Table 3.35 Association of estimates of omega-3 fatty acids consumption with myocardial infarction in prospective cohort and case-control studies

Author Year LocationNDuration (year)Dietary AssessmentResultsTrend P-valueOverall effectQualityApplicability
Estimated omega-3 fatty acid consumption
Relative risk (unless stated otherwise)
Prospective cohort
Hu 2002 8468816FFQEPA+DHA<0.001+ +AGEN II
Hu 1999 USMedian intake (% energy)
NHS Nonfatal MI1.00.920.830.75*0.69*
10ALA0.001+ +
Median intake g/d0.710.860.981.121.360.05
Fatal IHD1.00.990.900.670.55*
Non-fatal MI1.00.920.941.020.85
Ascherio 1995 US448956FFQEPA+DHA<0.110.12–0.190.20–0.280.29–0.41>0.42 g/dNS+AGEN II
HPS Total MI1.01.00.920.861.1NS
Nonfatal MI1.00.930.890.781.1
Morris 1995 US211854FFQEPA+DHA<0.050.5-<1.01.0-<1.71.7-<2.3>2.3 g/wkNS-AGEN II
PHS Total MI1.
Nonfatal MI1.
Yuan 2001 China1824412FFQEPA+DHA<0.270.27-0.430.44-0.720.73-1.1>1.1 g/wk0.02+ +AGEN II
Fatal MI1.00.39*0.670.53*0.43*
Oomen 2001 Holland6670CDALA (% energy)<0.450.45- 0.58>0.58NS-BGEN III
Fatal and nonfatal CAD1.01.51.7NS
Fatal CAD1.00.991.6
Case control
Tavani 2001 Italy975naFFQEPA+DHA<0.810.81–1.28>1.28 g/wk0.03+ +BGEN II
Nonfatal MI odds ratio1.00.71*0.67*

Adjusted results are presented here when reported in original study. See evidence tables for details.


Trend for inverse association. Up arrow indicates a statistically significant positive association (worse outcome).


Statistically significant p<0.05; numerical p-value reported for p<0.1.

Study acronyms:

ABCC = Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention

ADVENTIST = Adventist Health Study

CHS = Cardiovascular Health Study

HPS = Health Professionals Study

MRFIT = Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Study

NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Study

NHS = Nurses' Health Study

PHS = Physicians' Health Study

WES = Western Electric Company Study

From: Summary Tables

Cover of Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease
Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cardiovascular Disease.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 94.
Wang C, Chung M, Lichtenstein A, et al.

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