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McCrory DC, Pompeii LA, Skeen MB, et al. Criteria to Determine Disability Related to Multiple Sclerosis. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2004 May. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 100.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Criteria to Determine Disability Related to Multiple Sclerosis

Criteria to Determine Disability Related to Multiple Sclerosis.

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List of Excluded Studies

  1. All excluded articles listed below were reviewed in their full-text versions. Following each reference, in italics, is the primary reason for exclusion and the question (Q) for which the article was considered. If no Q is indicated, then the article was excluded a priori from the study for the reason given. Reasons for exclusion pertain only to the usefulness of articles for this study and are not intended as criticisms of the articles per se.“DA” indicates exclusion at the data abstraction stage. For reference, the questions are:
  2. Question 1a: What is the reliability of new McDonald criteria (incorporating supplementary information form radiologic and laboratory studies including MRI, VEP, and CSF analyses) compared with long-term follow-up diagnosis of clinically definite MS according to the Poser criteria?
  3. Question 1b: What is the inter-rater reliability of diagnosis of MS according to Poser or McDonald criteria among neurologists or between neurologists and non-neurologist physicians?
  4. Question 2: What clinical indicators, including particularly time-course of impairments, predict physical or mental impairment at 12 months?
  5. Question 3a: Among patients with MS, do current disease-modifying treatments result in long-term improvements in physical or mental outcomes compared to placebo or usual care?
  6. Question 3b: Among patients with MS, do treatments aimed at symptom management result in improvements in physical or mental outcomes compared to usual care?
  7. Question 4: Among individuals with MS, what physical, mental, laboratory, or radiographic findings have been associated with inability to work?
  8. Question 5: Among individuals with MS, how does elevated temperature or other environmental factors impair the capacity to work?
  9. Abel NA, Smith RA. Intrathecal baclofen for treatment of intractable spinal spasticity. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1994;75(1):54–8. Exclude-Q3-no results for placebo patients . [PubMed: 8291963]
  10. Adams HP, Wagner S, Sobel DF. et al. Hypointense and hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging in secondary-progressive MS patients. Eur Neurol. 1999;42(1):52–63. Exclude-Q2-no predictor with outcome . [PubMed: 10394049]
  11. Albrecht H, Wotzel C, Erasmus LP. et al. Day-to-day variability of maximum walking distance in MS patients can mislead to relevant changes in the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): average walking speed is a more constant parameter. Mult Scler. 2001;7(2):105–9. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11424630]
  12. Allanson J, Bass C, Wade DT. Characteristics of patients with persistent severe disability and medically unexplained neurological symptoms: a pilot study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 2002;73(3):307–9. Exclude-no MS patients specified . [PMC free article: PMC1738051] [PubMed: 12185165]
  13. Allen K, Blascovich J. The value of service dogs for people with severe ambulatory disabilities. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1996;275(13):1001–6. Exclude-no MS patients specified . [PubMed: 8596231]
  14. Alusi SH, Worthington J, Glickman S. et al. A study of tremor in multiple sclerosis. Brain. 2001;124(Pt 4):720–30. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11287372]
  15. Alusi SH, Worthington J, Glickman S. et al. Evaluation of three different ways of assessing tremor in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 2000;68(6):756–60. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PMC free article: PMC1736951] [PubMed: 10811700]
  16. Amato MP, Fratiglioni L, Groppi C. et al. Interrater reliability in assessing functional systems and disability on the Kurtzke scale in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1988;45(7):746–8. Exclude-Q2-background . [PubMed: 3390030]
  17. Amato MP, Ponziani G. Quantification of impairment in MS: discussion of the scales in use [review] Mult Scler. 1999;5(4):216–9. Exclude-not relevant to study questions . [PubMed: 10467378]
  18. Amato MP, Ponziani G. A prospective study on the prognosis of multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2000;21(4 Suppl 2):S831–8. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 11205358]
  19. Amato MP, Ponziani G, Rossi F. et al. Quality of life in multiple sclerosis: the impact of depression, fatigue and disability. Mult Scler. 2001;7(5):340–4. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11724451]
  20. Aminoff MJ, Davis SL, Panitch HS. Serial evoked potential studies in patients with definite multiple sclerosis. Clinical relevance. Arch Neurol. 1984;41(11):1197–202. Exclude-Q2-no analysis of predictors . [PubMed: 6487104]
  21. Andersson PB, Waubant E, Gee L. et al. Multiple sclerosis that is progressive from the time of onset: clinical characteristics and progression of disability. Arch Neurol. 1999;56(9):1138–42. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 10488816]
  22. Andersson T, Siden A, Persson A. A comparison of clinical and evoked potential (VEP and median nerve SEP) evolution in patients with MS and potentially related conditions. Acta Neurol Scand. 1991;84(2):139–45. Exclude-Q2-no physical or mental outcome reported . [PubMed: 1950449]
  23. Antel JP, Freedman MS, Brodovsky S. et al. Activated suppressor cell function in severely disabled patients with multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1989;25(2):204–7. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 2521994]
  24. Archibald CJ, McGrath PJ, Ritvo PG. et al. Pain prevalence, severity and impact in a clinic sample of multiple sclerosis patients. Pain. 1994;58(1):89–93. Exclude-Q4-vague measurements of work ability . [PubMed: 7970843]
  25. Armutlu K, Karabudak R, Nurlu G. Physiotherapy approaches in the treatment of ataxic multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Neurorehab Neural Repair. 2001;15(3):203–11. Exclude-Q3-no long-term symptom management . [PubMed: 11944742]
  26. Arnold DL, Bouchard JP, Boyle CAJ. et al. Key issues in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis-an overview. Neurology. 2002;59(6):U2–S33. Exclude-review-background .
  27. Arnold DL, Matthews PM. MRI in the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2002;58(8):S23–S31. Exclude-review-background . [PubMed: 11971123]
  28. Aronson KJ. Quality of life among persons with multiple sclerosis and their caregivers. Neurology. 1997;48(1):74–80. Exclude-not relevant to study questions . [PubMed: 9008497]
  29. Aupperle RL, Beatty WW, Shelton FdeNAP. et al. Three screening batteries to detect cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2002;8(5):382–9. Exclude-Q4-no findings relevant to question . [PubMed: 12356204]
  30. AUSTIMS Research Group. Interferon-alpha and transfer factor in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 1989;52(5):566–74. Exclude-Q3-not current therapy . [PMC free article: PMC1032161] [PubMed: 2659737]
  31. Baker DG. Multiple sclerosis and thermoregulatory dysfunction. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(5):1779–80. Exclude-DA-Q5-review article . [PubMed: 11960923]
  32. Bakshi R, Benedict RH, Bermel RA. et al. Regional brain atrophy is associated with physical disability in multiple sclerosis: semiquantitative magnetic resonance imaging and relationship to clinical findings. J Neuroimag. 2001;11(2):129–36. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11296581]
  33. Balcer LJ. Clinical outcome measures for research in multiple sclerosis [review] J Neuro-Ophthalmol. 2001;21(4):296–301. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11756863]
  34. Barkhof F. MRI in multiple sclerosis: correlation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) [review] Mult Scler. 1999;5(4):283–6. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 10467389]
  35. Barkhof F. The clinico-radiological paradox in multiple sclerosis revisited [review] Curr Opinion Neurol. 2002;15(3):239–45. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 12045719]
  36. Barkhof F, Filippi M, van Waesberghe JH. et al. Interobserver agreement for diagnostic MRI criteria in suspected multiple sclerosis. Neuroradiology. 1999;41(5):347–50. Exclude-Q1b-no Poser or McDonald criteria . [PubMed: 10379592]
  37. Barkhof F, Filippi M, van Waesberghe JH. et al. Improving interobserver variation in reporting gadolinium-enhanced MRI lesions in multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1997;49(6):1682–8. Exclude-Q1b-no Poser or McDonald criteria . [PubMed: 9409366]
  38. Barkhof F, Frequin ST, Hommes OR. et al. A correlative triad of gadolinium-DTPA MRI, EDSS, and CSF-MBP in relapsing multiple sclerosis patients treated with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone. Neurology. 1992;42(1):63–7. Exclude-Q3-not RCT . [PubMed: 1370864]
  39. Barnes D, Hughes RA, Morris RW. et al. Randomised trial of oral and intravenous methylprednisolone in acute relapses of multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 1997;349(9056):902–6. Exclude-Q3-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 9093250]
  40. Basmajian JV. Lioresal (baclofen) treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Am J Phys Med. 1975;54(4):175–7. Exclude-DA-Q3-data poorly described . [PubMed: 1098477]
  41. Basmajian JV, Shankardass K, Russell D. Ketazolam once daily for spasticity: double-blind cross-over study. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1986;67(8):556–7. Exclude-DA-Q3-outcomes poorly described . [PubMed: 2874780]
  42. Basmajian JV, Shankardass K, Russell D. et al. Ketazolam treatment for spasticity: double-blind study of a new drug. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1984;65(11):698–701. Exclude-DA-Q3-limited results reported for MS patients . [PubMed: 6149738]
  43. Basmajian JV, Yucel V. Effects of a GABA—derivative (BA-34647) on spasticity. Preliminary report of a double-blind cross-over study. Am J Phys Med. 1974;53(5):223–8. Exclude-DA-Q3-no separate results reported for MS patients . [PubMed: 4153338]
  44. Basso MR, Beason-Hazen S, Lynn J. et al. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1996;53(10):980–4. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 8859059]
  45. Battaglia MA, Serpero P, Bordo G. et al. Evaluation of the minimal record of disability in multiple sclerosis patients in Genoa. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 1984;101:92–9. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 6594922]
  46. Bauer HJ, Krtsch U, Schipper R. et al. Disability rating with the IFMSS scales. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 1984;101:145–52. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 6594905]
  47. Baumhefner RW, Tourtellotte WW, Syndulko K. et al. Quantitative multiple sclerosis plaque assessment with magnetic resonance imaging. Its correlation with clinical parameters, evoked potentials, and intra-blood-brain barrier IgG synthesis. Arch Neurol. 1990;47(1):19–26. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 2294889]
  48. Becker KG. APOE genotype is a major predictor of long-term progression of disability in MS. Neurology. 2001;57(11):2148–9. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11739852]
  49. Beenakker EA, Oparina TI, Hartgring A. et al. Cooling garment treatment in MS: clinical improvement and decrease in leukocyte NO production. Neurology. 2001;57(5):892–4. Exclude-DA-Q3-no specific symptom targeted . [PubMed: 11552024]
  50. Benedict RH, Shapiro A, Priore R. et al. Neuropsychological counseling improves social behavior in cognitively-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler. 2000;6(6):391–6. Exclude-DA-Q3-no comparison to usual care . [PubMed: 11212135]
  51. Benesova Y, Niedermayerova I. New approach to evaluation of clinical state in patients with multiple sclerosis. Bratislavske Lekarske Listy. 2001;102(8):370–1. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11763667]
  52. Berg D, Maurer M, Warmuth-Metz M. et al. The correlation between ventricular diameter measured by transcranial sonography and clinical disability and cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2000;57(9):1289–92. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 10987895]
  53. Bergamaschi R, Romani A, Versino M. et al. Clinical aspects of fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Funct Neurol. 1997;12(5):247–51. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 9439942]
  54. Berger JR, Sheremata WA. Persistent neurological deficit precipitated by hot bath test in multiple sclerosis. JAMA. 1983;249(13):1751–3. Exclude-review-background . [PubMed: 6600798]
  55. Bernardi S, Buttinelli C, Grasso MG. et al. Evolution and severity markers in 233 MS patients. Riv Neurol. 1987;57(3):197–200. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 3672012]
  56. Beutler E, Sipe J, Romine J. et al. Treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases with cladribine. Sem Hematol. 1996;33(1 Suppl 1):45–52. Exclude-DA-Q3-incomplete data . [PubMed: 8714617]
  57. Bever CT Jr. The current status of studies of aminopyridines in patients with multiple sclerosis [review] Ann Neurol. 1994;36(Suppl):S118–21. Exclude-review-background . [PubMed: 8017870]
  58. Bever CT Jr, Anderson PA, Leslie J. et al. Treatment with oral 3,4 diaminopyridine improves leg strength in multiple sclerosis patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Neurology. 1996;47(6):1457–62. Exclude-Q3-no long-term symptom management . [PubMed: 8960727]
  59. Bever CT Jr, Leslie J, Camenga DL. et al. Preliminary trial of 3,4-diaminopyridine in patients with multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1990;27(4):421–7. Exclude-Q3-not RCT . [PubMed: 2353797]
  60. Bever CT Jr, Young D, Anderson PA. et al. The effects of 4-aminopyridine in multiple sclerosis patients: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, concentration-controlled, crossover trial. Neurology. 1994;44(6):1054–9. Exclude-Q3-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 8208399]
  61. Bjuro T, Fugl-Meyer AR, Grimby G. et al. Domestic work in patients with neuromuscular handicap. Scand J Rehab Med Suppl. 1978;6:193–6. Exclude-Q4-no findings relevant to question . [PubMed: 278164]
  62. Blake DJ, Bodine C. An overview of assistive technology for persons with multiple sclerosis. J Rehab Res Develop. 2002;39(2):299–312. Exclude-not relevant to study questions . [PubMed: 12051472]
  63. Blinkenberg M, Jensen CV, Holm S. et al. A longitudinal study of cerebral glucose metabolism, MRI, and disability in patients with MS. Neurology. 1999;53(1):149–53. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 10408551]
  64. Boggild M, Ford H. Multiple sclerosis. Clin Evid 2002;(7):1195–207. Exclude-review-background Q3. [PubMed: 12230737]
  65. Bourdette DN, Prochazka AV, Mitchell W. et al. Health care costs of veterans with multiple sclerosis: implications for the rehabilitation of MS. VA Multiple Sclerosis Rehabilitation Study Group. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1993;74(1):26–31. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 8420515]
  66. Bowen J, Gibbons L, Gianas A. et al. Self-administered Expanded Disability Status Scale with functional system scores correlates well with a physician-administered test. Mult Scler. 2001;7(3):201–6. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up. [PubMed: 11475445]
  67. Branas P, Jordan R, Fry-Smith A. et al. Treatments for fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a rapid and systematic review. Health Technol Assess (Winchester, England) 2000;4(27):1–61. Exclude-review-background. [PubMed: 11074395]
  68. Brassat D, Azais-Vuillemin C, Yaouanquestion J. et al. Familial factors influence disability in MS multiplex families. French Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Group. Neurology. 1999;52(8):1632–6. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 10331690]
  69. Brassington JC, Marsh NV. Neuropsychological aspects of multiple sclerosis [review] Neuropsychol Rev. 1998;8(2):43–77. Exclude-review-background Q2 . [PubMed: 9658410]
  70. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Kaim M. et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of psychostimulants for the treatment of fatigue in ambulatory patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(3):411–20. Exclude-no MS patients . [PubMed: 11176767]
  71. Brex PA, Ciccarelli O, O'Riordan JI. et al. A longitudinal study of abnormalities on MRI and disability from multiple sclerosis. New Engl J Med. 2002;346(3):158–64. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 11796849]
  72. Brochet B, Guinot P, Orgogozo JM. et al. Double blind placebo controlled multicentre study of ginkgolide B in treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis. The Ginkgolide Study Group in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 1995;58(3):360–2. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PMC free article: PMC1073377] [PubMed: 7897422]
  73. Brown JR. Recent studies in multiple sclerosis: inferences on rehabilitation and employability. Mayo Clinic Proc. 1969;44(10):758–65. Exclude-not relevant to study question . [PubMed: 5344807]
  74. Brown JR. Problems in evaluating new treatments for multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 1980;30(7):8–11. Exclude-not relevant to study question . [PubMed: 6248820]
  75. Brown MG, Murray TJ, Sketris IS. et al. Cost-effectiveness of interferon beta-1b in slowing multiple sclerosis disability progression. First estimates. Internat J Technol Assess Health Care. 2000;16(3):751–67. Exclude-not relevant to study question . [PubMed: 11028131]
  76. Brusaferri F, Candelise L. Steroids for multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. J Neurol. 2000;247(6):435–42. Exclude-DA-Q3-meta-analysis . [PubMed: 10929272]
  77. Bryant D, Chiaravalloti ND, DeLuca J. Objective measurement of cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis. Rehab Psychol 2003;in press. Exclude-Q4-no measure of work ability.
  78. Burridge J, Taylor P, Hagan S. et al. Experience of clinical use of the Odstock dropped foot stimulator. Artificial Organs. 1997;21(3):254–60. Exclude-Q3-mixed population . [PubMed: 9148719]
  79. Calabresi PA. Considerations in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis [review] Neurology. 2002;58(8 Suppl 4):S10–22. Exclude-Q2-Other-background . [PubMed: 11971122]
  80. Camenga DL, Johnson KP, Alter M. et al. Systemic recombinant alpha-2 interferon therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1986;43(12):1239–46. Exclude-Q3-not current therapy . [PubMed: 3535752]
  81. Capello E, Gardella M, Leandri M. et al. Lowering body temperature with a cooling suit as symptomatic treatment for thermosensitive multiple sclerosis patients. Ital J Neurol Sci. 1995;16(8):533–9. Exclude-DA-Q5-no data on work status or ability . [PubMed: 8613414]
  82. Caramia F, Pantano P, Di Legge S. et al. A longitudinal study of MR diffusion changes in normal appearing white matter of patients with early multiple sclerosis. Magnet Reson Imag. 2002;20(5):383–8. Exclude-DA-Q1a-no long-term follow up using Poser . [PubMed: 12206862]
  83. Casanova B, Coret F, Valero C. et al. High clinical inflammatory activity prior to the development of secondary progression: a prospective 5-year follow-up study. Mult Scler. 2002;8(1):59–63. Exclude-Q2-no analysis of predictors . [PubMed: 11939173]
  84. Catalaa I, Fulton JC, Zhang X. et al. MR imaging quantitation of gray matter involvement in multiple sclerosis and its correlation with disability measures and neurocognitive testing. Am J Neuroradiol. 1999;20(9):1613–8. Exclude-Q2-no analysis of predictors . [PubMed: 10543630]
  85. Catanzaro M, Weinert C. Economic status of families living with multiple sclerosis. Internat J Rehab Res. 1992;15(3):209–18. Exclude-Q5-no data on work status or ability . [PubMed: 1428386]
  86. Cazzato G, Mesiano T, Antonello R. et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover trial of high-dose methylprednisolone in patients with chronic progressive form of multiple sclerosis. Eur Neurol. 1995;35(4):193–8. Exclude-Q3-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 7671978]
  87. Cazzullo CL, Ghezzi A, Marforio S. et al. Clinical picture of multiple sclerosis with late onset. Acta Neurol Scand. 1978;58(3):190–6. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 716837]
  88. Cendrowski W, Sobczyk W. Clonazepam, baclofen and placebo in the treatment of spasticity. Eur Neurol. 1977;16(16):257–62. Exclude-DA-Q3-not RCT . [PubMed: 354938]
  89. Cendrowski WS. Progression index and disability status in multiple sclerosis: a resurvey of 207 patients in central Poland. Schweiz Arch Neurol Psych. 1986;137(4):5–13. Exclude-Q2-no predictor with outcome . [PubMed: 2428106]
  90. Cercignani M, Inglese M, Pagani E. et al. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy histograms of patients with multiple sclerosis. Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22(5):952–8. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11337342]
  91. Cervera-Deval J, Morant-Guillen MP, Fenollosa-Vasquez P. et al. Social handicaps of multiple sclerosis and their relation to neurological alterations. Arch Phys Med Rehab. 1994;75(11):1223–7. Exclude-review-background Q4 . [PubMed: 7979933]
  92. CHAMPS Study Group. Interferon beta-1a for optic neuritis patients at high risk for multiple sclerosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132(4):463–71. Exclude-DA-Q1a-no relevant data . [PubMed: 11589865]
  93. CHAMPS Study Group. Baseline MRI characteristics of patients at high risk for multiple sclerosis: results from the CHAMPS trial. Mult Scler. 2002;8(4):330–8. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 12166504]
  94. Cheng EM, Hays RD, Myers LW. et al. Factors related to agreement between self-reported and conventional Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Mult Scler. 2001;7(6):405–10. Exclude-not relevant to study question . [PubMed: 11795463]
  95. Chiba S, Ito M, Matsumoto H. Amantadine treatment for refractory pain and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci. 1992;19(2):309. Exclude-Q3-Other-review . [PubMed: 1623455]
  96. Christensen O, Clausen J. Social remedial measures for multiple sclerosis patients in Denmark. Acta Neurol Scand. 1977;55(5):394–406. Exclude-DA-Q4-no correlation with findings relevant to question . [PubMed: 140581]
  97. Chwastiak L, Ehde DM, Gibbons LE. et al. Depressive symptoms and severity of illness in multiple sclerosis: epidemiologic study of a large community sample. Am J Psych. 2002;159(11):1862–8. Exclude-Q4-no correlation with findings relevant to question . [PubMed: 12411220]
  98. Ciccarelli O, Brex PA, Thompson AJ. et al. Disability and lesion load in MS: a reassessment with MS functional composite score and 3D fast FLAIR. J Neurol. 2002;249(1):18–24. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 11954864]
  99. Cid C, Alcazar A, Regidor I. et al. Neuronal apoptosis induced by cerebrospinal fluid from multiple sclerosis patients correlates with hypointense lesions on T1 magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurol Sci. 2002;193(2):103–9. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 11790390]
  100. Clanet M, Radue EW, Kappos L. et al. A randomized, double-blind, dose-comparison study of weekly interferon beta-1a in relapsing MS. Neurology. 2002;59(10):1507–17. Exclude-Q3-no control . [PubMed: 12451189]
  101. Clifford DB. Tetrahydrocannabinol for tremor in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 1983;13(6):669–71. Exclude-Q3-not RCT . [PubMed: 6309074]
  102. Clifford DB, Trotter JL. Pain in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1984;41(12):1270–2. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 6208884]
  103. Coban O, Bahar S, Akman-Demir G. et al. A controlled study of reliability and validity of MRI findings in neuro-Behcet's disease. Neuroradiology. 1996;38(4):312–6. Exclude-Q1a-no MS patients . [PubMed: 8738085]
  104. Coban O, Bahar S, Akman-Demir G. et al. Masked assessment of MRI findings: is it possible to differentiate neuro-Behcet's disease from other central nervous system diseases? [corrected][erratum appears in Neuradiology 1999 Jul;41(7):550] Neuroradiology. 1999;41(4):255–60. Exclude-Q1a-not longitudinal . [PubMed: 10344509]
  105. Cohen JA, Cutter GR, Fischer JS. et al. Use of the multiple sclerosis functional composite as an outcome measure in a phase 3 clinical trial. Arch Neurol. 2001;58(6):961–7. Exclude-review-background Q4 . [PubMed: 11405811]
  106. Cohen RA, Kessler HR, Fischer M. The Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) as a predictor of impairments of functional activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci. 1993;115(2):132–5. Exclude-review-background Q4 . [PubMed: 8482974]
  107. Colosimo C, Millefiorini E, Grasso MG. et al. Fatigue in MS is associated with specific clinical features. Acta Neurol Scand. 1995;92(5):353–5. Exclude-Q2-no long-term follow up . [PubMed: 8610485]
  108. Comi G, Filippi M, Rovaris M. et al. Clinical, neurophysiological, and magnetic resonance imaging correlations in multiple sclerosis [review] J Neurol Neurosurg Psych. 1998;64(Suppl 1):S21–5. Exclude-Q1a-non-standard technology . [PubMed: 9647280]
  109. Comi G, Filippi M, Wolinsky JS. EuropeanCanadian multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of glatiramer acetate on magnetic resonance imaging—measured disease activity and burden in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. EuropeanCanadian Glatiramer Acetate Study Group. Ann Neurol. 2001;49(3):290–7. Exclude-Q3-Other-no improvement . [PubMed: 11261502]
  110. Comi G, Leocani L, Rossi P. et al. Physiopathology and treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis [review] J Neurol. 2001;248(3):174–9. Exclude-Q3-not RCT . [PubMed: 11355149]
  111. Confavreux C, Aimard G, Devic M. Course and prognosis of multiple sclerosis assessed by the computerized data processing of 349 patients. Brain. 1980;103(2):281–300. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 7397479]
  112. Confavreux C, Vukusic S, Moreau T. et al. Relapses and progression of disability in multiple sclerosis. New Engl J Med. 2000;343(20):1430–8. Exclude-Q2-wrong timeframe . [PubMed: 11078767]
  113. Confavreux C, Wolfson C. Mathematical models and individualized outcome estimates in multiple sclerosis. Biomed Pharmacother. 1989;43(9):675–80. Exclude-Q2-no physical or mental outcome . [PubMed: 2624884]
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