, McTiernan A. et al. Physical activity levels before and after a diagnosis of breast carcinoma: the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Cancer. 2003;97(7):1746–57. [PMC free article: PMC3034406] [PubMed: 12655532]
  • cross sectional study.
  • 43.
    Jacobs E T, Giuliano A R, Roe D J. et al. Baseline dietary fiber intake and colorectal adenoma recurrence in the wheat bran fiber randomized trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2002;94(21):1620–5. [PubMed: 12419788]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 44.
    Janer G, Sala M, Kogevinas M. Health promotion trials at worksites and risk factors for cancer. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 2002;28(3):141–57. [PubMed: 12109553]
  • review.
  • 45.
    Jones L W, Courneya K S. Exercise discussions during cancer treatment consultations. Cancer Practice. 2002;10(2):66–74. [PubMed: 11903271]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 46.
    Kerr C. Translating “mind-in-body”: two models of patient experience underlying a randomized controlled trial of qigong. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry. 2002;26(4):419–47. [PubMed: 12572768]
  • description of intervention yet to be done.
  • 47.
    Khushalani N I, McKinley B P, Gibbs J F. et al. Regional chemotherapy is indicated after surgical resection of colorectal metastases to the liver: a debate. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 2003;82(1):65–72. [PubMed: 12501170]
  • review.
  • 48.
    Kolden G G, Strauman T J, Ward A. et al. A pilot study of group exercise training (GET) for women with primary breast cancer: feasibility and health benefits. Psycho-Oncology. 2002;11(5):447–56. [PubMed: 12228878]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 49.
    Lambert C P, Sullivan D H, Freeling S A. et al. Effects of testosterone replacement and/or resistance exercise on the composition of megestrol acetate stimulated weight gain in elderly men: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2002 May;87(5):2100–6. [PubMed: 11994348]
  • does not include cancer patients/survivors.
  • 50.
    Lamberts S W. The endocrinology of gonadal involution: menopause and andropause. Annales d Endocrinologie. 2003;64(2):77–81. [PubMed: 12773935]
  • review.
  • 51.
    Lee I M. Physical activity and cancer prevention - Data from epidemiologic studies. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003;35(11):1823–7. [PubMed: 14600545]
  • review.
  • 52.
    Liu S, Lee I M, Ajani U. et al. Intake of vegetables rich in carotenoids and risk of coronary heart disease in men: The Physicians' Health Study. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2001;30(1):130–5. [PubMed: 11171873]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 53.
    Liu S, Manson J E, Lee I M. et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: The Women's Health Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000;72(4):922–8. [PubMed: 11010932]
  • does not include cancer patients.
  • 54.
    Loft S, Poulsen H E. Cancer risk and oxidative DNA damage in man. Journal of Molecular Medicine. 1996;74(6):297–312. [PubMed: 8862511]
  • review.
  • 55.
    Love R R, Wiebe D A, Newcomb P A. et al. Effects of tamoxifen on cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1991;115(11):860–4. [PubMed: 1952472]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 56.
    Martinez M E, Heddens D, Earnest D L. et al. Physical activity, body mass index, and prostaglandin E2 levels in rectal mucosa. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1999;91(11):950–3. [PubMed: 10359547]
  • does not include cancer patients/survivors.
  • 57.
    Mathewson-Chapman M. Pelvic muscle exercise/biofeedback for urinary incontinence after prostatectomy: an education program. Journal of Cancer Education. 1997;12(4):218–23. [PubMed: 9440013]
  • review.
  • 58.
    Maxwell A E, Bastani R, Vida P. et al. Physical activity among older Filipino-American women. Women & Health. 2002;36(1):67–79. [PMC free article: PMC1618778] [PubMed: 12215004]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 59.
    McTiernan A. Intervention studies in exercise and cancer prevention. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003;35(11):1841–5. [PubMed: 14600548]
  • review.
  • 60.
    McTiernan A. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Cancer: Prevention to Treatment - Symposium Overview. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003;35(11):1821–2. [PubMed: 14600544]
  • review.
  • 61.
    McTiernan A, Schwartz R S, Potter J. et al. Exercise clinical trials in cancer prevention research: a call to action. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 1999;8(3):201–7. [PubMed: 10090297]
  • review.
  • 62.
    McTiernan A, Ulrich C, Kumai C. et al. Anthropometric and hormone effects of an eight-week exercise-diet intervention in breast cancer patients: results of a pilot study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 1998;7(6):477–81. [PubMed: 9641491]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 63.
    Meyskens F L J. Chemoprevention of human cancer: A reasonable strategy? Recent Results in Cancer Research. 1999;151:113–21. [PubMed: 10337722]
  • review.
  • 64.
    Mock V. Fatigue Management: Evidence and Guidelines for Practice. Cancer. 2001;Supp 92(6):1699–707. [PubMed: 11598890]
  • review.
  • 65.
    Morey M C, Pieper C F, Crowley G M. et al. Exercise adherence and 10-year mortality in chronically ill older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2002;50(12):1929–33. [PubMed: 12473002]
  • comment.
  • 66.
    Moseley A, Piller N, Carati C. Combined opto-electronic perometry and bioimpedance to measure objectively the effectiveness of a new treatment intervention for chronic secondary leg lymphedema. Lymphology. 2002;35(4):136–43. [PubMed: 12570322]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 67.
    Navarro A M, Rock C L, McNicholas L J. et al. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidandome curriculum. Journal of Cancer Education. 2000;15(3):168–72. [PubMed: 11019766]
  • does not include cancer patients/survivors.
  • 68.
    Nelson J P. Perceived health, self-esteem, health habits, and perceived benefits and barriers to exercise in women who have and who have not experienced stage I breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 1991;18(7):1191–7. [PubMed: 1945965]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 69.
    Oliveria S A, Christos P J. The epidemiology of physical activity and cancer. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1997;833:79–90. [PubMed: 9616742]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 70.
    Ornish D M, Lee K L, Fair W R. et al. Dietary trial in prostate cancer: Early experience and implications for clinical trial design. Urology. 2001;57(4 Suppl 1):200–1. [PubMed: 11295627]
  • no data.
  • 71.
    Pasagian-Macaulay A, Meilahn E N, Bradlow H L. et al. Urinary markers of estrogen metabolism 2- and 16 alpha-hydroxylation in premenopausal women. Steroids. 1996;61(8):461–7. [PubMed: 8870165]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 72.
    Peters C, Lotzerich H, Niemeier B. et al. Influence of a Moderate Exercise Training on Natural Killer Cytotoxicity and Personality Traits in Cancer Patients. Anticancer Research. 1994;14:1033–6. [PubMed: 8074446]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 73.
    Petrek J A, Peters M M, Nori S. et al. Axillary lymphadenectomy. A prospective, randomized trial of 13 factors influencing drainage, including early or delayed arm mobilization. Archives of Surgery. 1990;125(3):378–82. [PubMed: 2407228]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 74.
    Pinto B, Eakin E, Maruyama N. Health Behavior Changes After a Cancer Diagnosis: What do we know and where do we go from here? Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2000;22(1):38–52. [PubMed: 10892527]
  • review.
  • 75.
    Porock D, Kristjanson L J, Tinnelly K. et al. An exercise intervention for advanced cancer patients experiencing fatigue: a pilot study. Journal of Palliative Care. 2000;16(3):30–6. [PubMed: 11019505]
  • no concurrent comp group.
  • 76.
    Pradhan A D, Manson J E, Rifai N. et al. C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2001;286(3):327–34. [PubMed: 11466099]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 77.
    Primic-Zakelj M. Screening mammography for early detection of breast cancer. Annals of Oncology. 1999;10(Supp 6):121–7. [PubMed: 10676563]
  • review.
  • 78.
    Robinson R G. Strontium-89--precursor targeted therapy for pain relief of blastic metastatic disease. Cancer. 1993;72(11 Suppl):3433–5. [PubMed: 8242575]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 79.
    Rock C L, Demark-Wahnefried W. Can lifestyle modification increase survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer? Journal of Nutrition. 2002;132(11 Suppl):3504S–7S. [PubMed: 12421877]
  • review.
  • 80.
    Rock C L, Flatt S W, Newman V. et al. Factors associated with weight gain in women after diagnosis of breast cancer. Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study Group. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1999;99(10):1212–21. [PubMed: 10524383]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 81.
    Rock C L, Thomson C, Caan B J. et al. Reduction in fat intake is not associated with weight loss in most women after breast cancer diagnosis: evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Cancer. 2001;91(1):25–34. [PubMed: 11148556]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 82.
    Salih A K, Fentiman I S. Breast cancer prevention. International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2002;56(4):267–71. [PubMed: 12074209]
  • comment.
  • 83.
    Sandler RS. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Important Advances in Oncology. 1996:123–37. [PubMed: 8791132]
  • review.
  • 84.
    Sarna L, Conde F. Physical activity and fatigue during radiation therapy: a pilot study using actigraph monitors. Oncology Nursing Forum. 2001;28(6):1043–6. [PubMed: 11475878]
  • observation of pa during radiation therapy.
  • 85.
    Schmitz K H, Ahmed R L, Yee D. Effects of a 9-month strength training intervention on insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1, and IGFBP-3 in 30–50-year-old women. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2002;11(12):1597–604. [PubMed: 12496050]
  • does not include cancer patients/survivors.
  • 86.
    Schwartz A L. Patterns of exercise and fatigue in physically active cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum. 1998;25(3):485–91. [PubMed: 9568604]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 87.
    Schwartz A L. Fatigue mediates the effects of exercise on quality of life. Quality of Life Research. 1999;8(6):529–38. [PubMed: 10548868]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 88.
    Schwartz A L. Exercise and weight gain in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Cancer Practice. 2000;8(5):231–7. [PubMed: 11898235]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 89.
    Schwartz A L. Daily fatigue patterns and effect of exercise in women with breast cancer. Cancer Practice. 2000;8(1):16–24. [PubMed: 10732535]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 90.
    Schwartz A L, Mori M, Gao R. et al. Exercise reduces daily fatigue in women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2001;33(5):718–23. [PubMed: 11323538]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 91.
    Seddon B, Bidmead M, Wilson J. et al. Target volume definition in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: quality assurance in the MRC RT-01 trial. Radiotherapy & Oncology. 2000;56(1):73–83. [PubMed: 10869758]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 92.
    Sharkey A M, Carey A B, Heise C T. et al. Cardiac rehabilitation after cancer therapy in children and young adults. American Journal of Cardiology. 1993;71(16):1488–90. [PubMed: 8517409]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 93.
    Shephard R J. Exercise in the prevention and treatment of cancer. An update. Sports Medicine. 1993;15(4):258–80. [PubMed: 8460289]
  • review.
  • 94.
    Shore S, Shepard R J. Immune responses to exercise in children treated for cancer. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness. 1999;39(3):240–3. [PubMed: 10573667]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 95.
    Silber J H, Cnaan A, Clark B J. et al. Design and baseline characteristics for the ACE Inhibitor After Anthracycline (AAA) study of cardiac dysfunction in long-term pediatric cancer survivors. American Heart Journal. 2001;142(4):577–85. [PubMed: 11579345]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 96.
    Stephens R J, Hopwood P, Girling D J. Defining and analysing symptom palliation in cancer clinical trials: a deceptively difficult exercise. British Journal of Cancer. 1999;79(34):538–44. [PMC free article: PMC2362419] [PubMed: 10027327]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 97.
    Stoll B A. Timing of weight gain in relation to breast cancer risk. Annals of Oncology. 1995;6(3):245–8. [PubMed: 7612489]
  • review.
  • 98.
    Stoll B A. Western nutrition and the insulin resistance syndrome: a link to breast cancer. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999;53(2):83–7. [PubMed: 10099938]
  • review.
  • 99.
    Stone N J. Primary prevention of coronary disease. Clinical Cornerstone. 1998;1(1):31–49. [PubMed: 10682162]
  • review.
  • 100.
    Stone P. The measurement, causes and effective management of cancer-related fatigue. International Journal of Palliative Nursing. 2002;8(3):120–8. [PubMed: 11923740]
  • review.
  • 101.
    Tworoger S S, Yasui Y, Ulrich C M. et al. Mailing strategies and recruitment into an intervention trial of the exercise effect on breast cancer biomarkers. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2002;11(1):73–7. [PubMed: 11815403]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 102.
    Veyrat-Follet C, Bruno R, Olivares R. et al. Clinical trial simulation of docetaxel in patients with cancer as a tool for dosage optimization. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2000;68(6):677–87. [PubMed: 11180028]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 103.
    Waddell T K. Treatment of patients with lung cancer and severe emphysema: lessons from lung volume reduction surgery. Surgical Oncology. 2002;11(4):201–6. [PubMed: 12450556]
  • review.
  • 104.
    Walsh G L, Morice R C, Putnam J B Jr. et al. Resection of lung cancer is justified in high-risk patients selected by exercise oxygen consumption. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1994;58(3):704–10. [PubMed: 7944692]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 105.
    Washburn R A, McAuley E, Katula J. et al. The physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE): evidence for validity. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 1999;52(7):643–51. [PubMed: 10391658]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 106.
    Weisberg J, Wanger J, Olson J. et al. Megestrol acetate stimulates weight gain and ventilation in underweight COPD patients. Chest. 2002;121(4):1070–8. [PubMed: 11948034]
  • does not focus on cancer patients.
  • 107.
    Wenger N K. The current state of hormonal prevention of coronary heart disease in menopausal women. Revista Espanola de Cardiologia. 2003;56(1):1–8. [PubMed: 12549992]
  • not in English / review.
  • 108.
    Westerlind K C. Physical Activity and Cancer Prevention - Mechanisms. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003;35(11):1834–40. [PubMed: 14600547]
  • review.
  • 109.
    Willhite L. Osteoporosis in women: prevention and treatment. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 1998;38(5):614–23. [PubMed: 9782696]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 110.
    Williamson D F, Pamuk E, Thun M. et al. Prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in overweight white men aged 40–64 years. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1999;149(6):491–503. [PubMed: 10084238]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 111.
    Winningham M L. Walking program for people with cancer. Getting started. Cancer Nursing. 1991;14(5):270–6. [PubMed: 1933847]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • 112.
    World Health Organization, ed. Weight control and physical activity. Lyon: IARC Press; 2002. Vainio H, Bianchini F, eds. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention; No. 6.
  • review.
  • 113.
    Young-McCaughan S, Mays MZ, Arzola SM, et-al. Research and commentary: Change in exercise tolerance, activity and sleep patterns, and quality of life in patients with cancer participating in a structured exercise program. Oncology Nursing Forum. Online. 2003; 30(3):441–54. [PubMed: 12719744]
  • no concurrent comparison group.
  • 114.
    Young-McCaughan S, Sexton D L. A retrospective investigation of the relationship between aerobic exercise and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum. 1991;18(4):751–7. [PubMed: 2067964]
  • not an exercise intervention.
  • Bookshelf ID: NBK37357


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