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Chapell R, Turkelson CM, Coates VH, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Worker-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremity. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2002 Dec. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 62.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Diagnosis and Treatment of Worker-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremity

Diagnosis and Treatment of Worker-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremity.

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Appendix A. Search Strategies

PubMed/Medline syntax

#1 cumulative trauma disorders[mh] OR (repetitive AND (motion OR strain)) OR “cumulative trauma” OR “work-related musculoskeletal disorders” OR “occupation-related syndromes” OR “occupational disorders” OR “overuse syndrome”

#2 #1 AND (arm[mh] OR bones of upper extremity[mh] OR “upper extremity” OR arm injuries[mh] OR arm* OR shoulder* OR elbow* OR wrist* OR hand* OR finger* OR digit*).

#3 (“De Quervain” OR “de Quervain” OR “DeQuervain”) OR ((tenosynovitis OR tenovaginitis) AND stenos*) OR “trigger wrist”

#4 “trigger finger” OR “trigger digit” OR ((tenosynovitis OR tenovaginitis) AND (finger* OR digit OR digits OR thumb*) AND stenos*)

#5 Cubital tunnel syndrome OR (ulnar AND entrap* AND elbow*)

#6 Carpal tunnel syndrome OR (median AND entrap* AND wrist)

#7 Epicondylitis OR “tennis elbow” OR "golfer's elbow

#8 #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 or #7

To restrict retrieval of articles identified by the above-described searches to clinical trials we employed the following:

(clinical trials[mh] OR clinical trial[pt] OR controls[ab] OR randomized controlled trials[mh] OR random allocation[mh] OR randomized controlled trial[pt] OR random* OR double-blind method[mh] OR single-blind method[mh] OR “single-dummy” OR “double-dummy” OR sham OR controls[ab] OR controlled clinical trials[mh] OR controlled clinical trial [pt] OR multicenter study[pt] OR meta-analysis OR meta-analysis[pt] OR placebo* OR outcomes research[mh] OR prospective studies[mh] OR “evidence-based medicine” OR “systematic review”)

To retrieve articles related to diagnostic concepts we employed the following syntax:

(diagnosis OR diagnose OR diagnostic OR di[sh] OR “gold standard” OR “ROC” OR “receiver operating characteristic” OR sensitivity OR specificity OR sensitivity and specificity[mh] OR likelihood OR “false positive” OR “false negative” OR “true positive” OR “true negative” OR “predictive value”)

To retrieve articles on therapeutic concepts we employed the following syntax:

(th[sh] OR su[sh] OR dt[sh] OR effectiveness OR efficacy OR “intention to treat” OR treat OR treatment OR therapy OR therapeutic OR “outcome assessment” OR “relative risk”)

HCUPnet

We searched the HCUPnet database for the following ICD-9 procedure codes:

ICD-9 Procedure Codes

80.1482.0982.3682.5282.9280.9283.7283.77
80.2482.1182.3982.5382.9381.8583.7383.79
80.3482.1282.4182.5482.9488.2283.7583.85
80.4482.1982.4282.5782.9583.0183.7684.99
80.7482.2182.4382.5980.1283.3183.8388.84
80.9482.2282.4482.7180.2283.6183.8893.04
82.0182.3182.4582.8580.3283.6283.9793.12
82.0282.3382.4682.8680.4283.6483.6593.17
82.0382.3582.5182.9180.7283.7183.7493.27

Datasets CPT Codes

The HCUPnet database was searched for the following CPT:

9991ANESTHESIA ACUPUNCTURE
9992OTHER ACUPUNCTURE
053SYMPATH NERVE INJECTION*
0539SYMPATH NERVE INJECT NEC
8294INJECT BURSA OF HAND
8295INJECT TENDON OF HAND
923INJECT STEROID
9929INJECT/INFUSE NEC
9354APPLICATION OF SPLINT
9927IONTOPHORESIS
932OTH PT MUSCULOSKEL MANIP*
936OSTEOPATHIC MANIPULATION*
9367OSTEOPATH MANIPULAT NEC
8392INSERT SKEL MUSC STIMULA
8393REMOV SKEL MUSC STIMULAT
9327MUSC OR TEND STRETCHING
9308ELECTROMYOGRAPHY
9314JOINT MOVEMENT TRAINING
9383OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY
9361OMT FOR GEN'L MOBILIZAT
8211TENOTOMY OF HAND
8313OTHER TENOTOMY
8092EXCISION OF ELBOW NEC
8093EXCISION OF WRIST NEC
8235HAND FASCIECTOMY NEC
8344OTHER FASCIECTOMY
82HAND MUSCL/TEND/FASC OPS*
8201EXPLOR TEND SHEATH-HAND
821DIV HAND MUSC/TEND/FASC*
8221EXC LES TEND SHEATH HAND
8232EXCIS HAND TEND FOR GRFT
8241SUTURE TENDN SHEATH HAND
8242DELAY SUT FLEX TEND HAND
8243DELAY SUT HAND TEND NEC
8244SUTUR FLEX TEND HAND NEC
8245SUTURE HAND TENDON NEC
830INCIS MUS/TEND/FASC/BURS*
8301TENDON SHEATH EXPLORAT
831MUSCL/TEND/FASC DIVISION*
8331EXCIS LES TENDON SHEATH
836SUTURE MUSCL/TENDON/FASC*
8361TENDON SHEATH SUTURE
8362DELAYED TENDON SUTURE
8364OTHER SUTURE OF TENDON
837MUSCLE/TENDON RECONSTRUC*
8371TENDON ADVANCEMENT
8372TENDON RECESSION
8373TENDON REATTACHMENT
8375TENDON TRNSFR/TRANSPLANT
8376OTHER TENDON TRANSPOSIT
8383TENDON PULLEY RECONSTRUC
8385MUSC/TEND LNG CHANGE NEC
807SYNOVECTOMY*
8070SYNOVECTOMY-SITE NOS
8073WRIST SYNOVECTOMY
8074HAND SYNOVECTOMY
8079SYNOVECTOMY-SITE NEC
82HAND MUSCL/TEND/FASC OPS*
8201EXPLOR TEND SHEATH-HAND
821DIV HAND MUSC/TEND/FASC*
8221EXC LES TEND SHEATH HAND
8241SUTURE TENDN SHEATH HAND
8242DELAY SUT FLEX TEND HAND
8243DELAY SUT HAND TEND NEC
8244SUTUR FLEX TEND HAND NEC
8245SUTURE HAND TENDON NEC
825HAND MUSC/TEND TRANSPLAN*
8251HAND TENDON ADVANCEMENT
8252HAND TENDON RECESSION
8253HAND TENDON REATTACHMENT
0443CARPAL TUNNEL RELEASE
8174ARTHROPLASTY CARPAL WIT
8175ARTHROPLASTY CARPAL W/O
8257TRANSPOSIT HAND TEND NEC
8259TRANSPOSIT HAND MUSC NEC
8376OTHER TENDON TRANSPOSIT
8379OTHER MUSCLE TRANSPOSIT
0532NEUROLYT INJEC-SYMP NRV
047OTHER PERIPH NEUROPLASTY*
0479OTHER NEUROPLASTY
8022ELBOW ARTHROSCOPY
8822SKEL XRAY-ELBOW/FOREARM
8023WRIST ARTHROSCOPY
8823SKEL XRAY-WRIST & HAND

Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs)

The HCUPnet database was searched for the following:

006SURGCARPAL TUNNEL RELEASE
007SURGPERIPH & CRANIAL NERVE & OTHER NERV SYST PROC W CC
008SURGPERIPH & CRANIAL NERVE & OTHER NERV SYST PROC W/O CC
216SURGBIOPSIES OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM & CONNECTIVE TISSUE
223SURGMAJOR SHOULDER/ELBOW PROC, OR OTHER UPPER EXTREMITY PROC W CC
224SURGSHOULDER, ELBOW OR FOREARM PROC, EXC MAJOR JOINT PROC, W/O CC
226SURGSOFT TISSUE PROCEDURES W CC
227SURGSOFT TISSUE PROCEDURES W/O CC
228SURGMAJOR THUMB OR JOINT PROC, OR OTH HAND OR WRIST PROC W CC
229SURGHAND OR WRIST PROC, EXCEPT MAJOR JOINT PROC, W/O CC
232SURGARTHROSCOPY
233SURGOTHER MUSCULOSKELET SYS & CONN TISS O.R. PROC W CC
234SURGOTHER MUSCULOSKELET SYS & CONN TISS O.R. PROC W/O CC
240MEDCONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS W CC
241MEDCONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS W/O CC
246MEDNON-SPECIFIC ARTHROPATHIES
247MEDSIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM & CONN TISSUE
248MEDTENDONITIS, MYOSITIS & BURSITIS
249MEDAFTERCARE, MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM & CONNECTIVE TISSUE
250MEDFX, SPRN, STRN & DISL OF FOREARM, HAND, FOOT AGE >17 W CC
251MEDFX, SPRN, STRN & DISL OF FOREARM, HAND, FOOT AGE >17 W/O CC
252MEDFX, SPRN, STRN & DISL OF FOREARM, HAND, FOOT AGE 0–17
256MEDOTHER MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM & CONNECTIVE TISSUE DIAGNOSES
462MEDREHABILITATION

Ambulatory Payment Classifications (APCs)

The HCUPnet database was searched for the following APCs:

0041Arthroscopy
0042Arthroscopically-Aided Procedures
0047Arthroplasty without Prosthesis
0049Level I Musculoskeletal Procedures Except Hand and Foot
0050Level II Musculoskeletal Procedures Except Hand and Foot
0051Level III Musculoskeletal Procedures Except Hand and Foot
0053Level I Hand Musculoskeletal Procedures
0054Level II Hand Musculoskeletal Procedures

HCPCS Codes

The HCUPnet database was searched for the following HCPCS codes:

25000Incision of tendon sheath
25020Decompression of forearm
25023Decompression of forearm
24000Exploratory elbow surgery
24006Release elbow joint
24100Biopsy elbow joint lining
24101Explore/treat elbow joint
24102Remove elbow joint lining
24301Muscle/tendon transfer
24305Arm tendon lengthening
24310Revision of arm tendon
24320Repair of arm tendon
24330Revision of arm muscles
24331Revision of arm muscles
24341Repair arm tendon/muscle
24350Repair of tennis elbow
24351Repair of tennis elbow
24352Repair of tennis elbow
24354Repair of tennis elbow
24356Revision of tennis elbow
25260Repair forearm tendon/muscle
25263Repair forearm tendon/muscle
25265Repair forearm tendon/muscle
25270Repair forearm tendon/muscle
25272Repair forearm tendon/muscle
25274Repair forearm tendon/muscle
25280Revise wrist/forearm tendon
25290Incise wrist/forearm tendon
25295Release wrist/forearm tendon
25310Transplant forearm tendon
25320Repair/revise wrist joint
25332Revise wrist joint
26035Decompress fingers/hand
26037Decompress fingers/hand
26040Release palm contracture
26055Incise finger tendon sheath
26060Incision of finger tendon
26121Release palm contracture
26123Release palm contracture
26125Release palm contracture
26130Remove wrist joint lining
26135Revise finger joint, each
26140Revise finger joint, each
26145Tendon excision, palm/finger
26170Removal of palm tendon, each
26180Removal of finger tendon
26350Repair finger/hand tendon
26356Repair finger/hand tendon
26418Repair finger tendon
26525Release finger contracture
26591Repair muscles of hand
26593Release muscles of hand
26596Excision constricting tissue
26989Hand/finger surgery
29830Elbow arthroscopy
29835Elbow arthroscopy/surgery
29836Elbow arthroscopy/surgery
29837Elbow arthroscopy/surgery
29838Elbow arthroscopy/surgery
29840Wrist arthroscopy
29843Wrist arthroscopy/surgery
29844Wrist arthroscopy/surgery
29845Wrist arthroscopy/surgery
29846Wrist arthroscopy/surgery
29848Wrist arthroscopy/surgery
64702Revise finger/toe nerve
64704Revise hand/foot nerve
64718Revise ulnar nerve at elbow
64719Revise ulnar nerve at wrist
64721Carpal tunnel surgery
95831Limb muscle testing, manual
95832Hand muscle testing, manual
95851Range of motion measurements
95852Range of motion measurements
95857Tensilon test
95858Tensilon test & myogram
95860Muscle test, one limb
95861Muscle test, two limbs
95872Muscle test, one fiber
95875Limb exercise test
95900Motor nerve conduction test
95903Motor nerve conduction test
95904Sense/mixed n conduction test
95925Somatosensory testing
95937Neuromuscular junction test

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