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Grady D, Chaput L, Kristof M. Results of Systematic Review of Research on Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Women. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2003 May. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 80.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Results of Systematic Review of Research on Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Women

Results of Systematic Review of Research on Diagnosis and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease in Women.

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Appendix D: Articles Eligible for Full-Text Review by Key Question

1.01 Exercise tolerance testing

North of England evidence based guidelines development project: summary version of evidence based guideline for the primary care management angina. North of England Stable Angina Guideline Development Group. BMJ 1996;312(7034):827–32.

Alexander KP, Shaw LJ, Shaw LK, Delong ER, Mark DB, Peterson ED. Value of exercise treadmill testing in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32(6):1657–64.

Chiamvimonvat V, Sternberg L. Coronary artery disease in women. Can Fam Physician 1998;44:2709–17.

Detrano R, Gianrossi R, Froelicher V. The diagnostic accuracy of the exercise electrocardiogram: a meta-analysis of 22 years of research. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1989;32(3):173–206.

Detrano R, Gianrossi R, Mulvihill D, Lehmann K, Dubach P, Colombo A, et al. Exercise-induced ST segment depression in the diagnosis of multivessel coronary disease: a meta analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1989;14(6):1501–8.

Detrano R, Janosi A, Lyons KP, Marcondes G, Abbassi N, Froelicher VF. Factors affecting sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test: the exercise thallium scintigram. Am J Med 1988;84(4):699–710.

Detrano R, Lyons KP, Marcondes G, Abbassi N, Froelicher VF, Janosi A. Methodologic problems in exercise testing research. Are we solving them? Arch Intern Med 1988;148(6):1289–95.

Detrano R. Variability in the accuracy of the exercise ST-segment in predicting the coronary angiogram: how good can we be? J Electrocardiol 1992;24(Suppl):54–61.

Fleischmann KE, Hunink MG, Kuntz KM, Douglas PS. Exercise echocardiography or exercise SPECT imaging? A meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance. JAMA 1998;280(10):913–20.

Garber AM, Solomon NA. Cost-effectiveness of alternative test strategies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 1999;130(9):719–28.

Gianrossi R, Detrano R, Mulvihill D, Lehmann K, Dubach P, Colombo A, et al. Exercise-induced ST depression in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. A meta-analysis. Circulation 1989;80(1):87–98.

Gibbons RJ, Balady GJ, Beasley JW, Bricker JT, Duvernoy WF, Froelicher VF, et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for exercise testing: executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Exercise Testing). Circulation 1997;96(1):345–54.

Gibbons RJ, Balady GJ, Beasley JW, Bricker JT, Duvernoy WF, Froelicher VF, et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for Exercise Testing. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Exercise Testing). J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30(1):260–311

Hlatky MA, Pryor DB, Harrell FE, Jr., Califf RM, Mark DB, Rosati RA. Factors affecting sensitivity and specificity of exercise electrocardiography. Multivariable analysis. Am J Med 1984;77(1):64–71.

Iskandrian AE, Heo J, Nallamothu N. Detection of coronary artery disease in women with use of stress single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Cardiol 1997;4(4):329–35.

Jolliffe JA, Rees K, Taylor RS, Thompson D, Oldridge N, Ebrahim S. Exercise-based rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;4.

Kotler TS, Diamond GA. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy in the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 1990;113(9):684–702.

Kuntz KM, Tsevat J, Weinstein MC, Goldman L. Expert panel vs decision-analysis recommendations for postdischarge coronary angiography after myocardial infarction. JAMA 1999;282(23):2246–51.

Kwok Y, Kim C, Grady D, Segal M, Redberg R. Meta-analysis of exercise testing to detect coronary artery disease in women. Am J Cardiol 1999;83(5):660–6.

Lau J, Ioannidis JP, Balk EM, Milch C, Terrin N, Chew PW, et al. Diagnosing acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a systematic review of the accuracy and clinical effect of current technologies. Ann Emerg Med 2001;37(5):453–60.

Lee TH, Boucher CA. Clinical practice. Noninvasive tests in patients with stable coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 2001;344(24):1840–5.

Mark DB, Shaw L, Harrell FE, Jr., Hlatky MA, Lee KL, Bengtson JR, et al. Prognostic value of a treadmill exercise score in outpatients with suspected coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1991;325(12):849–53.

Miller TD, Roger VL, Milavetz JJ, Hopfenspirger MR, Milavetz DL, Hodge DO, et al. Assessment of the exercise electrocardiogram in women versus men using tomographic myocardial perfusion imaging as the reference standard. Am J Cardiol 2001;87(7):868–73.

Okin PM, Kligfield P. Gender-specific criteria and performance of the exercise electrocardiogram. Circulation 1995;92(5):1209–16.

Safstrom K, Lindahl B, Swahn E. Risk stratification in unstable coronary artery disease--exercise test and troponin T from a gender perspective. FRISC-Study Group. Fragmin during InStability in Coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35(7):1791–800.

Selker HP, Zalenski RJ, Antman EM, Aufderheide TP, Bernard SA, Bonow RO, et al. An evaluation of technologies for identifying acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a report from a National Heart Attack Alert Program Working Group. Ann Emerg Med 1997;29(1):13–87.

Shaw LJ, Hachamovitch R, Redberg RF. Current evidence on diagnostic testing in women with suspected coronary artery disease: choosing the appropriate test. Cardiol Rev 2000;8(1):65–74.

Williams SV, Fihn SD, Gibbons RJ. Guidelines for the management of patients with chronic stable angina: diagnosis and risk stratification. Ann Intern Med 2001;135(7):530–47.

1.02 Exercise echocardiogram

North of England evidence based guidelines development project: summary version of evidence based guideline for the primary care management angina. North of England Stable Angina Guideline Development Group. BMJ 1996;312(7034):827–32.

Arruda-Olson AM, Juracan EM, Mahoney DW, McCully RB, Roger VL, Pellikka PA. Prognostic value of exercise echocardiography in 5,798 patients: is there a gender difference? J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;39(4):625–31.

de Albuquerque Fonseca L, Picano E. Comparison of dipyridamole and exercise stress echocardiography for detection of coronary artery disease (a meta-analysis). Am J Cardiol 2001;87(10):1193–6; A4.

Diaz LA, Brunken RC, Blackstone EH, Snader CE, Lauer MS. Independent contribution of myocardial perfusion defects to exercise capacity and heart rate recovery for prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with known or suspected coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37(6):1558–64.

Fleischmann KE, Hunink MG, Kuntz KM, Douglas PS. Exercise echocardiography or exercise SPECT imaging? A meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance. JAMA 1998;280(10):913–20.

Garber AM, Solomon NA. Cost-effectiveness of alternative test strategies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 1999;130(9):719–28.

Garzon PP, Eisenberg MJ. Functional testing for the detection of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: a meta-analysis. Can J Cardiol 2001;17(1):41–8.

Hachamovitch R, Berman DS, Kiat H, Bairey CN, Cohen I, Cabico A, et al. Effective risk stratification using exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT in women: gender-related differences in prognostic nuclear testing. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28(1):34–44.

Hachamovitch R, Berman DS, Kiat H, Cohen I, Friedman JD, Shaw LJ. Value of stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in patients with normal resting electrocardiograms: an evaluation of incremental prognostic value and cost-effectiveness. Circulation 2002;105(7):823–9.

Hunink MG, Kuntz KM, Fleischmann KE, Brady TJ. Noninvasive imaging for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease: focusing the development of new diagnostic technology. Ann Intern Med 1999;131(9):673–80.

Ioannidis JP, Salem D, Chew PW, Lau J. Accuracy of imaging technologies in the diagnosis of acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med 2001;37(5):471–7.

Kwok Y, Kim C, Grady D, Segal M, Redberg R. Meta-analysis of exercise testing to detect coronary artery disease in women. Am J Cardiol 1999;83(5):660–6.

Marine JE, Freedberg KA, Davidoff R. Cost-effectiveness of stress-echocardiography. Cardiol Clin 1999;17(3):583–95, x.

Marwick TH, Shaw LJ, Lauer MS, Kesler K, Hachamovitch R, Heller GV, et al. The noninvasive prediction of cardiac mortality in men and women with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Economics of Noninvasive Diagnosis (END) Study Group. Am J Med 1999;106(2):172–8.

Mieres JH, Udelson JE. Meta-analysis of exercise testing to detect coronary artery disease in women. Am J Cardiol 1999;84(12):1454–6.

Pancholy SB, Fattah AA, Kamal AM, Ghods M, Heo J, Iskandrian AS. Independent and incremental prognostic value of exercise thallium single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging in women. J Nucl Cardiol 1995;2(2 Pt 1):110–6.

Picano E, Bedetti G, Varga A, Cseh E. The comparable diagnostic accuracies of dobutamine-stress and dipyridamole-stress echocardiographies: a meta-analysis. Coron Artery Dis 2000;11(2):151–9.

Santana-Boado C, Candell-Riera J, Castell-Conesa J, Aguade-Bruix S, Garcia-Burillo A, Canela T, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of technetium-99m-MIBI myocardial SPECT in women and men. J Nucl Med 1998;39(5):751–5.

Senior R, Soman P, Khattar RS, Lahiri A. Prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary arteriography. Am J Cardiol 1997;79(12):1610–4.

Shaw LJ, Eagle KA, Gersh BJ, Miller DD. Meta-analysis of intravenous dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging (1985 to 1994) and dobutamine echocardiography (1991 to 1994) for risk stratification before vascular surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(4):787–98.

Shaw LJ, Hachamovitch R, Redberg RF. Current evidence on diagnostic testing in women with suspected coronary artery disease: choosing the appropriate test. Cardiol Rev 2000;8(1):65–74.

Tavel ME. Specificity of electrocardiographic stress test in women versus men. Am J Cardiol 1992;70(4):545–7.

1.03 Coronary artery calcification score

Amanullah AM, Kiat H, Friedman JD, Berman DS. Adenosine technetium-99m sestamibi myocardial perfusion SPECT in women: diagnostic efficacy in detection of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(4):803–9.

Budoff MJ, Diamond GA, Raggi P, Arad Y, Guerci AD, Callister TQ, et al. Continuous probabilistic prediction of angiographically significant coronary artery disease using electron beam tomography. Circulation 2002;105(15):1791–6.

Budoff MJ, Shokooh S, Shavelle RM, Kim HT, French WJ. Electron beam tomography and angiography: sex differences. Am Heart J 2002;143(5):877–82.

Detrano R, Hsiai T, Wang S, Puentes G, Fallavollita J, Shields P, et al. Prognostic value of coronary calcification and angiographic stenoses in patients undergoing coronary angiography. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(2):285–90.

Doherty TM, Detrano RC, Mautner SL, Mautner GC, Shavelle RM. Coronary calcium: the good, the bad, and the uncertain. Am Heart J 1999;137(5):806–14.

Engman ML. An update on EBCT (Ultrafast CT) scans for coronary artery disease. J Insur Med 1998;30(3):175–9.

Fiorino AS. Electron-beam computed tomography, coronary artery calcium, and evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 1998;128(10):839–47.

Guerci AD, Spadaro LA, Goodman KJ, Lledo-Perez A, Newstein D, Lerner G, et al. Comparison of electron beam computed tomography scanning and conventional risk factor assessment for the prediction of angiographic coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32(3):673–9.

Hunink MG, Kuntz KM, Fleischmann KE, Brady TJ. Noninvasive imaging for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease: focusing the development of new diagnostic technology. Ann Intern Med 1999;131(9):673–80.

Keelan PC, Bielak LF, Ashai K, Jamjoum LS, Denktas AE, Rumberger JA, et al. Long-term prognostic value of coronary calcification detected by electron-beam computed tomography in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Circulation 2001;104(4):412–7.

Kennedy J, Shavelle R, Wang S, Budoff M, Detrano RC. Coronary calcium and standard risk factors in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography. Am Heart J 1998;135(4):696–702.

Nallamothu BK, Saint S, Bielak LF, Sonnad SS, Peyser PA, Rubenfire M, et al. Electron-beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(6):833–8.

O'Malley PG, Taylor AJ, Jackson JL, Doherty TM, Detrano RC. Prognostic value of coronary electron-beam computed tomography for coronary heart disease events in asymptomatic populations. Am J Cardiol 2000;85(8):945–8.

O'Rourke RA, Brundage BH, Froelicher VF, Greenland P, Grundy SM, Hachamovitch R, et al. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Expert Consensus Document on electron-beam computed tomography for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(1):326–40.

Raggi P. Coronary calcium on electron beam tomography imaging as a surrogate marker of coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2001;87(4A):27A–34A.

Rumberger JA, Brundage BH, Rader DJ, Kondos G. Electron beam computed tomographic coronary calcium scanning: a review and guidelines for use in asymptomatic persons. Mayo Clin Proc 1999;74(3):243–52.

Shavelle DM, Budoff MJ, LaMont DH, Shavelle RM, Kennedy JM, Brundage BH. Exercise testing and electron beam computed tomography in the evaluation of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(1):32–8.

Stephens MB. Is electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) a reliable tool for predicting coronary outcomes in an asymptomatic population? J Fam Pract 2000;49(8):688.

Van Train KF, Maddahi J, Berman DS, Kiat H, Areeda J, Prigent F, et al. Quantitative analysis of tomographic stress thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams: a multicenter trial. J Nucl Med 1990;31(7):1168–79.

Wexler L, Brundage B, Crouse J, Detrano R, Fuster V, Maddahi J, et al. Coronary artery calcification: pathophysiology, epidemiology, imaging methods, and clinical implications. A statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association. Writing Group. Circulation 1996;94(5):1175–92.

2.01 Aspirin

Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy--III: Reduction in venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by antiplatelet prophylaxis among surgical and medical patients. Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration. BMJ 1994;308(6923):235–46.

Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity results from all randomised trials of more than 1000 patients. Fibrinolytic Therapy Trialists' (FTT) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1994;343(8893):311–22.

ISIS-3: a randomised comparison of streptokinase vs tissue plasminogen activator vs anistreplase and of aspirin plus heparin vs aspirin alone among 41,299 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-3 (Third International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1992;339(8796):753–70.

Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1988;2(8607):349–60.

Anand SS, Yusuf S. Oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. JAMA 1999;282(21):2058–67.

Basinski A, Naylor CD. Aspirin and fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: meta-analytic evidence for synergy. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44(10):1085–96.

Capewell S, Morrison CE, McMurray JJ. Contribution of modern cardiovascular treatment and risk factor changes to the decline in coronary heart disease mortality in Scotland between 1975 and 1994. Heart 1999;81(4):380–6.

Collins R, MacMahon S, Flather M, Baigent C, Remvig L, Mortensen S, et al. Clinical effects of anticoagulant therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview of randomised trials. BMJ 1996;313(7058):652–9.

D'Agostino RB, Cobb JL, Wolf PA, Wilson PW. Aspirin use and cardiovascular disease in women. JAMA 1992;267(3):364–5.

de Gaetano G. Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial in general practice. Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project. Lancet 2001;357(9250):89–95.

Dippel DW. The results of CAPRIE, IST and CAST. Clopidogrel vs. Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischaemic Events. International Stroke Trial. Chinese Acute Stroke Trial. Thromb Res 1998;92(1 Suppl 1):S13–6.

Hankey GJ, Sudlow CL, Dunbabin DW. Thienopyridine derivatives (ticlopidine, clopidogrel) versus aspirin for preventing stroke and other serious vascular events in high vascular risk patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000(2):CD001246.

Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, Dahlof B, Elmfeldt D, Julius S, et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet 1998;351(9118):1755–62.

Hart RG, Halperin JL, McBride R, Benavente O, Man-Son-Hing M, Kronmal RA. Aspirin for the primary prevention of stroke and other major vascular events: meta-analysis and hypotheses. Arch Neurol 2000;57(3):326–32.

Hebert PR, Hennekens CH. An overview of the 4 randomized trials of aspirin therapy in the primary prevention of vascular disease. Arch Intern Med 2000;160(20):3123–7.

Heidenreich PA, McClellan M. Trends in treatment and outcomes for acute myocardial infarction: 1975–1995. Am J Med 2001;110(3):165–74.

Kjeldsen SE, Kolloch RE, Leonetti G, Mallion JM, Zanchetti A, Elmfeldt D, et al. Influence of gender and age on preventing cardiovascular disease by antihypertensive treatment and acetylsalicylic acid. The HOT study. Hypertension Optimal Treatment. J Hypertens 2000;18(5):629–42.

Latini R, Tognoni G, Maggioni AP, Baigent C, Braunwald E, Chen ZM, et al. Clinical effects of early angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment for acute myocardial infarction are similar in the presence and absence of aspirin: systematic overview of individual data from 96,712 randomized patients. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35(7):1801–7.

Loewen P, Sunderji R, Gin K. The efficacy and safety of combination warfarin and ASA therapy: a systematic review of the literature and update of guidelines. Can J Cardiol 1998;14(5):717–26.

MacMahon S, Sharpe N. Long-term antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of vascular disease. Med J Aust 1991;154(7):477–80.

Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rosner B, Speizer FE, et al. A prospective study of aspirin use and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women. JAMA 1991;266(4):521–7.

Manson JE, Tosteson H, Ridker PM, Satterfield S, Hebert P, O'Connor GT, et al. The primary prevention of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1992;326(21):1406–16.

Mehta RH, Bossone E, Eagle KA. Current concepts in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction. Herz 2000;25(1):47–60.

Oler A, Whooley MA, Oler J, Grady D. Adding heparin to aspirin reduces the incidence of myocardial infarction and death in patients with unstable angina. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1996;276(10):811–5.

Peto R, Collins R, Gray R. Large-scale randomized evidence: large, simple trials and overviews of trials. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1993;703:314–40.

Popma JJ, Topol EJ. Adjuncts to thrombolysis for myocardial reperfusion. Ann Intern Med 1991;115(1):34–44.

Rembold CM. Number-needed-to-treat analysis of the prevention of myocardial infarction and death by antidyslipidemic therapy. J Fam Pract 1996;42(6):577–86.

Ridker PM, Manson JE, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, Hennekens CH. Low-dose aspirin therapy for chronic stable angina. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;114(10):835–9.

Sanmuganathan PS, Ghahramani P, Jackson PR, Wallis EJ, Ramsay LE. Aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: safety and absolute benefit related to coronary risk derived from meta-analysis of randomised trials. Heart 2001;85(3):265–71.

Tijssen JG. Low-dose and high-dose acetylsalicylic acid, with and without dipyridamole: a review of clinical trial results. Neurology 1998;51(3 Suppl 3):S15–6.

Zusman RM, Chesebro JH, Comerota A, Hartmann JR, Massin EK, Raps E, et al. Antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of ischemic vascular events: literature review and evidence-based guidelines for drug selection. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(9):559–73.

2.02 Beta-blockers

The Beta-Blocker Pooling Project (BBPP): subgroup findings from randomized trials in post infarction patients. The Beta-Blocker Pooling Project Research Group. Eur Heart J 1988;9(1):8–16.

Aronow WS. Management of older persons after myocardial infarction. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46(11):1459–68.

Avezum A, Tsuyuki RT, Pogue J, Yusuf S. Beta-blocker therapy for congestive heart failure: a systemic overview and critical appraisal of the published trials. Can J Cardiol 1998;14(8):1045–53.

Blazing MA, O'Connor CM. Evidence supporting secondary prevention strategies. Curr Opin Cardiol 1999;14(4):303–9.

Bonet S, Agusti A, Arnau JM, Vidal X, Diogene E, Galve E, et al. Beta-adrenergic blocking agents in heart failure: benefits of vasodilating and non-vasodilating agents according to patients' characteristics: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Arch Intern Med 2000;160(5):621–7.

Brophy JM, Joseph L, Rouleau JL. Beta-blockers in congestive heart failure. A Bayesian meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2001;134(7):550–60.

Cleland JG, Bristow MR, Erdmann E, Remme WJ, Swedberg K, Waagstein F. Beta-blocking agents in heart failure. Should they be used and how? Eur Heart J 1996;17(11):1629–39.

Conti CR. Clinical decision making using cumulative meta-analysis. Clin Cardiol 1993;16(3):167–8.

Doughty RN, Rodgers A, Sharpe N, MacMahon S. Effects of beta-blocker therapy on mortality in patients with heart failure. A systematic overview of randomized controlled trials. Eur Heart J 1997;18(4):560–5.

Freemantle N, Cleland J, Young P, Mason J, Harrison J. beta Blockade after myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta regression analysis. BMJ 1999;318(7200):1730–7.

Ghali JK, Pina IL, Gottlieb SS, Deedwania PC, Wikstrand JC. Metoprolol CR/XL in female patients with heart failure: analysis of the experience in Metoprolol Extended-Release Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Circulation 2002;105(13):1585–91.

Gueyffier F, Boutitie F, Boissel JP, Pocock S, Coope J, Cutler J, et al. Effect of antihypertensive drug treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in women and men. A meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized, controlled trials. The INDANA Investigators. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(10):761–7.

Heidenreich PA, McClellan M. Trends in treatment and outcomes for acute myocardial infarction: 1975–1995. Am J Med 2001;110(3):165–74.

Heidenreich PA, McDonald KM, Hastie T, Fadel B, Hagan V, Lee BK, et al. Meta-analysis of trials comparing beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates for stable angina. JAMA 1999;281(20):1927–36.

Heidenreich PA, Lee TT, Massie BM. Effect of beta-blockade on mortality in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30(1):27–34.

Houghton T, Freemantle N, Cleland JG. Are beta-blockers effective in patients who develop heart failure soon after myocardial infarction? A meta-regression analysis of randomised trials. Eur J Heart Fail 2000;2(3):333–40.

Lechat P, Packer M, Chalon S, Cucherat M, Arab T, Boissel JP. Clinical effects of beta-adrenergic blockade in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials. Circulation 1998;98(12):1184–91.

Lee S, Spencer A. Beta-blockers to reduce mortality in patients with systolic dysfunction: a meta-analysis. J Fam Pract 2001;50(6):499–504.

Leizorovicz A, Lechat P, Cucherat M, Bugnard F. Bisoprolol for the treatment of chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis on individual data of two placebo-controlled studies--CIBIS and CIBIS II. Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study. Am Heart J 2002;143(2):301–7.

Olsson G, Wikstrand J, Warnold I, Manger Cats V, McBoyle D, Herlitz J, et al. Metoprolol-induced reduction in postinfarction mortality: pooled results from five double-blind randomized trials. Eur Heart J 1992;13(1):28–32.

Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, Katus HA, Krum H, Mohacsi P, et al. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;344(22):1651–8.

Pahor M, Psaty BM, Alderman MH, Applegate WB, Williamson JD, Cavazzini C, et al. Health outcomes associated with calcium antagonists compared with other first-line antihypertensive therapies: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2000;356(9246):1949–54.

Popma JJ, Topol EJ. Adjuncts to thrombolysis for myocardial reperfusion. Ann Intern Med 1991;115(1):34–44.

Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS, Koepsell TD, Weiss NS, Heckbert SR, et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 1997;277(9):739–45.

Ruilope LM, Suarez C. How should we treat hypertensive women with cardiac and renal impairment? Am J Hypertens 1997;10(10 Pt 2):242S–246S.

Shibata MC, Flather MD, Wang D. Systematic review of the impact of beta blockers on mortality and hospital admissions in heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2001;3(3):351–7.

Shinton RA, Beevers DG. A meta-analysis of mortality and coronary prevention in hypertensive patients treated with beta-receptor blockers. J Hum Hypertens 1990;4(Suppl 2):31–4.

Soriano JB, Hoes AW, Meems L, Grobbee DE. Increased survival with beta-blockers: importance of ancillary properties. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1997;39(5):445–56.

van Campen LC, Visser FC, Visser CA. Ejection fraction improvement by beta-blocker treatment in patients with heart failure: an analysis of studies published in the literature. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;32(Suppl 1):S31–5

Wikstrand J, Berglund G, Tuomilehto J. Beta-blockade in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease in hypertensive patients. Review of present evidence. Circulation 1991;84(6 Suppl):VI93–100.

Yusuf S, Anand S, Avezum A, Jr., Flather M, Coutinho M. Treatment for acute myocardial infarction. Overview of randomized clinical trials. Eur Heart J 1996;17(Suppl F):16–29.

Yusuf S. Interventions that potentially limit myocardial infarct size: overview of clinical trials. Am J Cardiol 1987;60(2):11A–17A.

Zarembski DG, Nolan PE, Jr., Slack MK, Lui CY. Meta-analysis of the use of low-dose beta-adrenergic blocking therapy in idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 1996;77(14):1247–50.

2.03 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

GISSI-3: effects of lisinopril and transdermal glyceryl trinitrate singly and together on 6-week mortality and ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'infarto Miocardico. Lancet 1994;343(8906):1115–22.

Indications for ACE inhibitors in the early treatment of acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview of individual data from 100,000 patients in randomized trials. ACE Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. Circulation 1998;97(22):2202–12

ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1995;345(8951):669–85.

Six-month effects of early treatment with lisinopril and transdermal glyceryl trinitrate singly and together withdrawn six weeks after acute myocardial infarction: the GISSI-3 trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(2):337–44.

Aronow WS. Management of older persons after myocardial infarction. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46(11):1459–68.

Beckwith C, Munger MA. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on ventricular remodeling and survival following myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27(6):755–66.

Chiamvimonvat V, Sternberg L. Coronary artery disease in women. Can Fam Physician 1998;44:2709–17.

Dagenais GR, Yusuf S, Bourassa MG, Yi Q, Bosch J, Lonn EM, et al. Effects of ramipril on coronary events in high-risk persons: results of the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study. Circulation 2001;104(5):522–6.

Davie AP. ACE inhibitors after myocardial infarction. Clinical and economic considerations. Pharmacoeconomics 2000;17(3):237–43.

Domanski MJ, Exner DV, Borkowf CB, Geller NL, Rosenberg Y, Pfeffer MA. Effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on sudden cardiac death in patients following acute myocardial infarction. A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33(3):598–604.

Flather MD, Yusuf S, Kober L, Pfeffer M, Hall A, Murray G, et al. Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview of data from individual patients. ACE-Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. Lancet 2000;355(9215):1575–81.

Furberg CD, Pitt B. Are all angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors interchangeable? J Am Coll Cardiol 2001;37(5):1456–60.

Garg R, Yusuf S. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials. JAMA 1995;273(18):1450–6.

Hennekens CH, Albert CM, Godfried SL, Gaziano JM, Buring JE. Adjunctive drug therapy of acute myocardial infarction--evidence from clinical trials. N Engl J Med 1996;335(22):1660–7.

Huckell VF, Bernstein V, Cairns JA, Crowell R, Dagenais GR, Higginson LA, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in myocardial infarction--Part 1: Clinical data. Can J Cardiol 1997;13(2):161–9.

Latini R, Maggioni AP, Flather M, Sleight P, Tognoni G. ACE inhibitor use in patients with myocardial infarction. Summary of evidence from clinical trials. Circulation 1995;92(10):3132–7.

Latini R, Tognoni G, Maggioni AP, Baigent C, Braunwald E, Chen ZM, et al. Clinical effects of early angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment for acute myocardial infarction are similar in the presence and absence of aspirin: systematic overview of individual data from 96,712 randomized patients. Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35(7):1801–7.

Lonn EM, Yusuf S. Evidence based cardiology: emerging approaches in preventing cardiovascular disease. BMJ 1999;318(7194):1337–41.

Lonn E, Roccafort R, Yi Q, Dagenais G, Sleight P, et al. Effect of long-term therapy with ramipril in high-risk women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40:6930702.

Mehta RH, Bossone E, Eagle KA. Current concepts in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction. Herz 2000;25(1):47–60.

Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Lancet 2000;356(9246):1955–64.

Nelson KM, Yeager BF. What is the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in congestive heart failure and after myocardial infarction? Ann Pharmacother 1996;30(9):986–93.

Pahor M, Psaty BM, Alderman MH, Applegate WB, Williamson JD, Cavazzini C, et al. Health outcomes associated with calcium antagonists compared with other first-line antihypertensive therapies: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2000;356(9246):1949–54.

Pahor M, Psaty BM, Alderman MH, Applegate WB, Williamson JD, Furberg CD. Therapeutic benefits of ACE inhibitors and other antihypertensive drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23(7):888–92.

Popma JJ, Topol EJ. Adjuncts to thrombolysis for myocardial reperfusion. Ann Intern Med 1991;115(1):34–44.

Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS, Koepsell TD, Weiss NS, Heckbert SR, et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 1997;277(9):739–45.

Rochon PA, Clark JP, Binns MA, Patel V, Gurwitz JH. Reporting of gender-related information in clinical trials of drug therapy for myocardial infarction. Cmaj 1998;159(4):321–7.

Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, Bosch J, Davies R, Dagenais G. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342(3):145–53.

2.04 Calcium channel blockers

Aronow WS. Management of older persons after myocardial infarction. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46(11):1459–68.

Dargie HJ, Ford I, Fox KM. Total Ischaemic Burden European Trial (TIBET). Effects of ischaemia and treatment with atenolol, nifedipine SR and their combination on outcome in patients with chronic stable angina. The TIBET Study Group. Eur Heart J 1996;17(1):104–12.

Fodor JG, Boulet AP, Savard D, Nadeau C, Rakusan K, Chockalingam A, et al. The role of diltiazem in treating hypertension and coronary artery disease: new approaches to preventing first events. Can J Cardiol 1997;13(5):495–503.

Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV. Nifedipine. Dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation 1995;92(5):1326–31.

Furberg CD, Psaty BM. Corrections to the nifedipine meta-analysis. Circulation 1996;93(7):1475–6.

Gibson RS, Boden WE. Calcium channel antagonists: friend or foe in postinfarction patients? Am J Hypertens 1996;9(12 Pt 2):172S–176S.

Hansen JF. Review of postinfarct treatment with verapamil: combined experience of early and late intervention studies with verapamil in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1994;8(Suppl 3):543–7.

Hansen JF. Treatment with verapamil during and after an acute myocardial infarction: a review based on the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trials I and II. The Danish Study Group on Verapamil in Myocardial Infarction. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1991;18 Suppl 6:S20–5.

Heidenreich PA, McDonald KM, Hastie T, Fadel B, Hagan V, Lee BK, et al. Meta-analysis of trials comparing beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates for stable angina. JAMA 1999;281(20):1927–36.

Held PH, Yusuf S, Furberg CD. Calcium channel blockers in acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina: an overview. BMJ 1989;299(6709):1187–92.

Hennekens CH, Albert CM, Godfried SL, Gaziano JM, Buring JE. Adjunctive drug therapy of acute myocardial infarction--evidence from clinical trials. N Engl J Med 1996;335(22):1660–7.

Lubsen J. The calcium channel antagonist debate: recent developments. Eur Heart J 1998;19(Suppl I):I3–7.

Mehta RH, Bossone E, Eagle KA. Current concepts in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction. Herz 2000;25(1):47–60.

Messeri P, Workman S, Saunders C, Francis C. The application of meta-analysis in assessing racial differences in the effects of antihypertensive medication. J Natl Med Assoc 1997;89(7):477–85.

Messerli FH. Case-control study, meta-analysis, and bouillabaisse: putting the calcium antagonist scare into context. Ann Intern Med 1995;123(11):888–9.

Michels KB, Rosner BA, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Walker AM, Willett WC, et al. Prospective study of calcium channel blocker use, cardiovascular disease, and total mortality among hypertensive women: the Nurses' Health Study. Circulation 1998;97(16):1540–8.

Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Lancet 2000;356(9246):1955–64.

Opie LH, Yusuf S, Kubler W. Current status of safety and efficacy of calcium channel blockers in cardiovascular diseases: a critical analysis based on 100 studies. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2000;43(2):171–96.

Pahor M, Psaty BM, Alderman MH, Applegate WB, Williamson JD, Cavazzini C, et al. Health outcomes associated with calcium antagonists compared with other first-line antihypertensive therapies: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2000;356(9246):1949–54.

Pepine CJ, Faich G, Makuch R. Verapamil use in patients with cardiovascular disease: an overview of randomized trials. Clin Cardiol 1998;21(9):633–41.

Popma JJ, Topol EJ. Adjuncts to thrombolysis for myocardial reperfusion. Ann Intern Med 1991;115(1):34–44.

Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS, Koepsell TD, Weiss NS, Heckbert SR, et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 1997;277(9):739–45.

Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L, Celis H, Arabidze GG, Birkenhager WH, et al. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Lancet 1997;350(9080):757–64.

Stason W, Schmid CH, Caubet JF, Kupelnick B, Cory D, Whiting G, et al. Searching for signals: mortality and cardiovascular events in published randomized control trials of nifedipine in ischemic heart disease and hypertension. J Hypertens Suppl 1996;14(2):S5–7.

Stason WB, Schmid CH, Niedzwiecki D, Whiting GW, Caubet JF, Cory D, et al. Safety of nifedipine in angina pectoris: a meta-analysis. Hypertension 1999;33(1):24–31.

Stason WB, Schmid CH, Niedzwiecki D, Whiting GW, Caubet JF, Luo D, et al. Safety of nifedipine in patients with hypertension: a meta-analysis. Hypertension 1997;30(1 Pt 1):7–14.

Waters D. Calcium channel blockers: an evidence-based review. Can J Cardiol 1997;13(8):757–66.

Yusuf S. Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension. Time for reevaluation? Circulation 1995;92(5):1079–82.

2.05 Nitrates

GISSI-3: effects of lisinopril and transdermal glyceryl trinitrate singly and together on 6-week mortality and ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'infarto Miocardico. Lancet 1994;343(8906):1115–22.

ISIS-4: a randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58,050 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-4 (Fourth International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1995;345(8951):669–85.

Six-month effects of early treatment with lisinopril and transdermal glyceryl trinitrate singly and together withdrawn six weeks after acute myocardial infarction: the GISSI-3 trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(2):337–44.

Aronow WS. Management of older persons after myocardial infarction. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998;46(11):1459–68.

Borzak S, Ridker PM. Discordance between meta-analyses and large-scale randomized, controlled trials. Examples from the management of acute myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 1995;123(11):873–7.

Colditz GA, Halvorsen KT, Goldhaber SZ. Randomized clinical trials of transdermal nitroglycerin systems for the treatment of angina: a meta-analysis. Am Heart J 1988;116(1 Pt 1):174–80.

Heidenreich PA, McDonald KM, Hastie T, Fadel B, Hagan V, Lee BK, et al. Meta-analysis of trials comparing beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates for stable angina. JAMA 1999;281(20):1927–36.

Hennekens CH, Albert CM, Godfried SL, Gaziano JM, Buring JE. Adjunctive drug therapy of acute myocardial infarction--evidence from clinical trials. N Engl J Med 1996;335(22):1660–7.

Morris JL, Cowan JC. Nitrates in myocardial infarction: a current perspective. Can J Cardiol 1995;11(Suppl B):5B–10B.

Popma JJ, Topol EJ. Adjuncts to thrombolysis for myocardial reperfusion. Ann Intern Med 1991;115(1):34–44.

Thadani U. Oral nitrates: more than symptomatic therapy in coronary artery disease? Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1999;11(Suppl 1): 213–8.

2.06 Heparin

Direct thrombin inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes and during percutaneous coronary intervention: design of a meta-analysis based on individual patient data. Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Trialists' Collaborative Group. Am Heart J 2001;141(1):E2.

ISIS-3: a randomised comparison of streptokinase vs tissue plasminogen activator vs anistreplase and of aspirin plus heparin vs aspirin alone among 41,299 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-3 (Third International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1992;339(8796):753–70.

Antman EM, Cohen M, Radley D, McCabe C, Rush J, Premmereur J, et al. Assessment of the treatment effect of enoxaparin for unstable angina/non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. TIMI 11B-ESSENCE meta-analysis. Circulation 1999;100(15):1602–8.

Bijsterveld NR, Hettiarachchi R, Peters R, Prins MH, Levi M, Buller HR. Low-molecular weight heparins in venous and arterial thrombotic disease. Thromb Haemost 1999;82(Suppl 1):139–47.

Collins R, MacMahon S, Flather M, Baigent C, Remvig L, Mortensen S, et al. Clinical effects of anticoagulant therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview of randomised trials. BMJ 1996;313(7058):652–9.

Eikelboom JW, Anand SS, Malmberg K, Weitz JI, Ginsberg JS, Yusuf S. Unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin in acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2000;355(9219):1936–42.

Heidenreich PA, McClellan M. Trends in treatment and outcomes for acute myocardial infarction: 1975-1995. Am J Med 2001;110(3):165–74.

Kong DF, Topol EJ, Bittl JA, White HD, Theroux P, Hasselblad V, et al. Clinical outcomes of bivalirudin for ischemic heart disease. Circulation 1999;100(20):2049–53.

Mahaffey KW, Granger CB, Collins R, O'Connor CM, Ohman EM, Bleich SD, et al. Overview of randomized trials of intravenous heparin in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy. Am J Cardiol 1996;77(8):551–6.

Millard PS, Sturrock WA. Heparin and thrombolysis in acute MI. J Fam Pract 1996;43(1):20–1.

Nemergut C, Cheng JW. Use of direct thrombin inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome. Clin Ther 2000;22(8):937–48; discussion 898.

Oler A, Whooley MA, Oler J, Grady D. Adding heparin to aspirin reduces the incidence of myocardial infarction and death in patients with unstable angina. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1996;276(10):811–5.

Popma JJ, Topol EJ. Adjuncts to thrombolysis for myocardial reperfusion. Ann Intern Med 1991;115(1):34–44.

Roux S, Christeller S, Ludin E. Effects of aspirin on coronary reocclusion and recurrent ischemia after thrombolysis: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;19(3):671–7.

Spinler SA, Nawarskas JJ. Low-molecular-weight heparins for acute coronary syndromes. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32(1):103–10.

2.07 Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Drugs

Bell DM. Analysis of number needed to treat and cost of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in percutaneous coronary interventions and acute coronary syndromes. Pharmacotherapy 1999;19(9):1086–93.

Bhatt DL, Topol EJ. Current role of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes. JAMA 2000;284(12):1549–58.

Boersma E, Akkerhuis KM, Theroux P, Califf RM, Topol EJ, Simoons ML. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: early benefit during medical treatment only, with additional protection during percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 1999;100(20):2045–8.

Boersma E, Harrington RA, Moliterno DJ, White H, Theroux P, Van de Werf F, et al. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of all major randomised clinical trials. Lancet 2002;359(9302):189–98.

Braunwald E, Maseri A, Armstrong PW, Califf RM, Gibler WB, Hamm CW, et al. Rationale and clinical evidence for the use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J 1998;19(Suppl D):D22–30.

Brown DL, Fann CS, Chang CJ. Effect of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors on the individual components of composite endpoints used in clinical trials of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2000;14(3):253–8.

Brown DL, Fann CS, Chang CJ. Meta-analysis of effectiveness and safety of abciximab versus eptifibatide or tirofiban in percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol 2001;87(5):537–41.

Chew DP, Bhatt DL, Sapp S, Topol EJ. Increased Mortality With Oral Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Antagonists : A Meta-Analysis of Phase III Multicenter Randomized Trials. Circulation 2001;103(2):201–206.

Cho L, Topol EJ, Balog C, Foody JM, Booth JE, Cabot C, et al. Clinical benefit of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade with Abciximab is independent of gender: pooled analysis from EPIC, EPILOG and EPISTENT trials. Evaluation of 7E3 for the Prevention of Ischemic Complications. Evaluation in Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty to Improve Long-Term Outcome with Abciximab GP IIb/IIIa blockade. Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibitor for Stent. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(2):381–6.

Gibson CM, Moynihan JL, Al-Mousa EN, Campsey M, Gandhi R, Murphy S, et al. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition in interventional cardiology. J Thromb Thrombolysis 1999;7(3):287–302.

Hillegass WB, Newman AR, Raco DL. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor therapy in percutaneous coronary intervention and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Estimating the economic implications. Pharmacoeconomics 2001;19(1):41–55.

Kong DF, Topol EJ, Bittl JA, White HD, Theroux P, Hasselblad V, et al. Clinical outcomes of bivalirudin for ischemic heart disease. Circulation 1999;100(20):2049–53.

Lincoff AM, Califf RM, Anderson KM, Weisman HF, Aguirre FV, Kleiman NS, et al. Evidence for prevention of death and myocardial infarction with platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade by abciximab (c7E3 Fab) among patients with unstable angina undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. EPIC Investigators.Evaluation of 7E3 in Preventing Ischemic Complications. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30(1):149–56.

McGregor M, Brophy JM. Use of abciximab (c7E3 Fab, ReoPro) as an adjunct to balloon angioplasty. Can J Cardiol 1999;15(2):201–7.

Quinn MJ, Plow EF, Topol EJ. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: recognition of a two-edged sword? Circulation 2002;106(3):379–85.

Stringer KA. The evolving role of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in the management of acute coronary syndromes. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33(6):712–22.

Vorchheimer DA, Badimon JJ, Fuster V. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists in cardiovascular disease. JAMA 1999;281(15):1407–14.

2.08 Thrombolysis

Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: collaborative overview of early mortality and major morbidity results from all randomised trials of more than 1000 patients. Fibrinolytic Therapy Trialists' (FTT) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1994;343(8893):311–22.

ISIS-3: a randomised comparison of streptokinase vs tissue plasminogen activator vs anistreplase and of aspirin plus heparin vs aspirin alone among 41,299 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction. ISIS-3 (Third International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 1992;339(8796):753–70.

Randomized trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2.ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;12(6 Suppl A):3A–13A.

Basinski A, Naylor CD. Aspirin and fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: meta-analytic evidence for synergy. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44(10):1085–96.

Becker RC. Late thrombolytic therapy: mechanism of benefit and potential risk among patients treated beyond 6 hours. Coron Artery Dis 1993;4(3):293–304.

Becker RC, Terrin M, et al. Comparison of clinical outcomes for women and men after acute myocardial infarction. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Investigators. Ann Intern Med 1994;120(8): 638–45.

Bizjak ED, Mauro VF. Thrombolytic therapy: a review of its use in acute myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32(7–8):769–84.

Boersma E, Maas AC, Deckers JW, Simoons ML. Early thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction: reappraisal of the golden hour. Lancet 1996;348(9030):771–5.

Burke AP, Farb A, et al. Effect of risk factors on the mechanism of acute thrombosis and sudden coronary death in women. Circulation 1998;97(21): 2110–6.

Castillo PA, Palmer CS, Halpern MT, Hatziandreu EJ, Gersh BJ. Cost-effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother 1997;31(5):596–603.

Clyne CA. Antithrombotic therapy in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary-related death and infarction: focus on gender differences. Cardiology 1990;77(Suppl 2):99–109.

Collins R, Peto R, Parish S, Sleight P. ISIS-3 and GISSI-2: no survival advantage with tissue plasminogen activator over streptokinase, but a significant excess of strokes with tissue plasminogen activator in both trials. Am J Cardiol 1993;71(12):1127–30.

Cucherat M, Bonnefoy E, Tremeau G. Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000(2):CD001560.

Fox KA. Comparative analysis of long-term mortality after thrombolytic therapy. Am J Cardiol 1991;68(16):38E–44E.

Gurwitz JH, Col NF, Avorn J. The exclusion of the elderly and women from clinical trials in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1992;268(11):1417–22.

Held PH, Teo KK, Yusuf S. Effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator and anisoylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex on mortality in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1990;82(5):1668–74.

Hennekens CH. Thrombolytic therapy: pre- and post-GISSI-2, ISIS-3, and GUSTO-1. Clin Cardiol 1994;17(1 Suppl 1):I15–7.

Hochman JS, McCabe CH, Stone PH, Becker RC, Cannon CP, DeFeo-Fraulini T, et al. Outcome and profile of women and men presenting with acute coronary syndromes: a report from TIMI IIIB. TIMI Investigators. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30(1):141–8.

Hochman JS, Tamis JE, Thompson TD, Weaver WD, White HD, Van de Werf F, et al. Sex, clinical presentation, and outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries in Acute Coronary Syndromes IIb Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999;341(4):226–32.

Honan MB, Harrell FE, Jr., Reimer KA, Califf RM, Mark DB, Pryor DB, et al. Cardiac rupture, mortality and the timing of thrombolytic therapy: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16(2):359–67.

Kellett J, Clarke J. Comparison of “accelerated” tissue plasminogen activator with streptokinase for treatment of suspected myocardial infarction. Med Decis Making 1995;15(4):297–310.

Kong DF, Topol EJ, Bittl JA, White HD, Theroux P, Hasselblad V, et al. Clinical outcomes of bivalirudin for ischemic heart disease. Circulation 1999;100(20):2049–53.

Lau J, Antman EM, Jimenez-Silva J, Kupelnick B, Mosteller F, Chalmers TC. Cumulative meta-analysis of therapeutic trials for myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1992;327(4):248–54.

Lincoff AM, Califf RM, Ellis SG, Sigmon KN, Lee KL, Leimberger JD, et al. Thrombolytic therapy for women with myocardial infarction: is there a gender gap? Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction Study Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993;22(7):1780–7.

Manson JE, Tosteson H, Ridker PM, Satterfield S, Hebert P, O'Connor GT, et al. The primary prevention of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1992;326(21):1406–16.

Mark DB, Hlatky MA, Califf RM, Naylor CD, Lee KL, Armstrong PW, et al. Cost effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator as compared with streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1995;332(21):1418–24.

Midgette AS, O'Connor GT, Baron JA, Bell J. Effect of intravenous streptokinase on early mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. A meta-analysis by anatomic location of infarction. Ann Intern Med 1990;113(12):961–8.

Midgette AS, Wong JB, Beshansky JR, Porath A, Fleming C, Pauker SG. Cost-effectiveness of streptokinase for acute myocardial infarction: A combined meta-analysis and decision analysis of the effects of infarct location and of likelihood of infarction. Med Decis Making 1994;14(2):108–17.

Moen EK, Asher CR, Miller DP, Weaver WD, White HD, Califf RM, et al. Long-term follow-up of gender-specific outcomes after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction from the GUSTO-I trial. Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries. J Womens Health 1997;6(3):285–93.

Morrison LJ, Verbeek PR, McDonald AC, Sawadsky BV, Cook DJ. Mortality and prehospital thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis. JAMA 2000;283(20):2686–92.

Nemergut C, Cheng JW. Use of direct thrombin inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome. Clin Ther 2000;22(8):937–48; discussion 898.

Newby K. Clinical outcomes according to time to treatment. Clin Cardiol 1997;20(11 Suppl 3):III11–5.

Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, Braunwald E, Basta L, Brown EJ, Jr., Cuddy TE, et al. Selection bias in the use of thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction. The SAVE Investigators. JAMA 1991;266(4):528–32.

Ridker PM, O'Donnell C, Marder VJ, Hennekens CH. Large-scale trials of thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: GISSI-2, ISIS-3, and GUSTO-1. Ann Intern Med 1993;119(6):530–2.

Rosamond WD, Shahar E, McGovern PG, Sides TL, Luepker RV. Trends in coronary thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (the Minnesota Heart Survey Registry, 1990 to 1993). Am J Cardiol 1996;78(3):271–7.

Smith BJ. Thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: analysis of studies comparing accelerated t-PA and streptokinase. J Accid Emerg Med 1999;16(6):407–11.

Stone GW, Grines CL, Browne KF, Marco J, Rothbaum D, O'Keefe J, et al. Comparison of in-hospital outcome in men versus women treated by either thrombolytic therapy or primary coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1995;75(15):987–92.

Topol EJ. How should intravenous thrombolytic agents for acute myocardial infarction be selected? Cardiovasc Clin 1990;21(1):57–75; discussion 76–8.

Topol EJ. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction: in which patients should primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty be preferred to thrombolysis? Cardiologia 1996;41(9):843–7.

Vaitkus PT. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty versus thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis. Clin Cardiol 1995;18(1):35–8.

Van de Werf F. Implications of the GUSTO trial for thrombolytic therapy. Drugs 1996;52(3):307–12.

Weaver WD, Simes RJ, Betriu A, Grines CL, Zijlstra F, Garcia E, et al. Comparison of primary coronary angioplasty and intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review. JAMA 1997;278(23):2093–8.

Weaver WD, White HD, Wilcox RG, Aylward PE, Morris D, Guerci A, et al. Comparisons of characteristics and outcomes among women and men with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy. GUSTO-I investigators. JAMA 1996;275(10):777–82.

Woodfield SL, Lundergan CF, Reiner JS, Thompson MA, Rohrbeck SC, Deychak Y, et al. Gender and acute myocardial infarction: is there a different response to thrombolysis? J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29(1):35–42.

Wooster MB, Luzier AB. Reteplase: a new thrombolytic for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33(3):318–24.

Yusuf S, Collins R, Peto R, Furberg C, Stampfer MJ, Goldhaber SZ, et al. Intravenous and intracoronary fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction: overview of results on mortality, reinfarction and side-effects from 33 randomized controlled trials. Eur Heart J 1985;6(7):556–85.

2.09 Ticlopidine

Boissel JP, Peyrieux JC, Destors JM. Is it possible to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in subjects suffering from intermittent claudication of the lower limbs? Thromb Haemost 1989;62(2):681–5.

Cutlip DE, Baim DS, Ho KK, Popma JJ, Lansky AJ, Cohen DJ, et al. Stent thrombosis in the modern era: a pooled analysis of multicenter coronary stent clinical trials. Circulation 2001;103(15):1967–71.

Flores-Runk P, Raasch RH. Ticlopidine and antiplatelet therapy. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27(9):1090–8.

Hankey GJ, Sudlow CL, Dunbabin DW. Thienopyridine derivatives (ticlopidine, clopidogrel) versus aspirin for preventing stroke and other serious vascular events in high vascular risk patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000(2):CD001246.

Hankey GJ, Sudlow CL, Dunbabin DW. Thienopyridines or aspirin to prevent stroke and other serious vascular events in patients at high risk of vascular disease? A systematic review of the evidence from randomized trials. Stroke 2000;31(7):1779–84.

Mathis AS. Newer antithrombotic strategies in the initial management of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34(2):208–27.

Mehta SR, Yusuf S. The Clopidogrel in Unstable angina to prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) trial programme; rationale, design and baseline characteristics including a meta-analysis of the effects of thienopyridines in vascular disease. Eur Heart J 2000;21(24):2033–41.

Tisdale JE. Antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease: review and update of efficacy studies. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1998;55(19 Suppl 1):S8–16.

Zusman RM, Chesebro JH, Comerota A, Hartmann JR, Massin EK, Raps E, et al. Antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of ischemic vascular events: literature review and evidence-based guidelines for drug selection. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(9):559–73.

2.10 Clopidogrel

A randomised, blinded, trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events (CAPRIE). CAPRIE Steering Committee. Lancet 1996;348(9038):1329–39.

Dippel DW. The results of CAPRIE, IST and CAST. Clopidogrel vs. Aspirin in Patients at Risk of Ischaemic Events. International Stroke Trial. Chinese Acute Stroke Trial. Thromb Res 1998;92(1 Suppl 1):S13–6.

Hankey GJ, Sudlow CL, Dunbabin DW. Thienopyridine derivatives (ticlopidine, clopidogrel) versus aspirin for preventing stroke and other serious vascular events in high vascular risk patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000(2):CD001246.

Hankey GJ, Sudlow CL, Dunbabin DW. Thienopyridines or aspirin to prevent stroke and other serious vascular events in patients at high risk of vascular disease? A systematic review of the evidence from randomized trials. Stroke 2000;31(7):1779–84.

Harker LA, Boissel JP, Pilgrim AJ, Gent M. Comparative safety and tolerability of clopidogrel and aspirin: results from CAPRIE. CAPRIE Steering Committee and Investigators. Clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischaemic events. Drug Saf 1999;21(4):325–35.

Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJ, Bertrand ME, Lewis BS, Natarajan MK, et al. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Lancet 2001;358(9281):527–33.

Yusuf S, Zhao F, Mehta SR, Chrolavicius S, Tognoni G, Fox KK. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med 2001;345(7):494–502.

Zusman RM, Chesebro JH, Comerota A, Hartmann JR, Massin EK, Raps E, et al. Antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of ischemic vascular events: literature review and evidence-based guidelines for drug selection. Clin Cardiol 1999;22(9):559–73.

2.11 Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stenting

Coronary angioplasty versus medical therapy for angina: the second Randomised Intervention Treatment of Angina (RITA-2) trial. RITA-2 trial participants. Lancet 1997;350(9076):461–8.

First-year results of CABRI (Coronary Angioplasty versus Bypass Revascularisation Investigation). CABRI Trial Participants. Lancet 1995;346(8984):1179–84.

Al Suwaidi J, Berger PB, et al. Coronary artery stents. JAMA 2000;284(14): 1828–36.

Batchelor WB, Anstrom KJ, et al. Contemporary outcome trends in the elderly undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions: results in 7,472 octogenarians. National Cardiovascular Network Collaboration. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(3): 723–30.

Bates DW, Miller E, et al. Coronary angiography and angioplasty after acute myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(7): 539–50.

Bell MR, Grill DE, Garratt KN, Berger PB, Gersh BJ, Holmes DR, Jr. Long-term outcome of women compared with men after successful coronary angioplasty. Circulation 1995;91(12):2876–81.

Bell MR, Holmes DR, Jr., Berger PB, Garratt KN, Bailey KR, Gersh BJ. The changing in-hospital mortality of women undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. JAMA 1993;269(16):2091–5.

Boersma E, Akkerhuis KM, Theroux P, Califf RM, Topol EJ, Simoons ML. Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: early benefit during medical treatment only, with additional protection during percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 1999;100(20):2045–8.

Bucher HC, Hengstler P, et al. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty versus medical treatment for non-acute coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2000;321(7253): 73–7.

Cantor WJ, Peterson ED, et al. Provisional stenting strategies: systematic overview and implications for clinical decision-making. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(4): 1142–51.

Cho L, Bhatt DL, Wolski K, Lincoff M, Topol EJ, Moliterno DJ. Effect of smoking status and abciximab use on outcome after percutaneous coronary revascularization: Pooled analysis from EPIC, EPILOG, and EPISTENT. Am Heart J 2001;141(4):599–602.

Cho L, Topol EJ, Balog C, Foody JM, Booth JE, Cabot C, et al. Clinical benefit of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade with Abciximab is independent of gender: pooled analysis from EPIC, EPILOG and EPISTENT trials. Evaluation of 7E3 for the Prevention of Ischemic Complications. Evaluation in Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty to Improve Long-Term Outcome with Abciximab GP IIb/IIIa blockade. Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibitor for Stent. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(2):381–6.

Cucherat M, Bonnefoy E, Tremeau G. Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000(2):CD001560.

Cutlip DE, Baim DS, Ho KK, Popma JJ, Lansky AJ, Cohen DJ, et al. Stent thrombosis in the modern era: a pooled analysis of multicenter coronary stent clinical trials. Circulation 2001;103(15):1967–71.

de Feyter PJ, Keane D, Deckers JW, de Jaegere P. Medium- and long-term outcome after coronary balloon angioplasty. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1994;36(5):385–96.

de Jaegere PP, Eefting FD, Popma JJ, Serruys PW. Clinical trials on intracoronary stenting. Semin Interv Cardiol 1996;1(4):233–45.

Degeare VS, Dangas G, Stone GW, Grines CL. Interventional procedures in acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 2001;141(1):15–24.

DeGeare VS, Stone GW, Grines L, Brodie BR, Cox DA, Garcia E, et al. Angiographic and clinical characteristics associated with increased in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous intervention (a pooled analysis of the primary angioplasty in myocardial infarction trials). Am J Cardiol 2000;86(1):30–4.

Eckman MH, Wong JB, Salem DN, Pauker SG. Direct angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. A review of outcomes in clinical subsets. Ann Intern Med 1992;117(8):667–76.

Ellis SG, Da Silva ER, Spaulding CM, Nobuyoshi M, Weiner B, Talley JD. Review of immediate angioplasty after fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: insights from the RESCUE I, RESCUE II, and other contemporary clinical experiences. Am Heart J 2000;139(6):1046–53.

Ellis SG, Roubin GS, King SB, 3rd, Douglas JS, Jr., Shaw RE, Stertzer SH, et al. In-hospital cardiac mortality after acute closure after coronary angioplasty: analysis of risk factors from 8,207 procedures. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;11(2):211–6.

Eysmann SB, Douglas PS. Reperfusion and revascularization strategies for coronary artery disease in women. JAMA 1992;268(14):1903–7.

French JK, Webster MW, Neutze JM, White HD. Evidence-based assessment of the benefit of revascularisation in coronary disease: beyond the randomised trials. Aust N Z J Med 1996;26(4):490–4.

Gunnell D, Harvey I, Smith L. The invasive management of angina: issues for consumers and commissioners. J Epidemiol Community Health 1995;49(4):335–43.

Heidenreich PA, McClellan M. Trends in treatment and outcomes for acute myocardial infarction: 1975–1995. Am J Med 2001;110(3):165–74.

Hillegass WB, Newman AR, Raco DL. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor therapy in percutaneous coronary intervention and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Estimating the economic implications. Pharmacoeconomics 2001;19(1):41–55.

Holmes DR, Jr., Holubkov R, Vlietstra RE, Kelsey SF, Reeder GS, Dorros G, et al. Comparison of complications during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty from 1977 to 1981 and from 1985 to 1986: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Registry. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;12(5):1149–55.

Hughes GC, Annex BH, Yin B, Pippen AM, Lin P, Kypson AP, et al. Transmyocardial laser revascularization limits in vivo adenoviral-mediated gene transfer in porcine myocardium. Cardiovasc Res 1999;44(1):81–90.

Jacobs AK, Kelsey SF, Yeh W, Holmes DR, Jr., Block PC, Cowley MJ, et al. Documentation of decline in morbidity in women undergoing coronary angioplasty (a report from the 1993–94 NHLBI Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Registry). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Am J Cardiol 1997;80(8):979–84.

Keenan CR, Chou TM. Revascularization in coronary artery disease. A review of randomized trial data. West J Med 1998;168(4):280–5.

Kelsey SF, James M, Holubkov AL, Holubkov R, Cowley MJ, Detre KM. Results of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in women. 1985–1986 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Coronary Angioplasty Registry. Circulation 1993;87(3):720–7.

Kilaru PK, Kelly RF, Calvin JE, Parrillo JE. Utilization of coronary angiography and revascularization after acute myocardial infarction in men and women risk stratified by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35(4):974–9.

Lieu TA, Gurley RJ, Lundstrom RJ, Parmley WW. Primary angioplasty and thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction: an evidence summary. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(3):737–50.

Maggioni AP, Sessa F, Latini R, Tognoni G. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction today. Am Heart J 1997;134(2 Pt 2):S9–14.

Malenka DJ, O'Rourke D, Miller MA, Hearne MJ, Shubrooks S, Kellett MA, Jr., et al. Cause of in-hospital death in 12,232 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group. Am Heart J 1999;137(4 Pt 1):632–8.

Mark DB, Nelson CL, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Jr., Lee KL, Jones RH, et al. Continuing evolution of therapy for coronary artery disease. Initial results from the era of coronary angioplasty. Circulation 1994;89(5):2015–25.

McGregor M, Brophy JM. Use of abciximab (c7E3 Fab, ReoPro) as an adjunct to balloon angioplasty. Can J Cardiol 1999;15(2):201–7.

McLeod AL, Northridge DB, Uren NG. Ultrasound guided stenting. Heart 2001;85(6):605–6.

Mehilli J, Kastrati A, Dirschinger J, Bollwein H, Neumann FJ, Schomig A. Differences in prognostic factors and outcomes between women and men undergoing coronary artery stenting. JAMA 2000;284(14):1799–805.

Mehta RH, Bates ER. Coronary stent implantation in acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1999;137(4 Pt 1):603–11.

Michels KB, Yusuf S. Does PTCA in acute myocardial infarction affect mortality and reinfarction rates? A quantitative overview (meta-analysis) of the randomized clinical trials. Circulation 1995;91(2):476–85.

Peterson ED, Lansky AJ, Anstrom KJ, Muhlbaier LH, Popma JJ, Satler LF, et al. Evolving trends in interventional device use and outcomes: results from the National Cardiovascular Network Database. Am Heart J 2000;139(2 Pt 1):198–207.

Pocock SJ, Henderson RA, Rickards AF, Hampton JR, King SB, 3rd, Hamm CW, et al. Meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing coronary angioplasty with bypass surgery. Lancet 1995;346(8984):1184–9.

Popma JJ, Chuang YC, Satler LF, Kleiber B, Leon MB. Primary coronary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Tex Heart Inst J 1994;21(2):148–57.

Rihal CS, Yusuf S. Chronic coronary artery disease: drugs, angioplasty, or surgery? BMJ 1996;312(7026):265–6.

Ryan TJ, Ryan TJ, Jr., Jacobs AK. Primary PTCA versus thrombolytic therapy: an evidence-based summary. Am Heart J 1999;138(2 Pt 2):S96–104.

Scott IA, Harden H, Coory M. What are appropriate rates of invasive procedures following acute myocardial infarction? A systematic review. Med J Aust 2001;174(3):130–6.

Serruys PW, Unger F, Sousa JE, Jatene A, Bonnier HJ, Schonberger JP, et al. Comparison of coronary-artery bypass surgery and stenting for the treatment of multivessel disease. N Engl J Med 2001;344(15):1117–24.

Shaw LJ, Miller DD, Romeis JC, Kargl D, Younis LT, Chaitman BR. Gender differences in the noninvasive evaluation and management of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 1994;120(7):559–66.

Sim I, Gupta M, McDonald K, Bourassa MG, Hlatky MA. A meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing coronary artery bypass grafting with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in multivessel coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1995;76(14):1025–9.

Solomon AJ, Gersh BJ. Management of chronic stable angina: medical therapy, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Lessons from the randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 1998;128(3):216–23.

Stone GW, Grines CL, Browne KF, Marco J, Rothbaum D, O'Keefe J, et al. Comparison of in-hospital outcome in men versus women treated by either thrombolytic therapy or primary coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1995;75(15):987–92.

Taggart DP. Angioplasty versus bypass surgery. Lancet 1996;347(8996):271–2; discussion 272–3.

Topol EJ, Holmes DR, Rogers WJ. Coronary angiography after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 1991;114(10):877–85.

Topol EJ. Coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med 1988;109(12):970–80.

Topol EJ. Treatment of acute myocardial infarction: in which patients should primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty be preferred to thrombolysis? Cardiologia 1996;41(9):843–7.

Vaitkus PT. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty versus thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a meta-analysis. Clin Cardiol 1995;18(1):35–8.

Weaver WD, Simes RJ, Betriu A, Grines CL, Zijlstra F, Garcia E, et al. Comparison of primary coronary angioplasty and intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review. JAMA 1997;278(23):2093–8.

Weber MM. Surgical management of unstable angina and symptomatic coronary artery disease. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2000;15(1):27–42.

Weintraub WS, Wenger NK, Kosinski AS, Douglas JS, Jr., Liberman HA, Morris DC, et al. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in women compared with men. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24(1):81–90.

Welty FK, Mittleman MA, Healy RW, Muller JE, Shubrooks SJ, Jr. Similar results of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for women and men with postmyocardial infarction ischemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;23(1):35–9.

Wong JB, Sonnenberg FA, Salem DN, Pauker SG. Myocardial revascularization for chronic stable angina. Analysis of the role of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty based on data available in 1989. Ann Intern Med 1990;113(11):852–71.

Yusuf S, Pogue J. Primary angioplasty compared with thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1997;278(23):2110–1.

Zahn R, Schiele R, Schneider S, Gitt AK, Wienbergen H, Seidl K, et al. Decreasing hospital mortality between 1994 and 1998 in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with primary angioplasty but not in patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Results from the pooled data of the Maximal Individual Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction (MITRA) Registry and the Myocardial Infarction Registry (MIR). J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(7):2064–71.

2.12 Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)

First-year results of CABRI (Coronary Angioplasty versus Bypass Revascularisation Investigation). CABRI Trial Participants. Lancet 1995;346(8984):1179–84.

Califf RM, Harrell FE, Jr., Lee KL, Rankin JS, Hlatky MA, Mark DB, et al. The evolution of medical and surgical therapy for coronary artery disease. A 15-year perspective. JAMA 1989;261(14):2077–86.

Davis KB, Chaitman B, Ryan T, Bittner V, Kennedy JW. Comparison of 15-year survival for men and women after initial medical or surgical treatment for coronary artery disease: a CASS registry study. Coronary Artery Surgery Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;25(5):1000–9.

Gunnell D, Harvey I, Smith L. The invasive management of angina: issues for consumers and commissioners. J Epidemiol Community Health 1995;49(4):335–43.

Hughes GC, Annex BH, Yin B, Pippen AM, Lin P, Kypson AP, et al. Transmyocardial laser revascularization limits in vivo adenoviral-mediated gene transfer in porcine myocardium. Cardiovasc Res 1999;44(1):81–90.

Jacobs AK, Kelsey SF, Brooks MM, Faxon DP, Chaitman BR, Bittner V, et al. Better outcome for women compared with men undergoing coronary revascularization: a report from the bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation (BARI). Circulation 1998;98(13):1279–85.

Jones RH, Hannan EL, Hammermeister KE, Delong ER, O'Connor GT, Luepker RV, et al. Identification of preoperative variables needed for risk adjustment of short-term mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The Working Group Panel on the Cooperative CABG Database Project. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28(6):1478–87.

Jones RH, Kesler K, Phillips HR, 3rd, Mark DB, Smith PK, Nelson CL, et al. Long-term survival benefits of coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in patients with coronary artery disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996;111(5):1013–25.

Kilaru PK, Kelly RF, Calvin JE, Parrillo JE. Utilization of coronary angiography and revascularization after acute myocardial infarction in men and women risk stratified by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35(4):974–9.

Lewsey JD, Murray GD, Leyland AH, Boddy FA. Comparing outcomes of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with coronary artery bypass grafting; can routine health service data complement and enhance randomized controlled trials? Eur Heart J 1999;20(23):1731–5.

Mark DB, Nelson CL, Califf RM, Harrell FE, Jr., Lee KL, Jones RH, et al. Continuing evolution of therapy for coronary artery disease. Initial results from the era of coronary angioplasty. Circulation 1994;89(5):2015–25.

O'Connor GT, Morton JR, Diehl MJ, Olmstead EM, Coffin LH, Levy DG, et al. Differences between men and women in hospital mortality associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group. Circulation 1993;88(5 Pt 1):2104–10.

Peterson ED, Lansky AJ, Anstrom KJ, Muhlbaier LH, Popma JJ, Satler LF, et al. Evolving trends in interventional device use and outcomes: results from the National Cardiovascular Network Database. Am Heart J 2000;139(2 Pt 1):198–207.

Pocock SJ, Henderson RA, Rickards AF, Hampton JR, King SB, 3rd, Hamm CW, et al. Meta-analysis of randomised trials comparing coronary angioplasty with bypass surgery. Lancet 1995;346(8984):1184–9.

Serruys PW, Unger F, Sousa JE, Jatene A, Bonnier HJ, Schonberger JP, et al. Comparison of coronary-artery bypass surgery and stenting for the treatment of multivessel disease. N Engl J Med 2001;344(15):1117–24.

Shapira I, Fisman EZ, Drory Y, Pines A. Acute myocardial infarction in patients who have had coronary artery bypass surgery. South Med J 1997;90(11):1129–32.

Sim I, Gupta M, McDonald K, Bourassa MG, Hlatky MA. A meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing coronary artery bypass grafting with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in multivessel coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1995;76(14):1025–9.

Solomon AJ, Gersh BJ. Management of chronic stable angina: medical therapy, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Lessons from the randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 1998;128(3):216–23.

Yusuf S, Zucker D, Peduzzi P, Fisher LD, Takaro T, Kennedy JW, et al. Effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery on survival: overview of 10-year results from randomised trials by the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Trialists Collaboration. Lancet 1994;344(8922):563–70.

3.01 Hypertension

Collaborative overview (‘meta-analysis’) of prospective observational studies of the associations of usual blood pressure and usual cholesterol levels with common causes of death: protocol for the second cycle of the Prospective Studies Collaboration. J Cardiovasc Risk 1999;6(5):315–20.

Persistence of reduction in blood pressure and mortality of participants in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program Cooperative Group. Jama 1988;259(14):2113–22.

Protocol for prospective collaborative overviews of major randomized trials of blood-pressure-lowering treatments. World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. J Hypertens 1998;16(2):127–37.

Alderman MH, Ooi WL, Madhavan S, Cohen H. Treatment-induced blood pressure reduction and the risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA 1989;262(7):920–4.

Celis H, Fagard R, Staessen J, Thijs L, Amery A. The older hypertensive. Assessment and treatment. Neth J Med 1993;43(Suppl 1):S66–77.

Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S, Beevers G, Faire U, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359(9311):995–1003.

Ebrahim S, Smith GD. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of multiple risk factor interventions for preventing coronary heart disease. BMJ 1997;314(7095):1666–74.

Fiebach NH, Hebert PR, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rosner B, et al. A prospective study of high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in women. Am J Epidemiol 1989;130(4):646–54.

Gueyffier F, Boissel JP, Pocock S, Boutitie F, Coope J, Cutler J, et al. Identification of risk factors in hypertensive patients: contribution of randomized controlled trials through an individual patient database. Circulation 1999;100(18):e88–94.

Gueyffier F, Boutitie F, Boissel JP, Pocock S, Coope J, Cutler J, et al. Effect of antihypertensive drug treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in women and men. A meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized, controlled trials. The INDANA Investigators. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(10):761–7.

Gueyffier F, Froment A, Gouton M. New meta-analysis of treatment trials of hypertension: improving the estimate of therapeutic benefit. J Hum Hypertens 1996;10(1):1–8.

He J, Whelton PK. Elevated systolic blood pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. J Hypertens Suppl 1999;17(2):S7–13.

Hoes AW, Grobbee DE, Lubsen J. Does drug treatment improve survival? Reconciling the trials in mild-to-moderate hypertension. J Hypertens 1995;13(7):805–11.

Holme I, Ekelund LG, Hjermann I, Leren P. Quality-adjusted meta-analysis of the hypertension/coronary dilemma. Am J Hypertens 1994;7(8):703–12.

Insua JT, Sacks HS, Lau TS, Lau J, Reitman D, Pagano D, et al. Drug treatment of hypertension in the elderly: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1994;121(5):355–62.

Kannel WB. Blood pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor: prevention and treatment. JAMA 1996;275(20):1571–6.

Keil U. Coronary artery disease: the role of lipids, hypertension and smoking. Basic Res Cardiol 2000;95(Suppl 1):I52–8.

Kloner RA, Vetrovec GW, Materson BJ, Levenstein M. Safety of long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in hypertensive patients. Am J Cardiol 1998;81(2):163–9.

Lewington S, MacMahon S. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and common causes of death: a review. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Am J Hypertens 1999;12(10 Pt 2):96S–98S.

Moulds RF. Measurement of cost-effectiveness of drug therapy: a review of the treatment of hypertension. Med J Aust 1990;153(Suppl):S4–6.

Neal B, MacMahon S, Chapman N. Effects of ACE inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Lancet 2000;356(9246):1955–64.

Neal B, MacMahon S. An overview of 37 randomised trials of blood pressure lowering agents among 270,000 individuals. World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Clin Exp Hypertens 1999;21(5–6):517–29.

Nielsen WB, Vestbo J, Jensen GB. Isolated systolic hypertension as a major risk factor for stroke and myocardial infarction and an unexploited source of cardiovascular prevention: a prospective population-based study. J Hum Hypertens 1995;9:175–80.

Pahor M, Psaty BM, Alderman MH, Applegate WB, Williamson JD, Cavazzini C, et al. Health outcomes associated with calcium antagonists compared with other first-line antihypertensive therapies: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2000;356(9246):1949–54.

Pearce KA, Furberg CD, Rushing J. Does antihypertensive treatment of the elderly prevent cardiovascular events or prolong life? A meta-analysis of hypertension treatment trials. Arch Fam Med 1995;4(11):943–9; discussion 950.

Perlman JA, Wolf PH, Ray R, Lieberknecht G. Cardiovascular risk factors, premature heart disease, and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Northern California women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;158:1568–74.

Port S, Demer L, Jennrich R, Walter D, Garfinkel A. Systolic blood pressure and mortality. Lancet 2000;355(9199):175–80.

Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS, Koepsell TD, Weiss NS, Heckbert SR, et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 1997;277(9):739–45.

Quan A, Kerlikowske K, Gueyffier F, Boissel JP. Efficacy of treating hypertension in women. J Gen Intern Med 1999;14(12):718–29.

Quan A, Kerlikowske K, Gueyffier F, Boissel JP. Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in women of different races. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000(3):CD002146.

Sacks HS, Chalmers TC, Berk AA, Reitman D. Should mild hypertension be treated? An attempted meta-analysis of the clinical trials. Mt Sinai J Med 1985;52(4):265–70.

Shea S, Cook EF, Kannel WB, Goldman L. Treatment of hypertension and its effect on cardiovascular risk factors: data from the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1985;71(1):22–30.

Shinton RA, Beevers DG. A meta-analysis of mortality and coronary prevention in hypertensive patients treated with beta-receptor blockers. J Hum Hypertens 1990;4(Suppl 2):31–4.

Staessen JA, Gasowski J, Wang JG, Thijs L, Den Hond E, Boissel JP, et al. Risks of untreated and treated isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: meta-analysis of outcome trials. Lancet 2000;355(9207):865–72.

Stokes J, 3rd, Kannel WB, Wolf PA, D'Agostino RB, Cupples LA. Blood pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The Framingham Study--30 years of follow-up. Hypertension 1989;13(5 Suppl):I13–8.

Thijs L, Fagard R, Lijnen P, Staessen J, Van Hoof R, Amery A. A meta-analysis of outcome trials in elderly hypertensives. J Hypertens 1992;10(10):1103–9.

Wang J, Staessen JA, Gong L, Liu L. Chinese trial on isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. The Systolic Hypertension in China (Syst-China) Collaborative Group. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:211–220.

3.02 Diabetes

Abbott RD, Donahue RP, Kannel WB, Wilson PW. The impact of diabetes on survival following myocardial infarction in men vs women. The Framingham Study. JAMA 1988;260(23):3456–60.

Brand FN, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Diabetes, intermittent claudication, and risk of cardiovascular events. The Framingham Study. Diabetes 1989;38(4):504–9.

Coutinho M, Gerstein HC, et al. The relationship between glucose and incident cardiovascular events. A metaregression analysis of published data from 20 studies of 95,783 individuals followed for 12.4 years [see comments]. Diabetes Care 1999 Feb;22(2):233–40.

Donahue RP, Goldberg RJ, Chen Z, Gore JM, Alpert JS. The influence of sex and diabetes mellitus on survival following acute myocardial infarction: a community-wide perspective. J Clin Epidemiol 1993;46(3):245–52.

Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, McGovern PG, Tsai MY, Malinow MR, Eckfeldt JH, et al. Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 1998;98(3):204–10.

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Solomon CG, Liu S, Willett WC, Speizer FE, et al. The impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality from all causes and coronary heart disease in women: 20 years of follow-up. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(14):1717–23.

Kannel WB, D'Agostino RB, Wilson PW, Belanger AJ, Gagnon DR. Diabetes, fibrinogen, and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham experience. Am Heart J 1990;120(3):672–6.

Lee WL, Cheung AM, Cape D, Zinman B. Impact of diabetes on coronary artery disease in women and men: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care 2000;23(7):962–8.

Malmberg K, Yusuf S, Gerstein HC, Brown J, Zhao F, Hunt D, et al. Impact of diabetes on long-term prognosis in patients with unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: results of the OASIS (Organization to Assess Strategies for Ischemic Syndromes) Registry. Circulation 2000;102(9):1014–9.

Manson JE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Krolewski AS, Rosner B, et al. A prospective study of maturity-onset diabetes mellitus and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Arch Intern Med 1991;151(6):1141–7.

Orchard TJ. The impact of gender and general risk factors on the occurrence of atherosclerotic vascular disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Med 1996;28(4):323–33.

Vaccarino V, Parsons L, et al. Impact of history of diabetes mellitus on hospital mortality in men and women with first acute myocardial infarction. The National Registry of Myocardial Infraction 2 Participants. Am J Cardiol 2000;85(12): 1486–9; A

Yudkin JS, Chaturvedi N. Developing risk stratification charts for diabetic and nondiabetic subjects [see comments]. Diabetic Medicine 1999;16(3): 219–27.

3.03a Hyperlipidemia as a risk factor for CHD in women

Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. N Engl J Med 1998;339(19):1349–57.

Abbott RD, Wilson PW, Kannel WB, Castelli WP. High density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol screening, and myocardial infarction. The Framingham Study. Arteriosclerosis 1988;8(3):207–11.

Anderson KM, Castelli WP, Levy D. Cholesterol and mortality. 30 years of follow-up from the Framingham study. JAMA 1987;257(16):2176–80.

Austin MA, Hokanson JE, Edwards KL. Hypertriglyceridemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol 1998;81(4A):7B–12B.

Austin MA. Epidemiology of hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 1999;83(9B):13F–16F.

Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Can J Cardiol 1998;14(Suppl B):14B–17B.

Barratt A, Irwig L. Is cholesterol testing/treatment really beneficial? Med J Aust 1993;159(10):644–7.

Bucher HC, Griffith LE, Guyatt GH. Systematic review on the risk and benefit of different cholesterol-lowering interventions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19(2):187–95.

Buchwald H, Campos CT, Boen JR, Nguyen P, Williams SE, Lau J, et al. Gender-based mortality follow-up from the Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) and meta-analysis of lipid intervention trials. Women in POSCH and other lipid trials. Ann Surg 1996;224(4):486–98; discussion 498–500.

Castelli WP, Anderson K, Wilson PW, Levy D. Lipids and risk of coronary heart disease. The Framingham Study. Ann Epidemiol 1992;2(1–2):23–8.

Castelli WP, Garrison RJ, Wilson PW, Abbott RD, Kalousdian S, Kannel WB. Incidence of coronary heart disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The Framingham Study. JAMA 1986;256(20):2835–8.

Castelli WP. Cholesterol and lipids in the risk of coronary artery disease--the Framingham Heart Study. Can J Cardiol 1988;4(Suppl A):5A–10A.

Craig WY, Neveux LM, Palomaki GE, Cleveland MM, Haddow JE. Lipoprotein(a) as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease: metaanalysis of prospective studies. Clin Chem 1998;44(11):2301–6.

Cui Y, Blumenthal RS, Flaws JA, Whiteman MK, Langenberg P, Bachorik PS, et al. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level as a predictor of cardiovascular disease mortality. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(11):1413–9.

Cullen P. Evidence that triglycerides are an independent coronary heart disease risk factor. Am J Cardiol 2000;86(9):943–9.

Danesh J, Collins R, Peto R. Lipoprotein(a) and coronary heart disease. Meta-analysis of prospective studies. Circulation 2000;102(10):1082–5.

Ebrahim S, Smith GD. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of multiple risk factor interventions for preventing coronary heart disease. BMJ 1997;314(7095):1666–74.

Fager G, Wiklund O. Cholesterol reduction and clinical benefit. Are there limits to our expectations? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17(12):3527–33.

Garber AM, Browner WS, Hulley SB. Cholesterol screening in asymptomatic adults, revisited. Part 2. Ann Intern Med 1996;124(5):518–31.

Genest J, Jr., Jenner JL, McNamara JR, Ordovas JM, Silberman SR, Wilson PW, et al. Prevalence of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] excess in coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1991;67(13):1039–145.

Goldman L, Weinstein MC, Williams LW. Relative impact of targeted versus populationwide cholesterol interventions on the incidence of coronary heart disease. Projections of the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model. Circulation 1989;80(2):254–60.

Gotto AM, Jr. Heart disease in the assessment and treatment of hypercholesterolemia: coronary artery disease and other atherosclerotic disease, family history, and left ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Med 1994;96(6A):9S–18S.

Gotto AM, Jr., Grundy SM. Lowering LDL cholesterol: questions from recent meta-analyses and subset analyses of clinical trial DataIssues from the Interdisciplinary Council on Reducing the Risk for Coronary Heart Disease, ninth Council meeting. Circulation 1999;99(8):E1–7.

Gould AL, Rossouw JE, Santanello NC, Heyse JF, Furberg CD. Cholesterol reduction yields clinical benefit. A new look at old data. Circulation 1995;91(8):2274–82.

Hokanson JE, Austin MA. Plasma triglyceride level is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a meta-analysis of population-based prospective studies. J Cardiovasc Risk 1996;3(2):213–9.

Holme I. Cholesterol reduction and its impact on coronary artery disease and total mortality. Am J Cardiol 1995;76(9):10C–17C.

Holme I. Relationship between total mortality and cholesterol reduction as found by meta-regression analysis of randomized cholesterol-lowering trials. Control Clin Trials 1996;17(1):13–22.

Howes LG, Simons LA. Efficacy of drug intervention for lipids in the prevention of coronary artery disease. Aust N Z J Med 1994;24(1):107–12.

Jacobs D, Blackburn H, Higgins M, Reed D, Iso H, McMillan G, et al. Report of the Conference on Low Blood Cholesterol: Mortality Associations. Circulation 1992;86(3):1046–60.

Kannel WB, Wilson PWF. Efficacy of lipid profiles in prediction of coronary disease. Am Heart J 1992;768–774.

Keil U. Coronary artery disease: the role of lipids, hypertension and smoking. Basic Res Cardiol 2000;95(Suppl 1):I52–8.

Knapp RG, Sutherland SE, Keil JE, Rust PF, Lackland DT. A comparison of the effects of cholesterol on CHD mortality in black and white women: twenty-eight years of follow-up in the Charleston Heart Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1992;45(10):1119–29.

LaRosa JC, He J, Vupputuri S. Effect of statins on risk of coronary disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 1999;282(24):2340–6.

Law MR, Wald NJ, Thompson SG. By how much and how quickly does reduction in serum cholesterol concentration lower risk of ischaemic heart disease? Bmj 1994;308(6925):367–72.

Lewington S, MacMahon S. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and common causes of death: a review. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Am J Hypertens 1999;12(10 Pt 2):96S–98S.

Lewis SJ, Sacks FM, Mitchell JS, East C, Glasser S, Kell S, et al. Effect of pravastatin on cardiovascular events in women after myocardial infarction: the cholesterol and recurrent events (CARE) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32(1):140–6.

Manolio TA, Pearson TA, Wenger NK, Barrett-Connor E, Payne GH, Harlan WR. Cholesterol and heart disease in older persons and women. Review of an NHLBI workshop. Ann Epidemiol 1992;2(1–2):161–76.

Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Carinci F, Tognoni G. Meta-analysis, clinical trials, and transferability of research results into practice. The case of cholesterol-lowering interventions in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 1996;156(11):1158–72.

Miettinen TA, Pyorala K, Olsson AG, Musliner TA, Cook TJ, Faergeman O, et al. Cholesterol-lowering therapy in women and elderly patients with myocardial infarction or angina pectoris: findings from the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Circulation 1997;96(12):4211–8.

Montague T, Tsuyuki R, Burton J, Williams R, Dzavik V, Teo K. Prevention and regression of coronary atherosclerosis. Is it safe and efficacious therapy? Chest 1994;105(3):718–26.

Orchard TJ. The impact of gender and general risk factors on the occurrence of atherosclerotic vascular disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Med 1996;28(4):323–33.

Pignone M, Phillips C, Mulrow C. Use of lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2000;321(7267):983–6.

Primatesta P, Poulter NR. Lipid concentrations and the use of lipid lowering drugs: evidence from a national cross sectional survey. BMJ 2000;321(7272):1322–5.

Rembold CM. Number-needed-to-treat analysis of the prevention of myocardial infarction and death by antidyslipidemic therapy. J Fam Pract 1996;42(6):577–86.

Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA, Rouleau JL, Rutherford JD, Cole TG, et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators. N Engl J Med 1996;335(14):1001–9.

Sacks FM. Lipid-lowering therapy in acute coronary syndromes. JAMA 2001;285(13):1758–60.

Sharrett AR, Patsch W, Sorlie PD, Heiss G, Bond MG, Davis CE. Associations of lipoprotein cholesterols, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and triglycerides with carotid atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Arterioscler Thromb 1994;14(7):1098–104.

Shepherd J. New evidence, new guidelines. Atherosclerosis 1998;140(2):197–8.

Sorlie PD, Sharrett AR, Patsch W, Schreiner PJ, Davis CE, Heiss G, et al. The relationship between lipids/lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in African Americans and whites: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Ann Epidemiol 1999;9(3):149–58.

Tyroler HA. Serum lipoproteins as risk factors: recent epidemiologic studies in individuals with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Eur Heart J 1990;11(Suppl H):21–5.

van der Weijden T, Knottnerus JA, Ament AJ, Stoffers HE, Grol RP. Economic evaluation of cholesterol-related interventions in general practice. An appraisal of the evidence. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998;52(9):586–94.

Walsh JM, Grady D. Treatment of hyperlipidemia in women. JAMA 1995;274(14):1152–8.

White CW. Benefit of aggressive lipid-lowering therapy: insights from the post coronary artery bypass graft study and other trials. Am J Med 1998;105(1A):63S–68S.

Wilson PW, Abbott RD, Castelli WP. High density lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality. The Framingham Heart Study. Arteriosclerosis 1988;8(6):737–41.

Wong ND, Wilson PW, Kannel WB. Serum cholesterol as a prognostic factor after myocardial infarction: the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1991;115(9):687–93.

3.03b Treatment of hyperlipidemia to reduce risk of CHD events in women

MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,538 high-risk individuals: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. Lancet 2002; 360:7–22.

Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994;344(8934):1383–9.

Ansell BJ, Watson KE, Fogelman AM. An evidence-based assessment of the NCEP Adult Treatment Panel II guidelines. National Cholesterol Education Program. JAMA 1999;282(21):2051–7.

Borgia MC, Medici F. Perspectives in the treatment of dyslipidemias in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Angiology 1998;49(5):339–48.

Bucher HC, Griffith LE, Guyatt GH. Systematic review on the risk and benefit of different cholesterol-lowering interventions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999;19(2):187–95.

Buchwald H, Campos CT, Boen JR, Nguyen P, Williams SE, Lau J, et al. Gender-based mortality follow-up from the Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) and meta-analysis of lipid intervention trials. Women in POSCH and other lipid trials. Ann Surg 1996;224(4):486–98; discussion 498–500.

Byington RP, Jukema JW, Salonen JT, Pitt B, Bruschke AV, Hoen H, et al. Reduction in cardiovascular events during pravastatin therapy. Pooled analysis of clinical events of the Pravastatin Atherosclerosis Intervention Program. Circulation 1995;92(9):2419–25.

D'Agostino RB, Kannel WB, Stepanians MN, D'Agostino LC. Efficacy and tolerability of lovastatin in hypercholesterolemic women. Clin Ther 1992;14(3):390–5.

Downs JR, Clearfield M, Weis S, Whitney E, Shapiro DR, Beere PA, et al. Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. JAMA 1998;279(20):1615–22.

Ebrahim S, Smith GD. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of multiple risk factor interventions for preventing coronary heart disease. BMJ 1997;314(7095):1666–74.

Fager G, Wiklund O. Cholesterol reduction and clinical benefit. Are there limits to our expectations? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17(12):3527–33.

Froom J, Froom P, Benjamin M, Benjamin BJ. Measurement and management of hyperlipidemia for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease. J Am Board Fam Pract 1998;11(1):12–22.

Furberg CD. Lipid-lowering trials: results and limitations. Am Heart J 1994;128(6 Pt 2):1304–8.

Goldman L, Coxson P, Hunink MG, Goldman PA, Tosteson AN, Mittleman M, et al. The relative influence of secondary versus primary prevention using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel II guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;34(3):768–76.

Gould AL, Cariski AT. Meta-analysis by the Program on the Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) investigators. Ann Surg 1998;227(2):314–6.

Gould AL, Rossouw JE, Santanello NC, Heyse JF, Furberg CD. Cholesterol reduction yields clinical benefit. A new look at old data. Circulation 1995;91(8):2274–82.

Guyton JR. Effect of niacin on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 1998;82(12A):18U–23U; discussion 39U–41U.

Hebert PR, Gaziano JM, Chan KS, Hennekens CH. Cholesterol lowering with statin drugs, risk of stroke, and total mortality. An overview of randomized trials. JAMA 1997;278(4):313–21.

Holme I. Cholesterol reduction and its impact on coronary artery disease and total mortality. Am J Cardiol 1995;76(9):10C–17C.

Holme I. Effects of lipid-lowering therapy on total and coronary mortality. Curr Opin Lipidol 1995;6(6):374–8.

Holme I. Relation of coronary heart disease incidence and total mortality to plasma cholesterol reduction in randomised trials: use of meta-analysis. Br Heart J 1993;69(1 Suppl):S42–7.

Holme I. Relationship between total mortality and cholesterol reduction as found by meta-regression analysis of randomized cholesterol-lowering trials. Control Clin Trials 1996;17(1):13–22.

Howes LG, Simons LA. Efficacy of drug intervention for lipids in the prevention of coronary artery disease. Aust N Z J Med 1994;24(1):107–12.

Jacobson TA. “The lower the better” in hypercholesterolemia therapy: a reliable clinical guideline? Ann Intern Med 2000;133(7):549–54.

LaRosa JC, He J, Vupputuri S. Effect of statins on risk of coronary disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 1999;282(24):2340–6.

Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Carinci F, Tognoni G. Meta-analysis, clinical trials, and transferability of research results into practice. The case of cholesterol-lowering interventions in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Arch Intern Med 1996;156(11):1158–72.

Milne R. HMG CO-A reductase inhibitor treatment in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Southampton: Wessex Institute for Health Research and Development. Wessex Institute for Health Research and Development. DEC Report No. 72. 1997.

Montagne O, Vedel I, Durand-Zaleski I. Assessment of the impact of fibrates and diet on survival and their cost-effectiveness: evidence from randomized, controlled trials in coronary heart disease and health economic evaluations. Clin Ther 1999;21(11):2027–35.

Muldoon MF, Manuck SB, Mendelsohn AB, Kaplan JR, Belle SH. Cholesterol reduction and non-illness mortality: meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. BMJ 2001;322(7277):11–5.

Pignone M, Phillips C, Mulrow C. Use of lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2000;321(7267):983–6.

Prosser LA, Stinnett AA, Goldman PA, Williams LW, Hunink MG, Goldman L, et al. Cost-effectiveness of cholesterol-lowering therapies according to selected patient characteristics. Ann Intern Med 2000;132(10):769–79.

Rembold CM. Number-needed-to-treat analysis of the prevention of myocardial infarction and death by antidyslipidemic therapy. J Fam Pract 1996;42(6):577–86.

Rubins HB. Cholesterol in patients with coronary heart disease: how low should we go? J Gen Intern Med 1995;10(8):464–71.

Savoie I, Wright J, Bassett K. Lipid lowering therapy Vancouver: B.C. Office of Health technology Assessment, Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, University of British Columbia. Finnish Office for Health Care Technology Assessment (FinOHTA). 1896256112. BCOHTA 98:4J. 1998

Shepherd J. New evidence, new guidelines. Atherosclerosis 1998;140(2):197–8.

Silberberg JS, Henry DA. The benefits of reducing cholesterol levels: the need to distinguish primary from secondary prevention. 1. A meta-analysis of cholesterol-lowering trials. Med J Aust 1991;155(10):665–6, 669–70.

Silberberg JS, Henry DA. The benefits of reducing cholesterol levels: the need to distinguish primary from secondary prevention. 2. Implications for heart disease prevention in Australia. Med J Aust 1991;155(10):670–4.

Smith GD, Song F, Sheldon TA. Cholesterol lowering and mortality: the importance of considering initial level of risk. BMJ 1993;306(6889):1367–73.

Solomon AJ, Gersh BJ. Management of chronic stable angina: medical therapy, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Lessons from the randomized trials. Ann Intern Med 1998;128(3):216–23.

Spinler SA, Cziraky MJ. Lipoprotein(A): physiologic function, association with atherosclerosis, and effects of lipid-lowering drug therapy. Ann Pharmacother 1994;28(3):343–51.

Superko HR, Krauss RM. Coronary artery disease regression. Convincing evidence for the benefit of aggressive lipoprotein management. Circulation 1994;90(2):1056–69.

Walsh JM, Grady D. Treatment of hyperlipidemia in women. JAMA 1995;274(14):1152–8.

3.04 Elevated homocysteine

Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials.Homocysteine Lowering Trialists' Collaboration. BMJ 1998;316(7135):894–8.

Bostom AG, Silbershatz H, Rosenberg IH, Selhub J, D'Agostino RB, Wolf PA, et al. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine levels and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in elderly Framingham men and women. Arch Intern Med 1999;159(10):1077–80.

Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA 1995;274(13):1049–57.

Cleophas TJ, Hornstra N, van Hoogstraten B, van der Meulen J. Homocysteine, a risk factor for coronary artery disease or not? A meta-analysis. Am J Cardiol 2000;86(9):1005–9, A8.

Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, McGovern PG, Tsai MY, Malinow MR, Eckfeldt JH, et al. Prospective study of coronary heart disease incidence in relation to fasting total homocysteine, related genetic polymorphisms, and B vitamins: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 1998;98(3):204–10.

Tice JA, Ross E, Coxson PG, Rosenberg I, Weinstein MC, Hunink MG, et al. Cost-effectiveness of vitamin therapy to lower plasma homocysteine levels for the prevention of coronary heart disease: effect of grain fortification and beyond. JAMA 2001;286(8):936–43.

3.05 Elevated C-reactive protein

Albert MA, Danielson E, Rifai N, Ridker PM. Effect of statin therapy on C-reactive protein levels: the pravastatin inflammation/CRP evaluation (PRINCE): a randomized trial and cohort study. JAMA 2001;286(1):64–70.

Conlan MG, Folsom AR, Finch A, Davis CE, Sorlie P, Wu KK. Correlation of plasma protein C levels with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Thromb Haemost 1993;70(5):762–7.

Danesh J, Collins R, Appleby P, Peto R. Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies. JAMA 1998;279(18):1477–82.

Redberg RF, Rifai N, Gee L, Ridker PM. Lack of association of C-reactive protein and coronary calcium by electron beam computed tomography in postmenopausal women: implications for coronary artery disease screening. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;36(1):39–43.

Ridker PM, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH. C-reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in determining risk of first myocardial infarction. Circulation 1998;97(20):2007–11.

Ridker PM, Haughie P. Prospective studies of C-reactive protein as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. J Investig Med 1998;46(8):391–5.

Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000;342(12):836–43.

Ridker PM, Rifai N, Pfeffer MA, Sacks F, Braunwald E. Long-term effects of pravastatin on plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. The Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) Investigators. Circulation 1999;100(3):230–5.

Ridker PM. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein: potential adjunct for global risk assessment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2001;103(13):1813–8.

3.06 Smoking

Blazing MA, O'Connor CM. Evidence supporting secondary prevention strategies. Curr Opin Cardiol 1999;14(4):303–9.

Castelli WP. Diet, smoking, and alcohol: influence on coronary heart disease risk. Am J Kidney Dis 1990;16:41–46.

Freund KM, Belanger AJ, D'Agostino RB, Kannel WB. The health risks of smoking. The Framingham Study: 34 years of follow-up. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3(4):417–24.

Gensini GF, Comeglio M, et al. Classical risk factors and emerging elements in the risk profile for coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 1999;19(Suppl A): A53–61.

Hansen EF, Andersen LT, et al. Cigarette smoking and age at first acute myocardial infarction, and influence of gender and extent of smoking. Am J Cardiol 1993;71(16): 1439–42.

Hermanson B, Omenn GS, et al. Beneficial six-year outcome of smoking cessation in older men and women with coronary artery disease. Results from the CASS registry. N Engl J Med 1988;319(21): 1365–9.

Kannel WB, D'Agostino RB, Belanger AJ. Fibrinogen, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease: insights from the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1987;113(4):1006–10.

Kannel WB, D'Agostino RB. Risk reduction after quitting smoking. Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Care 1989:84–85.

Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Speizer F, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of passive smoking and coronary heart disease. Circulation 1997;95:2374–2379.

Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE, Rosner B, et al. Smoking cessation and decreased risks of total mortality, stroke, and coronary heart disease incidence among women: a prospective cohort study. In: Burns DM, Garfinkel L, Samet JM, editors. Changes in cigarette-related disease risks and thier implications for prevention and control. Bethesda: National Cancer Institute; 1997. p. 531–65.

Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE, Rosner B, et al. Smoking cessation and time course of decreased risks of coronary heart disease in middle-aged women. Arch Intern Med 1994;154(2):169–75.

Kawachi I, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Manson JE, Rosner B, et al. Smoking cessation in relation to total mortality rates in women. A prospective cohort study. Ann Intern Med 1993;119(10):992–1000.

Keil U. Coronary artery disease: the role of lipids, hypertension and smoking. Basic Res Cardiol 2000;95(Suppl 1):I52–8.

Ketola E, Sipila R, et al. Effectiveness of individual lifestyle interventions in reducing cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Ann Med 200;32(4): 239–51.

LaCroix AZ, Lang J, Scherr P, Wallace RB, Cornoni-Huntley J, Berkman L, et al. Smoking and mortality among older men and women in three communities. N Engl J Med 1991;324(23):1619–25.

Njolstad I, Arnesen E, Lund-Larsen PG. Smoking, serum lipids, blood pressure, and sex differences in myocardial infarction. A 12-year follow-up of the Finnmark Study. Circulation 1996;93(3):450–6.

Omenn GS, Anderson KW, Kronmal RA, Vlietstra RE. The temporal pattern of reduction of mortality risk after smoking cessation. Am J Prev Med 1990;6(5):251–7.

Paganini-Hill A, Hsu G. Smoking and mortality among residents of a California retirement community. Am J Public Health 1994;84(6):992–5.

Prescott E, Hippe M, Schnohr P, Hein HO, Vestbo J. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study. BMJ 1998;316(7137):1043–7.

Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, et al. Decline in the risk of myocardial infarction among women who stop smoking. N Engl J Med 1990;322(4): 213–7.

Sterling TD, Rosenbaum WL, et al. Risk attribution and tobacco-related deaths [see comments]. American Journal of Epidemiology 1993;138(2): 128–39.

Willett WC, Green A, Stampfer MJ, Speizer FE, Colditz GA, Rosner B, et al. Relative and absolute excess risks of coronary heart disease among women who smoke cigarettes. N Engl J Med 1987;317(21):1303–9.

Wilson K, Gibson N, Willan A, Cook D. Effect of smoking cessation on mortality after myocardial infarction: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Arch Intern Med 2000;160(7):939–44.

3.07 Obesity

Barrett-Connor EL. Obesity, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 1985;103(6 ( Pt 2)):1010–9.

Blair SN, Brodney S. Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morbidity and mortality: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31(11 Suppl):S646–62.

Dattilo AM, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of weight reduction on blood lipids and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;56(2):320–8.

Field AE, Coakley EH, Must A, Spadano JL, Laird N, Dietz WH, et al. Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(13):1581–6.

Folsom AR, Burke GL, Byers CL, Hutchinson RG, Heiss G, Flack JM, et al. Implications of obesity for cardiovascular disease in blacks: the CARDIA and ARIC studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53(6 Suppl):1604S–1611S.

Folsom AR, French SA, Zheng W, Baxter JE, Jeffery RW. Weight variability and mortality: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996;20(8):704–9.

Folsom AR, Kushi LH, Anderson KE, Mink PJ, Olson JE, Hong CP, et al. Associations of general and abdominal obesity with multiple health outcomes in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Arch Intern Med 2000;160(14):2117–28.

Folsom AR, Stevens J, Schreiner PJ, McGovern PG. Body mass index, waist/hip ratio, and coronary heart disease incidence in African Americans and whites. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Investigators. Am J Epidemiol 1998;148(12):1187–94.

French SA, Folsom AR, Jeffery RW, Zheng W, Mink PJ, Baxter JE. Weight variability and incident disease in older women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997;21(3):217–23.

Harris T, Cook EF, Garrison R, Higgins M, Kannel W, Goldman L. Body mass index and mortality among nonsmoking older persons. The Framingham Heart Study. JAMA 1988;259(10):1520–4.

Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67(5):968–77.

Kannel WB, D'Agostino RB, Belanger AJ. Fibrinogen, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease: insights from the Framingham Study. Am Heart J 1987;113(4):1006–10.

Kannel WB, Cupples LA, Ramaswami R, Stokes J, 3rd, Kreger BE, Higgins M. Regional obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease; the Framingham Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1991;44(2):183–90.

Ketola E, Sipila R, et al. Effectiveness of individual lifestyle interventions in reducing cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Ann Med 2000;32(4): 239–51.

Kuller LH, Simkin-Silverman LR, Wing RR, Meilahn EN, Ives DG. Women's Healthy Lifestyle Project: A randomized clinical trial: results at 54 months. Circulation 2001;103(1):32–7.

Manson JE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner B, Monson RR, et al. A prospective study of obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1990;322(13):882–9.

Manson JE, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. Body weight and mortality among women. N Engl J Med 1995;333(11):677–85.

Pi-Sunyer FX. Comorbidities of overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31(11 Suppl):S602–8.

Rexrode KM, Carey VJ, Hennekens CH, Walters EE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Abdominal adiposity and coronary heart disease in women. JAMA 1998;280(21):1843–8.

Thompson D, Edelsberg J, Colditz GA, Bird AP, Oster G. Lifetime health and economic consequences of obesity. Arch Intern Med 1999;159(18):2177–83.

Willett WC, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Rosner B, Speizer FE, et al. Weight, weight change, and coronary heart disease in women. Risk within the ‘normal’ weight range. JAMA 1995;273(6):461–5.

3.08 Inactivity

Berlin JA, Colditz GA. A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 1990;132(4):612–28.

Blair SN, Brodney S. Effects of physical inactivity and obesity on morbidity and mortality: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31(11 Suppl):S646–62.

Blair SN, Kohl HW, 3rd, Paffenbarger RS, Jr., Clark DG, Cooper KH, Gibbons LW. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA 1989;262(17):2395–401.

Eaton CB. Relation of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness to coronary heart disease, Part I: A meta-analysis of the independent relation of physical activity and coronary heart disease. J Am Board Fam Pract 1992;5(1):31–42.

Folsom AR, Arnett DK, Hutchinson RG, Liao F, Clegg LX, Cooper LS. Physical activity and incidence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged women and men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29(7):901–9.

Jolliffe JA, Rees K, Taylor RS, Thompson D, Oldridge N, Ebrahim S. Exercise-based rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;4.

Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 2002;346(6):393–403.

Kuller LH, Simkin-Silverman LR, Wing RR, Meilahn EN, Ives DG. Women's Healthy Lifestyle Project: A randomized clinical trial: results at 54 months. Circulation 2001;103(1):32–7.

Lee IM, Rexrode KM, Cook NR, Manson JE, Buring JE. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in women: is “no pain, no gain” passe? JAMA 2001;285(11):1447–54.

Manson JE, Hu FB, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1999;341(9):650–8.

O'Connor GT, Buring JE, Yusuf S, Goldhaber SZ, Olmstead EM, Paffenbarger RS, Jr., et al. An overview of randomized trials of rehabilitation with exercise after myocardial infarction. Circulation 1989;80(2):234–44.

Oldridge NB, Guyatt GH, Fischer ME, Rimm AA. Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction. Combined experience of randomized clinical trials. Jama 1988;260(7):945–50.

Rockhill B, Willett WC, Manson JE, Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Hunter DJ, et al. Physical activity and mortality: a prospective study among women. Am J Public Health 2001;91(4):578–83.

Sherman SE, D'Agostino RB, Cobb JL, Kannel WB. Physical activity and mortality in women in the Framingham Heart Study. Am Heart J 1994;128(5):879–84.

Stefanick ML, Mackey S, Sheehan M, Ellsworth N, Haskell WL, Wood PD. Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. N Engl J Med 1998;339(1):12–20.

Williams PT. Physical fitness and activity as separate heart disease risk factors: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33(5):754–61.

3.09 Age

Beckett N, Nunes M, Bulpitt C. Is it advantageous to lower cholesterol in the elderly hypertensive? Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2000;14(4):397–405.

Brand FN, Kiely DK, Kannel WB, Myers RH. Family patterns of coronary heart disease mortality: the Framingham Longevity Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1992;45(2):169–74.

Castelli WP, Wilson PW, Levy D, Anderson K. Cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly. Am J Cardiol 1989;63(16):12H–19H.

Chiamvimonvat V, Sternberg L. Coronary artery disease in women. Can Fam Physician 1998;44:2709–17.

D'Agostino RB, Kannel WB, Belanger AJ, Sytkowski PA. Trends in CHD and risk factors at age 55–64 in the Framingham Study. Int J Epidemiol 1989;18(3 Suppl 1):S67–72.

D'Agostino RB, Sr., Grundy S, Sullivan LM, Wilson P. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA 2001;286(2):180–7.

Gurwitz JH, Col NF, Avorn J. The exclusion of the elderly and women from clinical trials in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 1992;268(11):1417–22.

Howard G, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson SK, O'Leary DH. Does the association of risk factors and atherosclerosis change with age? An analysis of the combined ARIC and CHS cohorts. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) investigators. Stroke 1997;28(9):1693–701.

Hussain KM, Kogan A, Estrada AQ, Kostandy G, Foschi A, Dadkhah S. Referral pattern and outcome in men and women undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery--a critical review. Angiology 1998;49(4):243–50.

La Vecchia C. Sex hormones and cardiovascular risk. Hum Reprod 1992;7(2):162–7.

Lerner DJ, Kannel WB. Patterns of coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in the sexes: a 26-year follow-up of the Framingham population. Am Heart J 1986;111(2):383–90.

Pearson ML, Kahn KL, et al. Differences in quality of care for hospitalized elderly men and women. JAMA 1992;268(14): 1883–9.

Pocock SJ, McCormack V, Gueyffier F, Boutitie F, Fagard RH, Boissel JP. A score for predicting risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adults with raised blood pressure, based on individual patient data from randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2001;323(7304):75–81.

Schildkraut JM, Myers RH, Cupples LA, Kiely D, Kannel WB. Coronary risk associated with age and sex of parental heart disease in the Framingham Study. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:555–559.

Tsang TS, Barnes ME, et al. Risks of coronary heart disease in women: current understanding and evolving concepts. Mayo Clin Proc 2000;75(12): 1289–303.

3.10 Age at Menopause

Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH. Menopause and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 1987;316(18):1105–10.

Cooper GS, Sandler DP. Age at natural menopause and mortality. Ann Epidemiol 1998;8(4):229–35.

Fioretti F, Tavani A, Gallus S, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Menopause and risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction: an Italian case-control study and a review of the literature. Hum Reprod 2000;15(3):599–603.

Greendale GA, Lee NP, Arriola ER. The menopause. Lancet 1999;353(9152):571–80.

Hu FB, Grodstein F, Hennekens CH, Colditz GA, Johnson M, Manson JE, et al. Age at natural menopause and risk of cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med 1999;159(10):1061–6.

La Vecchia C. Sex hormones and cardiovascular risk. Hum Reprod 1992;7(2):162–7.

Rosenberg L, Hennekens CH, Rosner B, Belanger C, Rothman KJ, Speizer FE. Early menopause and the risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;139(1):47–51.

Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Menopause and heart disease. A review. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990;592:193–203; discussion 257–62.

Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Estrogen replacement therapy and coronary heart disease: a quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic evidence. Prev Med 1991;20(1):47–63.

van der Schouw YT, van der Graaf Y, Steyerberg EW, Eijkemans JC, Banga JD. Age at menopause as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. Lancet 1996;347(9003):714–8.

3.11 Ethnicity

Bhopal R. What is the risk of coronary heart disease in South Asians? A review of UK research. J Public Health Med 2000;22(3):375–85.

Cooper R. The role of genetic and environmental factors in cardiovascular disease in African Americans. Am J Med Sci 1999;317(3):208–13.

D'Agostino RB, Sr., Grundy S, Sullivan LM, Wilson P. Validation of the Framingham coronary heart disease prediction scores: results of a multiple ethnic groups investigation. JAMA 2001;286(2):180–7.

Hutchinson RG, Watson RL, Davis CE, Barnes R, Brown S, Romm F, et al. Racial differences in risk factors for atherosclerosis. The ARIC Study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities. Angiology 1997;48(4):279–90.

Keil JE, Sutherland SE, Knapp RG, Lackland DT, Gazes PC, Tyroler HA. Mortality rates and risk factors for coronary disease in black as compared with white men and women. N Engl J Med 1993;329(2):73–8.

Potts JL, Thomas J. Traditional coronary risk factors in African Americans. Am J Med Sci 1999;317(3):189–92.

Roig E, Castaner A, Simmons B, Patel R, Ford E, Cooper R. In-hospital mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction by race in U.S. hospitals: findings from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. Circulation 1987;76(2):280–8.

Stone PH, Thompson B, Anderson HV, Kronenberg MW, Gibson RS, Rogers WJ, et al. Influence of race, sex, and age on management of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: The TIMI III registry. JAMA 1996;275(14):1104–12.

Tofler GH, Stone PH, Muller JE, Willich SN, Davis VG, Poole WK, et al. Effects of gender and race on prognosis after myocardial infarction: adverse prognosis for women, particularly black women. J Am Coll Cardiol 1987;9(3):473–82.

White AD, Rosamond WD, Chambless LE, Thomas N, Conwill D, Cooper LS, et al. Sex and race differences in short-term prognosis after acute coronary heart disease events: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. Am Heart J 1999;138(3 Pt 1):540–8.

Williams JE, Massing M, Rosamond WD, Sorlie PD, Tyroler HA. Racial disparities in CHD mortality from 1968–1992 in the state economic areas surrounding the ARIC study communities. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities. Ann Epidemiol 1999;9(8):472–80.

3.12 Socioeconomic status

Brezinka V, Kittel F. Psychosocial factors of coronary heart disease in women: a review. Soc Sci Med 1996;42(10):1351–65.

Capewell S, MacIntyre K, Stewart S, Chalmers JW, Boyd J, Finlayson A, et al. Age, sex, and social trends in out-of-hospital cardiac deaths in Scotland 1986–95: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2001;358(9289):1213–7.

Garrison RJ, Gold RS, Wilson PW, Kannel WB. Educational attainment and coronary heart disease risk: the Framingham Offspring Study. Prev Med 1993;22(1):54–64.

Gonzalez MA, Rodriguez Artalejo F, Calero JR. Relationship between socioeconomic status and ischaemic heart disease in cohort and case-control studies: 1960–1993. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27(3):350–8.

Keil JE, Sutherland SE, Knapp RG, Lackland DT, Gazes PC, Tyroler HA. Mortality rates and risk factors for coronary disease in black as compared with white men and women. N Engl J Med 1993;329(2):73–8.

Morrison C, Woodward M, Leslie W, Tunstall-Pedoe H. Effect of socioeconomic group on incidence of, management of, and survival after myocardial infarction and coronary death: analysis of community coronary event register. BMJ 1997;314(7080):541–6.

Salomaa V, Miettinen H, Niemela M, Ketonen M, Mahonen M, Immonen-Raiha P, et al. Relation of socioeconomic position to the case fatality, prognosis and treatment of myocardial infarction events; the FINMONICA MI Register Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001;55(7):475–82.

4.0 Difference in utilization between women and men

Alexander KP, Shaw LJ, Shaw LK, Delong ER, Mark DB, Peterson ED. Value of exercise treadmill testing in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998;32(6):1657–64.

Allison JJ, Kiefe CI, Centor RM, Box JB, Farmer RM. Racial differences in the medical treatment of elderly Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Gen Intern Med 1996;11(12):736–43.

Ayanian JZ, Epstein AM. Differences in the use of procedures between women and men hospitalized for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1991;325(4):221–5.

Azar RR, Waters DD, McKay RG, Giri S, Hirst JA, Mitchell JF, et al. Short- and medium-term outcome differences in women and men after primary percutaneous transluminal mechanical revascularization for acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 2000;85(6):675–9.

Bandyopadhyay S, Bayer AJ, O'Mahony MS. Age and gender bias in statin trials. QJM 2001;94(3):127–32.

Barbour MM, Hume AL, Lapane KL, Derby CA, Carleton RA. Predictors of future antihypertensive use in patients with mildly elevated blood pressure. Pharmacotherapy 1995;15(3):272–8.

Battleman DS, Callahan M. Gender differences in utilization of exercise treadmill testing: a claims-based analysis. J Healthc Qual 2001;23(3):38–41.

Beck CA, Lauzon C, Eisenberg MJ, Huynh T, Dion D, Roux R, et al. Discharge prescriptions following admission for acute myocardial infarction at tertiary care and community hospitals in Quebec. Can J Cardiol 2001;17(1):33–40.

Bell MR, Holmes DR, Jr., Berger PB, Garratt KN, Bailey KR, Gersh BJ. The changing in-hospital mortality of women undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. JAMA 1993;269(16):2091–5.

Bergelson BA, Tommaso CL. Gender differences in clinical evaluation and triage in coronary artery disease. Chest 1995;108(6):1510–3.

Bergelson BA, Tommaso CL. Gender differences in percutaneous interventional therapy of coronary artery disease. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 1996;37(1):1–4.

Bergman U, Anderssen M, Vaccheri A, Larsen J, Montanaro N. Marked differences in lipid-lowering drug use in Bologna, Italy and Funen, Denmark. Eur Heart J 1999;20(15):1135.

Bernstein SJ, Hilborne LH, Leape LL, Park RE, Brook RH. The appropriateness of use of cardiovascular procedures in women and men. Arch Intern Med 1994;154(23):2759–65.

Bickell NA, Pieper KS, Lee KL, Mark DB, Glower DD, Pryor DB, et al. Referral patterns for coronary artery disease treatment: gender bias or good clinical judgment? Ann Intern Med 1992;116(10):791–7.

Blustein J, Weitzman BC. Access to hospitals with high-technology cardiac services: how is race important? Am J Public Health 1995;85(3):345–51.

Bush TL, Fried LP, Barrett-Connor E. Cholesterol, lipoproteins, and coronary heart disease in women. Clin Chem 1988;34(8B):B60–70.

Byington RP, Jukema JW, Salonen JT, Pitt B, Bruschke AV, Hoen H, et al. Reduction in cardiovascular events during pravastatin therapy. Pooled analysis of clinical events of the Pravastatin Atherosclerosis Intervention Program. Circulation 1995;92(9):2419–25.

Carlisle DM, Leake BD, Shapiro MF. Racial and ethnic differences in the use of invasive cardiac procedures among cardiac patients in Los Angeles County, 1986 through 1988. Am J Public Health 1995;85(3):352–6.

Carlisle DM, Leake BD, Shapiro MF. Racial and ethnic disparities in the use of cardiovascular procedures: associations with type of health insurance. Am J Public Health 1997;87(2):263–7.

Carter BL, Kriesel HT, Steinkraus L, Knudson R. Antihypertensive drug-prescribing patterns of internists and family physicians. J Fam Pract 1989;29(3):257–61.

Cerqueira MD. Diagnostic testing strategies for coronary artery disease: special issues related to gender. Am J Cardiol 1995;75(11):52D–60D.

Chandra NC, Ziegelstein RC, Rogers WJ, Tiefenbrunn AJ, Gore JM, French WJ, et al. Observations of the treatment of women in the United States with myocardial infarction: a report from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction-I. Arch Intern Med 1998;158(9):981–8.

Chiriboga DE, Yarzebski J, Goldberg RJ, Chen Z, Gurwitz J, Gore JM, et al. A community-wide perspective of gender differences and temporal trends in the use of diagnostic and revascularization procedures for acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1993;71(4):268–73.

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Clarke KW, Gray D, Keating NA, Hampton JR. Do women with acute myocardial infarction receive the same treatment as men? BMJ 1994;309(6954):563–6.

Cohen M. The role of low-molecular-weight heparins in arterial diseases: optimizing antithrombotic therapy. Thromb Res 2000;100(2):V131–9.

Cooper RS, Ghali JK. Coronary heart disease: black-white differences. Cardiovasc Clin 1991;21(3):205–25.

Corti MC, Guralnik JM, Bilato C. Coronary heart disease risk factors in older persons. Aging (Milano) 1996;8(2):75–89.

Croft JB, Keenan NL, Sheridan DP, Wheeler FC, Speers MA. Waist-to-hip ratio in a biracial population: measurement, implications, and cautions for using guidelines to define high risk for cardiovascular disease. J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95(1):60–4.

D'Hoore W, Sicotte C, Tilquin C. Sex bias in the management of coronary artery disease in Quebec. Am J Public Health 1994;84(6):1013–5.

Davis KB, Chaitman B, Ryan T, Bittner V, Kennedy JW. Comparison of 15-year survival for men and women after initial medical or surgical treatment for coronary artery disease: a CASS registry study. Coronary Artery Surgery Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;25(5):1000–9.

Denvir MA, Martin W, Tweddel AC, Hutton I. A comparison of adenosine and exercise stress 201T1 scintigraphy. Nucl Med Commun 1994;15(6):410–6.

Detre KM, Rosen AD, Bost JE, Cooper ME, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Holubkov R, et al. Contemporary practice of coronary revascularization in U.S. hospitals and hospitals participating in the bypass angioplasty revascularization investigation (BARI). J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;28(3):609–15.

Di Salvo TT, Paul SD, Lloyd-Jones D, Smith AJ, Villarreal-Levy G, Bamezai V, et al. Care of acute myocardial infarction by noninvasive and invasive cardiologists: procedure use, cost and outcome. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27(2):262–9.

Dickes MS, Stammers AH, Pierce ML, Alonso A, Fristoe L, Taft KJ, et al. Outcome analysis of coronary artery bypass grafting: minimally invasive versus standard techniques. Perfusion 1999;14(6):461–72.

Doliszny KM, Luepker RV, Burke GL, Pryor DB, Blackburn H. Estimated contribution of coronary artery bypass graft surgery to the decline in coronary heart disease mortality: the Minnesota Heart Survey. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24(1):95–103.

Du W, Ash AS, Berlowitz DR, Schwartz JS, Moskowitz MA. Variations in the management of acute myocardial infarction. Importance of clinical measures of disease severity. J Gen Intern Med 1996;11(6):334–41.

Duprez D. Is vascular disease in the female different from men? Int Angiol 1993;12(4):331–4.

Einbinder LC, Schulman KA. The effect of race on the referral process for invasive cardiac procedures. Med Care Res Rev 2000;57(Suppl 1):162–80.

Emery EM, Schmid TL, Kahn HS, Filozof PP. A review of the association between abdominal fat distribution, health outcome measures, and modifiable risk factors. Am J Health Promot 1993;7(5):342–53.

Eysmann SB, Douglas PS. Reperfusion and revascularization strategies for coronary artery disease in women. JAMA 1992;268(14):1903–7.

Feit F, Mueller HS, Braunwald E, Ross R, Hodges M, Herman MV, et al. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) phase II trial: outcome comparison of a “conservative strategy” in community versus tertiary hospitals. The TIMI Research Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16(7):1529–34.

Ferguson TB, Jr., Muhlbaier LH, Salai DL, Wechsler AS. Coronary bypass grafting after failed elective and failed emergent percutaneous angioplasty. Relative risks of emergent surgical intervention. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1988;95(5):761–72.

Fernandes CJ, Jr., Akamine N, Knobel E. Cardiac troponin: a new serum marker of myocardial injury in sepsis. Intensive Care Med 1999;25(10):1165–8.

Findlay IN. Coronary bypass surgery in women. Curr Opin Cardiol 1994;9(6):650–7.

Ford ES, Cooper RS. Racial/ethnic differences in health care utilization of cardiovascular procedures: a review of the evidence. Health Serv Res 1995;30(1 Pt 2):237–52.

Fu Y, Chang WC, Mark D, Califf RM, Mackenzie B, Granger CB, et al. Canadian-American differences in the management of acute coronary syndromes in the GUSTO IIb trial: one-year follow-up of patients without ST-segment elevation. Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) II Investigators. Circulation 2000;102(12):1375–81.

Fuller JH, Stevens LK, Wang SL. International variations in cardiovascular mortality associated with diabetes mellitus: the WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Ann Med 1996;28(4):319–22.

Gaziano JM, Skerrett PJ, Buring JE. Aspirin in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Haemostasis 2000;30(Suppl 3):1–13.

Giacomini MK. Gender and ethnic differences in hospital-based procedure utilization in California. Arch Intern Med 1996;156(11):1217–24.

Giles TD, Fisher MB, Rush JE. Lisinopril and captopril in the treatment of heart failure in older patients. Comparison of a long- and short-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Am J Med 1988;85(3B):44–7.

Giugliano RP, Llevadot J, Wilcox RG, Gurfinkel EP, McCabe CH, Charlesworth A, et al. Geographic variation in patient and hospital characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolysis. Results from InTIME-II. Eur Heart J 2001;22(18):1702–15.

Godsland IF, Wynn V, Crook D, Miller NE. Sex, plasma lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis: prevailing assumptions and outstanding questions. Am Heart J 1987;114(6):1467–503.

Goldberg KC, Hartz AJ, Jacobsen SJ, Krakauer H, Rimm AA. Racial and community factors influencing coronary artery bypass graft surgery rates for all 1986 Medicare patients. JAMA 1992;267(11):1473–7.

Granger CB, Hirsch J, Califf RM, Col J, White HD, Betriu A, et al. Activated partial thromboplastin time and outcome after thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: results from the GUSTO-I trial. Circulation 1996;93(5):870–8.

Gregoire JP, Moisan J, Guibert R, Ciampi A, Milot A, Cote I, et al. Tolerability of antihypertensive drugs in a community-based setting. Clin Ther 2001;23(5):715–26.

Grumbach K, Anderson GM, Luft HS, Roos LL, Brook R. Regionalization of cardiac surgery in the United States and Canada. Geographic access, choice, and outcomes. JAMA 1995;274(16):1282–8.

Gueyffier F, Boutitie F, Boissel JP, Pocock S, Coope J, Cutler J, et al. Effect of antihypertensive drug treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in women and men. A meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized, controlled trials. The INDANA Investigators. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(10):761–7.

Haffner SM. Impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Diabet Med 1997;14(Suppl 3):S12–8.

Hannan EL, Kilburn H, Jr., O'Donnell JF, Lukacik G, Shields EP. Interracial access to selected cardiac procedures for patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease in New York State. Med Care 1991;29(5):430–41.

Hannan EL, Kumar D. Geographic variation in the utilization and choice of procedures for treating coronary artery disease in New York State. Ischaemic Heart Disease Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT). J Health Serv Res Policy 1997;2(3):137–43.

Hasdai D, Holmes DR, Jr., Topol EJ, Berger PB, Criger DA, Hochman JS, et al. Frequency and clinical outcome of cardiogenic shock during acute myocardial infarction among patients receiving reteplase or alteplase. Results from GUSTO-III. Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries. Eur Heart J 1999;20(2):128–35.

Haymart MR, Dickfeld T, Nass C, Blumenthal RS. Percutaneous coronary intervention vs. medical therapy: what are the implications for women? J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002;11(4):347–55.

Heiat A, Vaccarino V, Krumholz HM. An evidence-based assessment of federal guidelines for overweight and obesity as they apply to elderly persons. Arch Intern Med 2001;161(9):1194–203.

Hochman JS, McCabe CH, Stone PH, Becker RC, Cannon CP, DeFeo-Fraulini T, et al. Outcome and profile of women and men presenting with acute coronary syndromes: a report from TIMI IIIB. TIMI Investigators. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30(1):141–8.

Hume AL, Barbour MM, Willey CJ, Assaf AR, Lapane KL, Carleton RA. Changing trends in antihypertensive therapy in two New England communities during the 1980s. Pharmacotherapy 1993;13(3):244–51.

Hussain KM, Kogan A, Estrada AQ, Kostandy G, Foschi A, Dadkhah S. Referral pattern and outcome in men and women undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery--a critical review. Angiology 1998;49(4):243–50.

Hutchinson LA, Pasternack PF, Baumann FG, Grossi EA, Riles TS, Lamparello PJ, et al. Is there detrimental gender bias in preoperative cardiac management of patients undergoing vascular surgery? Circulation 1994;90(5 Pt 2):II220–3.

Izzat MB, West RR, Bryan AJ, Angelini GD. Coronary artery bypass surgery: current practice in the United Kingdom. Br Heart J 1994;71(4):382–5.

Jackson RE, Anderson W, Peacock WFt, Vaught L, Carley RS, Wilson AG. Effect of a patient's sex on the timing of thrombolytic therapy. Ann Emerg Med 1996;27(1):8–15.

Jaglal SB, Goel V, Naylor CD. Sex differences in the use of invasive coronary procedures in Ontario. Can J Cardiol 1994;10(2):239–44.

Janzon M, Levin LA, Swahn E. Cost-effectiveness of an invasive strategy in unstable coronary artery disease; results from the FRISC II invasive trial. The Fast Revascularisation during InStability in Coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 2002;23(1):31–40.

Jarrett RJ. The cardiovascular risk associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Diabet Med 1996;13(3 Suppl 2):S15–9.

Johnson PA, Lee TH, Cook EF, Rouan GW, Goldman L. Effect of race on the presentation and management of patients with acute chest pain. Ann Intern Med 1993;118(8):593–601.

Johnson PA, Goldman L, Orav EJ, Zhou L, Garcia T, Pearson SD, et al. Gender differences in the management of acute chest pain. Support for the “Yentl syndrome”. J Gen Intern Med 1996;11(4):209–17.

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5.01 Troponins

Balk EM, Ioannidis JP, Salem D, Chew PW, Lau J. Accuracy of biomarkers to diagnose acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med 2001;37(5):478–94.

Christenson RH, Duh SH. Evidence based approach to practice guides and decision thresholds for cardiac markers. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 1999;230:90–102.

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Safstrom K, Lindahl B, Swahn E. Risk stratification in unstable coronary artery disease--exercise test and troponin T from a gender perspective. FRISC-Study Group. Fragmin during InStability in Coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35(7):1791–800.

Wu AH, Lane PL. Metaanalysis in clinical chemistry: validation of cardiac troponin T as a marker for ischemic heart diseases. Clin Chem 1995;41(8 Pt 2):1228–33.

5.02 Creatine kinase MB

Balk EM, Ioannidis JP, Salem D, Chew PW, Lau J. Accuracy of biomarkers to diagnose acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med 2001;37(5):478–94.

Christenson RH, Duh SH. Evidence based approach to practice guides and decision thresholds for cardiac markers. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 1999;230:90–102.

Olatidoye AG, Wu AH, Feng YJ, Waters D. Prognostic role of troponin T versus troponin I in unstable angina pectoris for cardiac events with meta-analysis comparing published studies. Am J Cardiol 1998;81(12):1405–10.

Wu AH, Lane PL. Metaanalysis in clinical chemistry: validation of cardiac troponin T as a marker for ischemic heart diseases. Clin Chem 1995;41(8 Pt 2):1228–33.

5.03 Myoglobin

Balk EM, Ioannidis JP, Salem D, Chew PW, Lau J. Accuracy of biomarkers to diagnose acute cardiac ischemia in the emergency department: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med 2001;37(5):478–94.

Christenson RH, Duh SH. Evidence based approach to practice guides and decision thresholds for cardiac markers. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 1999;230:90–102.

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