NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Coulter I, Hardy M, Shekelle P, et al. Effect of the Supplemental Use of Antioxidants Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Coenzyme Q10 for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2003 Aug. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 75.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Effect of the Supplemental Use of Antioxidants Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Coenzyme Q10 for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

Effect of the Supplemental Use of Antioxidants Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and Coenzyme Q10 for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer.

Show details

Bibliography

  1. Ascorbic acid does not cure cancer.Nutr Rev. 1985;43(5):146–7. [PubMed: 3897919]
  2. NIA study: Vitamin E may have protective effects in older adults. Geriatr. 1995;50(1):20–21.
  3. Use of vitamin C for bone metastasis. Postgrad Med. 1972;52(2):24. [PubMed: 5047027]
  4. Abdel-Galil A M. Preventive effect in vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) on methylcholanthrene-induced soft tissue sarcomas in mice. Oncol. 1986;43(5):335–7. [PubMed: 3763128]
  5. Adler S R, Foskett J R. Disclosing complementary and alternative medicine use in the medical encounter: a qualitative study in women with breast cancer. J Fam Pract. 1999;48:453–8. [PubMed: 10386489]
  6. Akar H, Sarac A, Konuralp C, Yildiz L, Kolbakir F. 2001.
  7. Alberts D S, Meyskens F L Jr, Garewal H. et al. Fourth International Conference on Prevention of Human Cancer: Nutrition and chemoprevention controversies Tucson, Arizona, June 3–6, 1992. Prev Med. 1993;22(5):629–641. [PubMed: 7901848]
  8. Ambrosone C B, Marshall J R, Vena J E. et al. Interaction of family history of breast cancer and dietary antioxidants with breast cancer risk (New York, United States) Cancer Causes Control. 1995;6(5):407–15. [PubMed: 8547538]
  9. Ames B N. Micronutrient deficiencies. A major cause of DNA damage. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;889:87–106. [PubMed: 10668486]
  10. Ames B N. The prevention of dna damage: the role of nutrition. Mutat Res. 1997;379(suppl 1):S172.
  11. Anderson D. Factors that contribute to biomarker responses in humans including a study in individuals taking Vitamin C supplementation. Mutat Res. 2001;480–481:337–47. [PubMed: 11506826]
  12. Anderson J W, Gowri M S, Turner J. et al. Antioxidant supplementation effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(5):451–61. [PubMed: 10511327]
  13. Anderson R. Assessment of the roles of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene in the modulation of oxidant stress mediated by cigarette smoke -activated phagocytes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:S358–61. [PubMed: 1985411]
  14. Angell M, Kassirer J P. Alternative medicine—the risks of untested and unregulated remedies. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(12):839–41. [PubMed: 9738094]
  15. Arad Y, Newstein D, Roth M, Guerci A D. Rationale and design of the St. Francis Heart Study: A randomized clinical trial of atorvastatin plus antioxidants in asymptomatic persons with elevated coronary calcification. Control Clin Trials. 2001;22(5):553–572. [PubMed: 11578788]
  16. Astin J A. Why patients use alternative medicine: results of a national study. JAMA. 1998;279(19):1548–53. [PubMed: 9605899]
  17. Aubertin A. Vitamin C: how it may protect against cancer is unclear. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83(6):396–7. [PubMed: 1999846]
  18. Azen S P, Qian D, Mack W J. et al. Effect of supplementary antioxidant vitamin intake on carotid arterial wall intima-media thickness in a controlled clinical trial of cholesterol lowering. Circulation. 1996;94(10):2369–72. [PubMed: 8921775]
  19. Bakemeier A H. The potential role of vitamins A, C, and E and selenium in cancer prevention. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1988;15(6):785–91. [PubMed: 3205837]
  20. Ballmer P E, Reinhart W H, Jordan P, Buhler E, Moser U K, Gey K F. Depletion of plasma vitamin C but not of vitamin E in response to cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1994;108(2):311–20. [PubMed: 8041179]
  21. Barber D A, Harris S R. Oxygen free radicals and antioxidants: A review. Am Pharm. 1994;34(9):26–35. [PubMed: 7977023]
  22. Barone J, Taioli E, Hebert J, Wynder E L. Vitamin supplement use and risk for oral and esophageal cancer. Nutr Cancer. 1992;18(1):31–41. [PubMed: 1408944]
  23. Bartsch H, Ohshima H, Pignatelli B. Inhibitors of endogenous nitrosation. Mechanisms and implications in human cancer prevention. Mutat Res. 1988;202(2):307–24. [PubMed: 3057363]
  24. Batist G. Clinical evaluation of vitamin C and other micronutrients in the treatment of cancer. J Orthomol Med. 2000;15(4):189–92.
  25. Beer D, Stoner G. Clinical models of chemoprevention for the esophagus. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 1998;12(5):1055–77. [PubMed: 9888021]
  26. Begbie J, Wood J, Anderson P, Latchman D. Specific up-regulation of the POU domain transcription factor Oct-2 following axotomy. Neurosci Lett. 1996;207(3):183–6. [PubMed: 8728480]
  27. Begbie S, Kerestes Z, Bell D. Patterns of alternative medicine use by cancer patients. Med J Aust. 1996;165(10):545–8. [PubMed: 8941239]
  28. Beltramino R, Penenory A, Buceta A M. An open-label, randomized multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of Cyclo 3 fort(R) versus hydroxyethyl rutoside in chronic venous lymphatic insufficiency. Angiol. 2000;51(7):535–544. [PubMed: 10917578]
  29. Bendich A, Langseth L. The health effects of vitamin C supplementation: a review. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995;14(2):124–36. [PubMed: 7790686]
  30. Benner S E, Pastorino U, Lippman S M, Waun Ki Hong Second International Cancer Chemoprevention Conference. Cancer Res. 1994;54(3):854–856. [PubMed: 7905788]
  31. Berenson M, Groshen S, Miller H, DeCosse J. Subject-reported compliance in a chemoprevention trial for familial adenomatous polyposis. J Behav Med. 1989;12(3):233–47. [PubMed: 2561292]
  32. Bertram J S, Kolonel L N, Meyskens F L J. Rationale and strategies for chemoprevention of cancer in humans. Cancer Res. 1987;47(11):3012–31. [PubMed: 3105872]
  33. Birt D F. Update on the effects of vitamins A, C and E and selenium on carcinogenesis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1986;183:311–20. [PubMed: 3540970]
  34. Block G. The data support a role for antioxidants in reducing cancer risk. Nutr Rev. 1992;50:207–13. [PubMed: 1641203]
  35. Block G. Epidemiologic evidence regarding vitamin C and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(suppl 6):1310S–1314S. [PubMed: 1962588]
  36. Block G. Vitamin C and cancer prevention: the epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(suppl 1):270S–282S. [PubMed: 1985398]
  37. Block G. Vitamin C and reduced mortality. Epidemiol. 1992;3(3):189–91. [PubMed: 1591315]
  38. Block G. Vitamin C status and cancer. Epidemiologic evidence of reduced risk. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992;669:280–90. [PubMed: 1444033]
  39. Block G, Levine M. Vitamin C: a new look. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114:909–10. [PubMed: 2014955]
  40. Blot W. Preventing cancer by disrupting progression of precancerous lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(23):1868–9. [PubMed: 11106670]
  41. Blot W, Li J Y, Taylor P R. et al. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: supplementation with specific vitamin/mineral combinations, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality in the general population. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85(18):1483–92. [PubMed: 8360931]
  42. Boon H, Stewart M, Kennard M. et al. Use of complementary/alternative medicine by breast cancer survivors in Ontario: prevalence and perceptions. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(13):2515–21. [PubMed: 10893281]
  43. Boone C W. Current strategies of cancer chemoprevention: 13th Sapporo Cancer Seminar. Cancer Res. 1994;54(12):3315–3318. [PubMed: 7911397]
  44. Bostick R M, Potter J D, McKenzie D R. et al. Reduced risk of colon cancer with high intake of vitamin E: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Cancer Res. 1993;53(18):4230–7. [PubMed: 8364919]
  45. Botterweck A A, van den Brandt P A, Goldbohm R A. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma: results from a prospective study after 6.3 years of follow-up. Cancer. 2000;88(4):737–48. [PubMed: 10679641]
  46. Bourgeault I. Physicians' attitudes toward patients' use of alternative cancer therapies. CMAJ. 1996;155(12):1679–85. [PMC free article: PMC1335492] [PubMed: 8976333]
  47. Breaux T, Jamison James M, Summers Jack L. et al. Vitamin c: k3 combinations induce a novel form of non-apoptotic cell death in bladder cancer. J Urol. 2001;165(suppl 5):116.
  48. Bright-See E. Vitamin C and cancer prevention. Semin Oncol. 1983;10(3):294–8. [PubMed: 6364355]
  49. Brock K E, Berry G, Mock P A, MacLennan R, Truswell A S, Brinton L A. Nutrients in diet and plasma and risk of in situ cervical cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1988;80(8):580–5. [PubMed: 3373548]
  50. Brown B G, Xue-Qiao Z, Chait A. et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. New Engl J Med. 2001;345(22):1583–92. [PubMed: 11757504]
  51. Bruckdorfer K R. Antioxidants, lipoprotein oxidation, and arterial function. Lipids. 1996;31(suppl 3):S83–S85. [PubMed: 8729099]
  52. Buiatti E. Intervention Trials of Cancer Prevention: Results and New Research Programming. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 1994.
  53. Burstein H, Gelber S, Guadagnoli E, Weeks J. Use of alternative medicine by women with early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(22):1733–9. [PubMed: 10352166]
  54. Bussey H J, DeCosse J J, Deschner E E. et al. A randomized trial of ascorbic acid in polyposis coli. Cancer. 1982;50(7):1434–9. [PubMed: 7049351]
  55. Butterworth C E J, Norris D. Folic acid and vitamin C in cervical dysplasia. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37(2):332–3. [PubMed: 6823899]
  56. Byers T, Perry G. Dietary carotenes, vitamin C, and vitamin E as protective antioxidants in human cancers. Annu Rev Nutr. 1992;12:139–59. [PubMed: 1503801]
  57. Cahill R J, O'Sullivan K R, Mathias P M, Beattie S, Hamilton H, O'Morain C. Effects of vitamin antioxidant supplementation on cell kinetics of patients with adenomatous polyps. Gut. 1993;34(7):963–7. [PMC free article: PMC1374235] [PubMed: 8344584]
  58. Cai L, Koropatnick J, Cherian M G. Roles of vitamin C in radiation-induced DNA damage in presence and absence of copper. Chem Biol Interact. 2001;137(1):75–88. [PubMed: 11518565]
  59. Calabrese E J. Conjoint use of laetrile and megadoses of ascorbic acid in cancer treatment: possible side effects. Med Hypotheses. 1979;5(9):995–7. [PubMed: 522711]
  60. Calzada C, Bruckdorfer K R, Rice-Evans C A. The influence of antioxidant nutrients on platelet function in healthy volunteers. Atheroscler. 1997;128(1):97–105. [PubMed: 9051202]
  61. Cameron E. Protocol for the use of vitamin C in the treatment of cancer. Med Hypotheses. 1991;36(3):190–4. [PubMed: 1787808]
  62. Cameron E, Campbell A. Innovation vs. quality control: an ‘unpublishable’ clinical trial of supplemental ascorbate in incurable cancer. Med Hypotheses. 1991;36(3):185–9. [PubMed: 1787807]
  63. Cameron E, Campbell A. The orthomolecular treatment of cancer. II. Clinical trial of high-dose ascorbic acid supplements in advanced human cancer. Chem Biol Interact. 1974;9(4):285–315. [PubMed: 4430016]
  64. Cameron E, Campbell A, Jack T. The orthomolecular treatment of cancer. III. Reticulum cell sarcoma: double complete regression induced by high-dose ascorbic acid therapy. Chem Biol Interact. 1975;11(5):387–93. [PubMed: 1104207]
  65. Cameron E, Pauling L. The orthomolecular treatment of cancer. I. The role of ascorbic acid in host resistance. Chem Biol Interact. 1974;9(4):273–83. [PubMed: 4609626]
  66. Cameron E, Pauling L. Supplemental ascorbate in the supportive treatment of cancer: reevaluation of prolongation of survival times in terminal human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1978;75:4538–42. [PMC free article: PMC336151] [PubMed: 279931]
  67. Campbell A, Jack T, Cameron E. Reticulum cell sarcoma: two complete ‘spontaneous’ regressions, in response to high-dose ascorbic acid therapy. A report on subsequent progress. Oncol. 1991;48(6):495–7. [PubMed: 1749589]
  68. Campion E W. Why unconventional medicine? N Engl J Med. 1993;328(4):282–3. [PubMed: 8418412]
  69. Carr A C, Frei B. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(6):1086–107. [PubMed: 10357726]
  70. Cascinu S, Ligi M, Del Ferro E. et al. Effects of calcium and vitamin supplementation on colon cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Invest. 2000;18(5):411–6. [PubMed: 10834024]
  71. Cassileth B R. Unorthodox cancer medicine. Cancer Invest. 1986;4(6):591–8. [PubMed: 3548915]
  72. Cassileth B R, Lusk E J, Guerry D. et al. Survival and quality of life among patients receiving unproven as compared with conventional cancer therapy. N Engl J Med. 1991;324(17):1180–5. [PubMed: 2011162]
  73. Cassileth B R, Lusk E J, Strouse T B, Bodenheimer B J. Contemporary unorthodox treatments in cancer medicine. A study of patients, treatments, and practitioners. Ann Intern Med. 1984;101(1):105–12. [PubMed: 6732073]
  74. Chamiec T, Herbaczynska-Cedro K, Ceremuzynski L. Effects of antioxidant vitamins C and E on signal-averaged electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 1996;77(4):237–41. [PubMed: 8607400]
  75. Chappell L C, Seed P T, Briley A L. et al. Effect of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: a randomised trial. Lancet. 1999;354:810–6. [PubMed: 10485722]
  76. Charleux J L. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E: the protective micronutrients. Nutr Rev. 1996;54(11 Pt 2):S109–14. [PubMed: 9110586]
  77. Chen L H, Boissonneault G A, Glauert H P. Vitamin C, vitamin E and cancer (review) Anticancer Res. 1988;8(4):739–48. [PubMed: 3052251]
  78. Cherubini A, Polidori M C, Bregnocchi M. et al. Antioxidant profile and early outcome in stroke patients. Stroke. 2000;31(10):2295–300. [PubMed: 11022053]
  79. Chevion S, Or R, Berry E M. The antioxidant status of patients subjected to total body irradiation. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1999;47(6):1019–27. [PubMed: 10410248]
  80. Chisolm I G M. Antioxidants and atherosclerosis: A current assessment. Clin Cardiol. 1991;14(2 suppl 1):I-25–I-30. [PubMed: 2044256]
  81. Christen W G, Gaziano J M, Hennekens C H. Design of Physicians' Health Study II—a randomized trial of beta-carotene, vitamins E and C, and multivitamins, in prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and eye disease, and review of results of completed trials. Ann Epidemiol. 2000;10(2):125–34. [PubMed: 10691066]
  82. Clifton P M. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease risk. Curr Opin Lipidology. 1995;6(1):20–24. [PubMed: 7735709]
  83. Collins R. Randomized trial of cholesterol-lowering therapy and antioxidant vitamin supplementation in over 20,000 higher-risk patients. J Am Coll C ardiol. 1999;33(2 suppl A):263A.
  84. Conklin K A. Dietary antioxidants during cancer chemotherapy: impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness and development of side effects. Nutr Cancer. 2000;37(1):1–18. [PubMed: 10965514]
  85. Cooke J P. Nutriceuticals for cardiovascular health. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82(10A):43S–46S. [PubMed: 9860358]
  86. Coppes M J, Anderson R A, Egeler R M, Wolff J E. Alternative therapies for the treatment of childhood cancer. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(12):846–7. [PubMed: 9750078]
  87. Correa P, Fontham E T, Bravo J C. et al. Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-helicobacter pylori therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(23):1881–8. [PubMed: 11106679]
  88. Coss R A, McGrath P, Caggiano V. Alternative care. Patient choices for adjunct therapies within a cancer center. Cancer Pract. 1998;6(3):176–81. [PubMed: 9652249]
  89. Costa A, Santoro G, Assimakopoulos G. Cancer chemoprevention. A review of ongoing clinical studies. Acta Oncol. 1990;29(5):657–63. [PubMed: 2206582]
  90. Creagan E T, Moertel C. Vitamin C therapy of advanced cancer. N Engl J Med. 1979;301(25):1399. [PubMed: 503177]
  91. Creagan E T, Moertel C G, O'Fallon J R. et al. Failure of high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy to benefit patients with advanced cancer. A controlled trial. N Engl J Med. 1979;301(13):687–90. [PubMed: 384241]
  92. Creagan, E. T., Moertel C.G., Schutt A.J., and Oconnell M.J. Vitamin-c (ascorbic-acid) therapy of pre-terminal cancer-patients. [abstract]. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res. 79;20:355.
  93. D'Avanzo B, Ron E, La Vecchia C, Francaschi S, Negri E, Zleglar R. Selected micronutrient intake and thyroid carcinoma risk. Cancer. 1997;79(11):2186–92. [PubMed: 9179066]
  94. Daniel T A, Nawarskas J J. Vitamin C in the prevention of nitrate tolerance. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2000;34(10):1193–1197. [PubMed: 11054990]
  95. Daugherty A, Roselaar S E. Lipoprotein oxidation as a mediator of atherogenesis: Insights from pharmacological studies. Cardiovasc Res. 1995;29(3):297–311. [PubMed: 7781006]
  96. Daughters K, Waxman K, Gassel A, Zommer S. Anti-oxidant treatment for shock: Vitamin E but not vitamin C improves survival. Am Surg. 1996;62(10):789–792. [PubMed: 8813156]
  97. Dawsey S M, Wang G Q, Taylor P R. et al. Effects of vitamin/mineral supplementation on the prevalence of histological dysplasia and early cancer of the esophagus and stomach: results from the Dysplasia Trial in Linxian, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1994;3(2):167–72. [PubMed: 8049639]
  98. de Stefani E, Boffetta P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, et al. Dietary antioxidants and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer. 199;34(1):100–10. [PubMed: 10453448]
  99. DeCosse J J, Adams M B, Kuzma J F, Lo Gerfo P, Condon R E. Effect of ascorbic acid on rectal polyps of patients with familial polyposis. Wis Med J. 1976;75(1):S8. [PubMed: 1246900]
  100. DeCosse J J, Miller H H, Lesser M L. Effect of wheat fiber and vitamins C and E on rectal polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81(17):1290–7. [PubMed: 2549261]
  101. Diaz M N, Frei B, Vita J A, Keaney J F. Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1997;337:408–16. [PubMed: 9241131]
  102. DiPaola R, Zhang H, Lambert G. et al. Clinical and biologic activity of an estrogenic herbal combination (PC-SPES) in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 1998;339(12):785–91. [PubMed: 9738085]
  103. Diplock A T. Antioxidant nutrients and disease prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:S189–93. [PubMed: 1985386]
  104. Diplock A T. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants. Is there a case for exceeding the recommended dietary allowance? Free Radic Biol Med. 1987;3:199–201. [PubMed: 3666521]
  105. Drake I M, Davies M J, Mapstone N P. et al. Ascorbic acid may protect against human gastric cancer by scavenging mucosal oxygen radicals. Carcinog. 1996;17(3):559–62. [PubMed: 8631145]
  106. Draper H H, Bird R P. Micronutrients and cancer prevention: are the RDAs adequate? Free Radic Biol Med. 1987;3(3):203–7. [PubMed: 3666522]
  107. Driarsh P. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:S1113–18. [PubMed: 1962556]
  108. Duchesne J. Cancer prevention and therapy. Med Hypotheses. 1981;7(4):429–32. [PubMed: 7289900]
  109. Duffy S J, Gokce N, Holbrook M. et al. Effect of ascorbic acid treatment on conduit vessel endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280(2 492):H528–H534. [PubMed: 11158948]
  110. Duffy S J, Gokce N, Holbrook M. et al. Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid. Lancet. 1999;354:2048–9. [PubMed: 10636373]
  111. Duthie G, Bellizzi M C. Effects of antioxidants on vascular health. Br Med Bull. 1999;55(3):568–577. [PubMed: 10746347]
  112. Dwyer J. Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk. Nutr Rev. 1993;51(5):147–8. [PubMed: 8392670]
  113. Dyke G W, Craven J L, Hall R, Garner R C. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on gastric mucosal DNA damage. Carcinog. 1994;15(2):291–5. [PubMed: 8313520]
  114. Egan D A, Garg R, Wilt T J. et al. Rationale and design of the Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial (ADMIT) Pilot Study. Am J Cardiol. 1999;83(4):569–75. [PubMed: 10073863]
  115. Eichholzer M, Stahelin H B, Ludin E, Bernasconi F. Smoking, plasma vitamins C, E, retinol, and carotene, and fatal prostate cancer: seventeen-year follow-up of the prospective basal study. Prostate. 1999;38(3):189–98. [PubMed: 10068343]
  116. Eisenberg D M, Davis R, Ettner S L. et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997: results of a follow-up national survey. JAMA. 1998;280(18):1569–75. [PubMed: 9820257]
  117. el-Bayoumy K. Evaluation of chemopreventive agents against breast cancer and proposed strategies for future clinical intervention trials. Carcinog. 1994;15(11):2395–420. [PubMed: 7955084]
  118. Elsendoorn T J, Weijl N I, Mithoe S. et al. Chemotherapy-induced chromosomal damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients supplemented with antioxidants or placebo. Mutat Res. 2001;498(12):145–58. [PubMed: 11673080]
  119. Enstrom J E, Kanim L E, Klein M A. Vitamin C intake and mortality among a sample of the United States population. Epidemiol. 1992;3:194–202. [PubMed: 1591317]
  120. Erhola M, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P, Metsa-Ketela T, Alanko K, Nieminen M M. Effects of anthracyclin-based chemotherapy on total plasma antioxidant capacity in small cell lung cancer patients. Free Radic Biol Med. 1996;21(3):383–90. [PubMed: 8855450]
  121. Ernst E, Cassileth B R. The prevalence of complementary/alternative medicine in cancer: a systematic review. Cancer. 1998;83(4):777–82. [PubMed: 9708945]
  122. Fahey P J, Boltri J M, Monk J S. Key issues in nutrition. Disease prevention through adulthood and old age. Postgrad Med. 1987;82(1):135–42. [PubMed: 3037508]
  123. Faw C, Ballentine R, Ballentine L. Unproved cancer remedies: a survey of use in pediatric outpatients. JAMA. 1978;238:1536–8. [PubMed: 578224]
  124. Feldman E B. Dietary intervention and chemoprevention—1992 perspective. Prev Med. 1993;22(5):661–6. [PubMed: 8234205]
  125. Ferguson L R. Antimutagens as cancer chemopreventive agents in the diet. Mutat Res. 1994;307(1):395–410. [PubMed: 7513820]
  126. Ferguson L R. Micronutrients, dietary ques tionnaires and cancer. Biomed Pharmacother. 1997;51(8):337–44. [PubMed: 9436527]
  127. Ferguson L R. Prospects for cancer prevention. Mutat Res. 1999;428(12):329–38. [PubMed: 10518004]
  128. Ferraroni M, La Vecchia C, D'Avanzo E. et al. Selected micronutrient intake and the risk of colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 1997;70:1150. [PMC free article: PMC2033709] [PubMed: 7981067]
  129. Flagg E W, Coates R J, Greenberg R S. Epidemiologic studies of antioxidants and cancer in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995;14(5):419–27. [PubMed: 8522720]
  130. Fleshner N E, Kucuk O. Antioxidant dietary supplements: Rationale and current status as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Urology. 2001;57(4 suppl 1):90–4. [PubMed: 11295603]
  131. Fontham E T, Pickle L W, Haenszel W, Correa P, Lin Y P, Falk R T. Dietary vitamins A and C and lung cancer risk in Louisiana. Cancer. 1988;62(10):2267–73. [PubMed: 3179940]
  132. Ford E S, Giles W H. Serum vitamins, carotenoids, and angina pectoris: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Ann Epidemiol. 2000;10(2):106–116. [PubMed: 10691064]
  133. Frank E, Bendich A, Denniston M. Use of vitamin-mineral supplements by female physicians in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(4):969–75. [PubMed: 11010939]
  134. Freedman J E. Antioxidant versus lipid-altering therapy - some answers, more questions. New Engl J Med. 2001;345(22):1636–37. [PubMed: 11757512]
  135. Frei B. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(suppl 6):1113S–1118S. [PubMed: 1962556]
  136. Fryer M J. Vitamin E supplementation. Lancet. 2001;357(9256):633. [PubMed: 11558506]
  137. Fuller C J, Grundy S M, Norkus E P, Jialal I. Effect of ascorbate supplementation on low density lipoprotein oxidation in smokers. Atheroscler. 1996;119(2):139–50. [PubMed: 8808491]
  138. Gail M H, Brown L M, You W C. Re: Chemoprevention of gastric dysplasia: randomized trial of antioxidant supplements and anti-helicobacter pylori therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93(7):559–60. [PubMed: 11287457]
  139. Gail M H, You W C, Chang Y S. et al. Factorial trial of three interventions to reduce the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in Shandong, China: design issues and initial data. Control Clin Trials. 1998;19(4):352–69. [PubMed: 9683311]
  140. Gale C R, Martyn C N, Winter P D, Cooper C. Vitamin C and risk of death from stroke and coronary heart disease in cohort of elderly people. BMJ. 1995;310:1563–6. [PMC free article: PMC2549941] [PubMed: 7787644]
  141. Gale C A H, Powers H, Martyn C. Antioxidant vitamin status and carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(3):402–408. [PubMed: 11522566]
  142. Galley H F, Thornton J, Howdle P D, Walker B E, Webster N R. Combination oral antioxidant supplementation reduces blood pressure. Clin Sci (Lond) 1997;92(4):361–5. [PubMed: 9176034]
  143. Gamble J, Grewal P S, Gartsides I B. Vitamin C modifies the cardiovascular and microvascular responses to cigarette smoke inhalation in man. Clin Sci (Lond) 2000;98(4):455–460. [PubMed: 10731481]
  144. Gandini S, Merzenich H, Robertson C, Boyle P. Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet: the role of fruit and vegetable consumption and the intake of associated micronutrients. Eur J Cancer. 2000;36(5):636–46. [PubMed: 10738129]
  145. Garewal H, Meyskens F Jr, Friedman S, Alberts D, Ramsey L. Oral cancer prevention: The case for carotenoids and anti-oxidant nutrients. Prev Med. 1993;22(5):701–711. [PubMed: 8234210]
  146. Garewal H S, Schantz S. Emerging role of beta-carotene and antioxidant nutrients in prevention of oral cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;121(2):141–4. [PubMed: 7840919]
  147. Garg R, Elam M B, Crouse J R III. et al. Effective and safe modification of multiple atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Am Heart J. 2000;140(5):792–803. [PubMed: 11054628]
  148. Garland M, Willett W C, Manson J E, Hunter D J. Antioxidant micronutrients and breast cancer. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12:400–11. [PubMed: 8409102]
  149. Gaytan R J, Prisant L M. Oral nutritional supplements and heart disease: a review. Am J Ther. 2001;8(4):255–74. [PubMed: 11441326]
  150. Gaziano J M. Antioxidants in cardiovascular disease: randomized trials. Nutrition. 1996;12(9):583–8. [PubMed: 8878166]
  151. Gaziano JM. Antioxidants in cardiovascular disease: randomized trials (Brief Critical Reviews). Nutr Rev. 1996;54(6):175(3). [PubMed: 8810824]
  152. Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Hennekens CH. Natural antioxidants and cardiovascular disease: Observational epidemiologic studies and randomized trials. In: Frei B, ed. Natural Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1994:387–409.
  153. Gazis A, Fogarty A. Vitamin E supplementation. Lancet. 2001;357(9256):631–2. [PubMed: 11558503]
  154. Gensini G, Conti A A. NNT and NNH by treatment. Lancet. 2001;357(9269):1704. [PubMed: 11428362]
  155. Gey K F. Vitamins E plus C and interacting conutrients required for optimal health. A critical and constructive review of epidemiology and supplementation data regarding cardiovascular disease and cancer. Biofactors. 1998;7(12):113–74. [PubMed: 9523035]
  156. Gey KF. On the antioxidant hypothesis with regard to arteriosclerosis. Bibl Nutr Dieta. 1986(37): 53–91. [PubMed: 3510621]
  157. Gey K F. Prospects for the prevention of free radical disease regarding cancer and cardiovascular disease. Br Med Bull. 1993;49:679–99. [PubMed: 8221032]
  158. Gey K F, Moser U K, Jordan P, Stahelin H B, Eichholzer M, Ludin E. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease at suboptimal plasma concentrations of essential antioxidants: an epidemiological update with special attention to carotene and vitamin C. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57(suppl 5):S787–97. [PubMed: 8475897]
  159. Gey K F, Puska P, Jordan P, Moser U K. Inverse correlation between plasma vitamin E and mortality from ischemic heart disease in cross-cultural epidemiology. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(suppl 1):S326–34. [PubMed: 1985406]
  160. Ghosh J, Das S. Evaluation of vitamin-a and vitamin-c status in normal and malignant conditions and their possible role in cancer prevention. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1985;76(12):1174–1178. [PubMed: 3937831]
  161. Ginter E. Decline in coronary mortality in United States and vitamin C. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979;32:511–2. [PubMed: 420142]
  162. Giugliano D. Dietary antioxidants for cardiovascular prevention. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2000;10(1):38–44. [PubMed: 10812586]
  163. Goldin-Lang P, Kreuser E, Zunft H J. Basis and consequences of primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal tumors. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1996;142:163–92. [PubMed: 8893341]
  164. Gordon D. Can antioxidants enhance chemotherapy? Gastroenterology. 1998;114(2):235. [PubMed: 9453477]
  165. Graham S. Dietary factors in the prevention of cancer. Transplant Proc. 1984;16(2):392–400. [PubMed: 6372174]
  166. Graham S. Toward a dietary prevention of cancer. Epidemiol Rev. 1983;5:38–50. [PubMed: 6315467]
  167. Greco A M, Gentile M, Di Filippo O, Coppola A. Study of blood vitamin C in lung and bladder cancer patients before and after treatment with ascorbic acid. A preliminary report. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1982;4(12):155–62. [PubMed: 7124563]
  168. Greenberg E R, Baron J A, Tosteson T D. et al. A clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins to prevent colorectal adenoma. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:141–47. [PubMed: 8008027]
  169. Greenwald P. Cancer risk factors for selecting cohorts for large-scale chemoprevention trials. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1996;25:29–36. [PubMed: 9027595]
  170. Greenwald P. Clinical trials of breast and prostate cancer prevention. J Nutr. 2001;131(1):176S–178S. [PubMed: 11208959]
  171. Greenwald P, Malone WF, Cerny ME, Stern HR, Vande WG, Klein G. Cancer prevention research trials. In: Basu N, Temple NJ, Garg M, eds. Advances in Cancer Research. Vol 61. 1993:1–23.
  172. Greenwald P, McDonald S. Antioxidants and the prevention of cancer. In: Basu TK, Temple NJ, Garg ML, eds. Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease. Wallingford, UK: CAB International Publishing; 1999:217–234.
  173. Gridley G, McLaughlin J, Block G, Blot W J, Gluch M, Fraumeni J F. Vitamin supplement use and reduced risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1992;135(10):1083–92. [PubMed: 1632421]
  174. Grundy S M. Antioxidants and heart disease: Overview. Clin Cardiol. 1993;16(suppl 4):I1–I2.
  175. Hakama M. Chemoprevention research in Europe. Int J Cancer. 1997;10(suppl):30–3. [PubMed: 9209017]
  176. Halliwell B. The antioxidant paradox. Lancet. 2000;355(9210):1179–80. [PubMed: 10791396]
  177. Halliwell B. Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annu Rev Nutr. 1996;16:33–50. [PubMed: 8839918]
  178. Halliwell B. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and cardiovascular disease: How should we move forward? Cardiovasc Res. 2000;47(3):410–418. [PubMed: 10963714]
  179. Halperin E C, Gaspar L, George S, Darr D, Pinnell S. A double-blind, randomized, prospective trial to evaluate topical vitamin C solution for the prevention of radiation dermatitis. CNS Cancer Consortium. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1993;26(3):413–6. [PubMed: 8514538]
  180. Hamabe A, Takase B, Uehata A, Kurita A, Ohsuzu F, Tamai S. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the brachial artery in variant angina pectoris and the effect of intravenous administration of vitamin C. Am J Cardio. 2001;87(10):1154–1159. [PubMed: 11356389]
  181. Harats D, Ben-Naim M, Dabach Y, Hollander G, Havivi E, Stein O, Stein Y. Effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on susceptibility of plasma lipproteins to peroxidation induced by acute smoking. Atheroscler. 1990;85:47–54. [PubMed: 2282108]
  182. Hathcock J N. Vitamins and minerals: efficacy and safety. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(2):427–37. [PubMed: 9250127]
  183. Hatta A, Frei B. Oxidative modification and antioxidant protection of human low-density lipoprotein at high and low oxygen partial pressures. J Lipid Res. 1995;36:2383–93. [PubMed: 8656076]
  184. Hawk E T, Lippman S M. Primary cancer prevention trials. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2000;14(4):809–30. [PubMed: 10949775]
  185. Hennekens C H. Antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease: Current perspectives and future directions. Eur Heart J. 1997;18(2):177–9. [PubMed: 9043828]
  186. Hennekens C H. Platelet inhibitors and antioxidant vitamins in cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J. 1994;128(suppl 6 II):1333–6. [PubMed: 7977015]
  187. Hennekens C H, Buring J E, Peto R. Antioxidant vitamins—benefits not yet proved. N Engl J Med. 1994;330(15):1080–1. [PubMed: 8127337]
  188. Henning S, Ingles S, Mahmoud M. et al. Multivitamin and mineral supplement did not alter the antioxidant capacity in plasma of healthy young men and women. Nutr Res. 2000;20(2):167–76.
  189. Herbaczynska-Cedro K, Klosiewicz-Wasek B, Cedro K, Wasek W, Panczenko-Kresowska B, Wartanowicz M. Supplementation with vitamins C and E suppresses leukocyte oxygen free radical production in patients with myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 1995;16(8):1044–9. [PubMed: 9110940]
  190. Hercberg S, Preziosi P, Briancon S. et al. A primary prevention trial using nutritional doses of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in cardiovascular diseases and cancers in a general population: the SU.VI.MAX study—design, methods, and participant characteristics. Supplementation en VItamines et Mineraux AntioXydants. Control Clin Trials. 1998;19(4):336–51. [PubMed: 9683310]
  191. Herman Z S. The application of the Hardin Jones-Pauling biostatistical theory of survival analysis for cancer patients to a clinical trial purporting to test the efficacy of vitamin C in lengthening the survival times of patients with advanced colorectal cancer. J Orthomol Med. 1998;13(4):225–32.
  192. Hidvegi M, Raso E, Tomoskozi-Farkas R, Paku S, Lapis K, Szende B. Effect of Avemar and Avemar + vitamin C on tumor growth and metastasis in experimental animals. Anticancer Res. 1998;18(4A):2353–8. [PubMed: 9703878]
  193. Hinds M W, Kolonel L N, Hankin J H. et al. Dietary vitamin A, carotene, vitamin C, and risk of lung cancer in Hawaii. Am J Epidemiol. 1984;119:227–37. [PubMed: 6695902]
  194. Ho E E, Lee F C, Meyskens F L J. An exploratory study of attitudes, beliefs and practices related to the interim dietary guidelines for reducing cancer in the elderly. J Nutr Elder. 1991;10(4):31–49. [PubMed: 1920044]
  195. Hodis H N, Mack W J, LaBree L. et al. Serial coronary angiographic evidence that antioxidant vitamin intake reduces progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. JAMA. 1995;273(23):1849–54. [PubMed: 7776501]
  196. Hoffer A. Antioxidant nutrients and cancer. J Orthomol Med. 2000;15(4):193–200.
  197. Hoffer A. Clinical procedures in treating terminally ill cancer patients with vitamin C. J Orthomol Med. 1991;6(34):155–60.
  198. Hoffer A, Pauling L. Hardin Jones biostatistical analysis of mortality data for cohorts of cancer patients with a large fraction surviving at the termination of the study and a comparison of survival times of cancer patients receiving large regular oral doses of vitamin C and other nutrients with similar patients not receiving those doses. J Orthomol Med. 1990;5(3):143–54.
  199. Hofstad B, Almendingen K, Vatn M. et al. Growth and recurrence of colorectal polyps: a double-blind, three-year intervention with calcium and antioxidants. Digestion. 1998;59:148–56. [PubMed: 9586828]
  200. Hooper L, Ness A R, Smith G D. Antioxidant strategy for cardiovascular diseases. Lancet. 2001;357(9269):1705–6. [PubMed: 11428363]
  201. Horn-Ross P L, Morrow M, Ljung B M. Diet and the risk of salivary gland cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146(2):171–6. [PubMed: 9230779]
  202. Hornig B, Landmesser U, Kohler C. et al. Comparative effect of ACE inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonism on bioavailability of nitric oxide in patients with coronary artery disease: Role of superoxide dismutase. Circulation. 2001;103(6):799–805. [PubMed: 11171786]
  203. Houser H B. Re: “Dietary vitamin A, carotene, vitamin C and risk of lung cancer in Hawaii” Am J Epidemiol. 1985;121(4):623–4. [PubMed: 4014152]
  204. Howe G R, Hirohata T, Hislop T G. et al. Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1990;82(7):561–9. [PubMed: 2156081]
  205. Huang H Y, Helzlsouer K J, Appel L J. The effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on oxidative DNA damage: results from a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(7):647–52. [PubMed: 10919732]
  206. Huber M H, Hong W K. Biology and chemoprevention of head and neck cancer. Curr Probl Cancer. 1994;18(2):81–140. [PubMed: 8055703]
  207. Huber M H, Lee J S, Hong W K. Chemoprevention of lung cancer. Semin Oncol. 1993;20(2):128–141. [PubMed: 8480185]
  208. Human J A, Ubbink J B, Jerling J J. et al. The effect of Simvastatin on the plasma antioxidant concentrations in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Clin Chim Acta. 1997;263(1):67–77. [PubMed: 9247729]
  209. Hunter D J, Manson J E, Colditz G A. et al. A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(4):234–40. [PubMed: 8292129]
  210. Hunter, D. J., Stampfer, M. J., and Colditz, G. A. A prospective study of consumption of vitamins A, C, and E and breast cancer. [abstract]. Am J Epidemiol. 91;134:715.
  211. IOM (Institute of Medicine); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.
  212. Jaakkola K, Lahteenmaki P, Laakso J, Hrju E, Tykka H, Mahlberg K. Treatment with antioxidant and other nutrients in combination with chemotherapy and irradiation in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res. 1992;12:599–606. [PubMed: 1320355]
  213. Jackson R L. Anti-oxidants for the treatment and the prevention of atherosclerosis. Biochem Soc Trans. 1993;21(3):650–651. [PubMed: 8224483]
  214. Jacob R A, Burri B J. Oxidative damage and defense. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(6):985S–990S. [PubMed: 8644698]
  215. Jacobson J S, Begg M D, Wang L W. et al. Effects of a 6-month vitamin intervention on DNA damage in heavy smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(12):1303–11. [PubMed: 11142415]
  216. Jadad A R, Moore R A, Carroll D. et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials. 1996;17(1):1–12. [PubMed: 8721797]
  217. Jha P, Flather M, Lonn E. et al. The antioxidant vitamins and cariovascular disease: a critical review of epidemiologic and clinical trial data. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:860–72. [PubMed: 7486470]
  218. Jialal I, Fuller C J. Effect of vitamin E, vitamin C and beta-carotene on LDL oxidation and atherosclerosis. Can J Cardiol. 1995;11(suppl G):97G–103G. [PubMed: 7585302]
  219. Jialal I, Grundy S M. Effect of combined supplementation with alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, and beta carotene on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Circulation. 1993;88(6):2780–6. [PubMed: 8252691]
  220. Johnson K A, Brawley O W, Perlman J A, Ford L G. Re: Chemoprevention studies in the community clinical oncology program. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85(10):832–3. [PubMed: 8487329]
  221. Jonas C R, Puckett A B, Jones D P. et al. Plasma antioxidant status after high-dose chemotherapy: a randomized trial of parenteral nutrition in bone marrow transplantation patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(1):181–9. [PubMed: 10871578]
  222. Joshipura KJ, Hu F.B, Manson J.E, et al. The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2001;134(12):1106–1114+I-28. [PubMed: 11412050]
  223. Kamat A M, Lamm D L. Chemoprevention of urological cancer. J Urol. 1999;161(6):1748–60. [PubMed: 10332429]
  224. Kaugars G E, Silverman S J, Lovas J G. et al. A clinical trial of antioxidant supplements in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1994;78(4):462–8. [PubMed: 7800378]
  225. Kaugars G E, Silverman S J, Lovas J G, Thompson J S, Brandt R B, Singh V N. Use of antioxidant supplements in the treatment of human oral leukoplakia. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1996;81(1):5–14. [PubMed: 8850475]
  226. Kelloff G J, Lieberman R, Steele V E. et al. Agents, biomarkers, and cohorts for chemopreventive agent development in prostate cancer. Urology. 2001;57(4 suppl 1):46–51. [PubMed: 11295594]
  227. Kiningham R. The value of antioxidant vitamin supplements. Am Fam Physician. 1999;60(3):742–744. [PubMed: 10498103]
  228. Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Seppanen R. et al. Dietary antioxidants and the risk of lung cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 1991;134(5):471–9. [PubMed: 1897503]
  229. Kostis JB, Wilson AC, Lacy CR. Hypertension and ascorbic acid. Lancet 2000; 355(9211): 1272; discussion 1273–4. [PubMed: 10770323]
  230. Krishnan K, Ruffin M T, Brenner D E. Cancer chemoprevention. A new way to treat cancer before it happens. Prim Care. 1998;25(2):361–79. [PubMed: 9628956]
  231. Kritchevsky D. Antioxidant vitamins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Nutri Today. 1992;27(1):30.
  232. Kromhout D. Essential micronutrients in relation to carcinogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45:1361–7. [PubMed: 3578124]
  233. Krzanowski J J. Oxidants, antioxidants and cardiovascular dis ease. J Fla Med Assoc. 1991;78(7):435–438. [PubMed: 1919497]
  234. Kuklinski B, Weissenbacher E, Fahnrich A. Coenzyme Q10 and antioxidants in acute myocardial infarction. Mol Aspects Med. 1994;suppl 15:s143–7. [PubMed: 7752825]
  235. Kune G A, Kune S, Field B. et al. Oral and pharyngeal cancer, diet, smoking, alcohol, and serum vitamin A and beta-carotene levels: a case-control study in men. Nutr Cancer. 1993;20(1):61–70. [PubMed: 8415131]
  236. Kurbacher C M, Wagner U, Kolster B, Andreotti P E, Krebs D, Bruckner H W. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) improves the antineoplastic activity of doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel in human breast carcinoma cells in vitro. Cancer Lett. 1996;103(2):183–9. [PubMed: 8635156]
  237. Kurowska E M, Spence J D, Jordan J. et al. HDL-cholesterol-raising effect of orange juice in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(5):1095–1100. [PubMed: 11063434]
  238. Kushi L H, Fee R M, Sellers T A, Zheng W, Folsom A R. Intake of vitamins A, C, and E and postmenopausal breast cancer. The Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144(2):165–74. [PubMed: 8678048]
  239. Kushi L H, Folsom A R, Prineas R J, Mink P J, Wu Y, Bostick R M. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and death from coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1996;334:1156–62. [PubMed: 8602181]
  240. Kyrtopoulos S A. Ascorbic acid and the formation of N-nitroso compounds: possible role of ascorbic acid in cancer prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45(suppl 5):1344–50. [PubMed: 3578122]
  241. Lamm D, Riggs D R, Shriver J S, vanGilder P F, Rach J F, DeHaven J I. Megadose vitamins in bladder cancer: a double-blind clinical trial. J Urol. 1994;151(1):21–6. [PubMed: 8254816]
  242. Le Marchand L, Hankin J H, Carter F S. et al. A pilot study on the use of plasma carotenoids and ascorbic acid as markers of compliance to a high fruit and vegetable dietary intervention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1994;3(3):245–51. [PubMed: 8019375]
  243. Lee J J, Lieberman R, Sloan J A, Piantadosi S, Lippman S M. Design considerations for efficient prostate cancer chemoprevention trials. Urology. 2001;57(4 suppl 1):205–12. [PubMed: 11295629]
  244. Leonard T K, Mohs M E, Watson R R. Nutrient intakes: cancer causation and prevention. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1986;10(34):237–77. [PubMed: 3295993]
  245. Lerner I J, Kennedy B J. The prevalence of questionable methods of cancer treatment in the United States. CA Cancer J Clin. 1992;42(3):181–91. [PubMed: 1568137]
  246. Levin J S, Glass T A, Kushi L H, Schuck J R, Steele L, Jonas W B. Quantitative methods in research on complementary and alternative medicine. A methodological manifesto. NIH Office of Alternative Medicine. Med Care. 1997;35(11):1079–94. [PubMed: 9366888]
  247. Li B, Taylor P R, Li J Y. et al. Linxian nutrition intervention trials: design, methods, participant characteristics, and compliance. Ann Epidemiol. 1993;3:577–85. [PubMed: 7921303]
  248. Li J, Li B, Blot W, Taylor P. [Preliminary report on the results of nutrition prevention trials of cancer and other common diseases among residents in Linxian, China] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi. 1993;15(3):165–81. [PubMed: 8261860]
  249. Li J, Taylor P, Li B. et al. Nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China: multiple vitamin/mineral supplementation, cancer incidence, and disease-specific mortality among adults with esophageal dysplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85(18):1492–8. [PubMed: 8360932]
  250. Lippman S M, Benner S E, Hong W K. Cancer chemoprevention. J Clin Oncol. 1994;12(4):851–73. [PubMed: 8151328]
  251. Lockwood K, Moesgaard S, Hanioka T, Folkers K. Apparent partial remission of breast cancer in ‘high risk’ patients supplemented with nutritional antioxidants, essential fatty acids and coenzyme Q10. Mol Aspects Med. 1994(suppl 15):s231–40. [PubMed: 7752835]
  252. Loescher L J, Sauer K A. Vitamin therapy for advanced cancers. Oncol Nurs Forum. 1984;11(6):38–45. [PubMed: 6568711]
  253. Losonczy K G, Harris T B, Havlik R J. Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality in older persons: the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64(2):190–6. [PubMed: 8694019]
  254. Lupulescu A. The role of hormones, growth factors and vitamins in carcinogenesis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 1996;23(2):95–130. [PubMed: 8835851]
  255. Lupulescu A P. Hormones, vitamins, and growth factors in cancer treatment and prevention: A critical appraisal. Cancer. 1996;78(11):2264–2280. [PubMed: 8940995]
  256. Lush D T. Preventing heart disease and cancer. What randomized, primary-prevention studies show. Postgrad Med. 1999;106(5):143–8. [PubMed: 10560473]
  257. Lyko H C, Hartmann J X. Ascorbate, cyclic nucleotides, citrus and a model for preventing large bowel cancer. J Theor Biol. 1980;83(4):675–86. [PubMed: 6253750]
  258. Mackerras D, Irwig L, Simpson J M. et al. Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities. Br J Cancer. 1999;79(910):1448–53. [PMC free article: PMC2362702] [PubMed: 10188889]
  259. Malone W F. Studies evaluating antioxidants and beta-carotene as chemopreventives. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(suppl 1):305S–313S. [PubMed: 1985403]
  260. Marcus S L, Petrylak D P, Dutcher J P. et al. Hypovitaminosis C in patients treated with high-dose interleukin 2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(suppl 6):1292S–1297S. [PubMed: 1962585]
  261. Mark S D, Wang W, Fraumeni J F. et al. Do nutritional supplements lower the risk of stroke or hypertension? Epidemiol. 1998;9:9–15. [PubMed: 9430262]
  262. Maxwell A, Anderson B E, Cooke J P. Nutritional therapy for peripheral arterial disease: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of HeartBar(R) Vasc Med. 2000;5(1):11–19. [PubMed: 10737151]
  263. Maxwell S. Antioxidant vitamin supplements. Update of their potential benefits and possible risks. Drug Safety. 1999;21(4):253–266. [PubMed: 10514018]
  264. Maxwell S R. Can antioxidants prevent ishaemic heart disease? J Clin Pharm Ther. 1993;18:85–95. [PubMed: 8458885]
  265. McCann J. Alternative remedies for cancer: an update. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(11):872. [PubMed: 10841822]
  266. McDermott J H. Complementary lipid-lowering therapies. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1999;56(16):1668–1671. [PubMed: 10459389]
  267. McGinnis L S. Alternative therapies, 1990. An overview. Cancer. 1991;67(suppl 6):1788–92. [PubMed: 2001579]
  268. McKeown-Eyssen G, Holloway C, Jazmaji V, Bright-See E, Dion P, Bruce W R. A randomized trial of vitamins C and E in the prevention of recurrence of colorectal polyps. Cancer Res. 1988;48(16):4701–5. [PubMed: 3293777]
  269. Mendelsohn A B, Belle S H, Stoehr G P. et al. Use of antioxidant supplements and its association with cognitive function in a rural elderly cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148:38–44. [PubMed: 9663402]
  270. Meraji S, Abuja P M, Hayn M. et al. Relationship between classic risk factors, plasma antioxidants and indicators of oxidant stress in angina pectoris (AP) in Tehran. Atheroscler. 2000;150(2):403–412. [PubMed: 10856533]
  271. Meyskens J F L. Coming of age - The chemoprevention of cancer. New Engl J Med. 1990;323(12):825–827. [PubMed: 2202903]
  272. Miyake Y, Shouzu A, Nishikawa M. et al. Effect of treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on serum coenzyme Q10 in diabetic patients. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49(4):324–9. [PubMed: 10337451]
  273. Miyake Y, Shouzu A, Nishikawa M. et al. Effect of treatment with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on serum coenzyme Q10 in diabetic patients. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49(4):324–9. [PubMed: 10337451]
  274. Mobarhan S. Micronutrient supplementation trials and the reduction of cancer and cerebrovascular incidence and mortality. Nutr Rev. 1994;52(3):102–5. [PubMed: 8015747]
  275. Mobarhan S. Micronutrient supplementation trials and the reduction of cancer and cerebrovascular incidence and mortality. Nutr Rev. 1994;52(3):102–5. [PubMed: 8015747]
  276. Moertel C G, Fleming T R, Creagan E T, Rubin J, O'Connell M J, Ames M M. High-dose vitamin C versus placebo in the treatment of patients with advanced cancer who have had no prior chemotherapy. A randomized double -blind comparison. N Engl J Med. 1985;312(3):137–41. [PubMed: 3880867]
  277. Moriarty M, Mulgrew S, Mothersill C, Malone J F, Hatch M. Some effects of administration of large doses of vitamin C in patients with skin carcinoma. Ir J Med Sci. 1978;147(5):166–70. [PubMed: 659091]
  278. Mosca L, Rubenfire M, Mandel C. et al. Antioxidant nutrient supplementation reduces the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997;30(2):392–9. [PubMed: 9247510]
  279. Mosca L, Rubenfire M, Mandel C. et al. Antioxidant supplementation reduces the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996;27(suppl 2 A):275A.
  280. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study Collaborative group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.Lancet 2002; 360:23–33. [PubMed: 12114037]
  281. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study Collaborative group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering therapy and of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a wide range of patients at increased risk of coronary heart disease death: early safety and efficacy experience.Eur Heart J. 1999; 20(10):725–41. [PubMed: 10329064]
  282. Munoz N, Vivas J, Buiatti E, Kato I, Oliver W. Chemoprevention trial on precancerous lesions of the stomach in Venezuela: summary of study design and baseline data. IARC Sci Publ. 1996;139:125–33. [PubMed: 8923024]
  283. Nappo F, De Rosa N, Marfella R. et al. Impairment of endothelial functions by acute hyperhomocysteinemia and reversal by antioxidant vitamins. JAMA. 1999;281(22):2113–8. [PubMed: 10367822]
  284. Negri E, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Levi F, Parazzini F. Intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of endometrial carcinoma. Cancer. 1996;77(5):917–23. [PubMed: 8608484]
  285. Neogi T, Oza A M. Use of alternative medicine: are we failing in our communication with patients? A study assessing psychosocial impact of alternative medicine on cancer patients. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1998;17:416.
  286. Ness A, Sterne J, Rolla G. et al. Hypertension and ascorbic acid (multiple letters) Lancet. 2000;355(9211):1271–1274. [PubMed: 10770321]
  287. Neugut A, Horvath K, Whelan R L. et al. The effect of calcium and vitamin supplements on the incidence and recurrence of colorectal adenomatous polyps. Cancer. 1996;78(4):723–8. [PubMed: 8756363]
  288. Newberne P M, Suphakarn V. Nutrition and cancer: a review, with emphasis on the role of vitamins C and E and selenium. Nutr Cancer. 1983;5(2):107–19. [PubMed: 6359073]
  289. Nierenberg D W, Stukel T A, Mott L A, Greenberg E R. Steady-state serum concentration of alpha tocopherol not altered by supplementation with oral beta carotene. The Polyp Prevention Study 1 Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994;86(2):117–20. [PubMed: 8271293]
  290. Niki E. Action of ascorbic acid as a scavenger of active and stable oxygen radicals. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:S1119–24. [PubMed: 1962557]
  291. Nyyssonen K, Poulsen H E, Hayn M. et al. Effect of supplementation of smoking men with plain or slow release ascorbic acid on lipoprotein oxidation. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;51:154–63. [PubMed: 9076405]
  292. Nyyssonen K, Porkkala E, Salonen R, Korpela H, Salonen J T. Increase in oxidation resistance of atherogenic serum lipoproteins following antioxidant supplementation: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1997;48:633–42. [PubMed: 8001520]
  293. O'Toole P, Lombard M. Vitamin C and gastric cancer: supplements for some or fruit for all? Gut. 1996;39(3):345–7. [PMC free article: PMC1383336] [PubMed: 8949634]
  294. Ocke M C, Kromhout D, Menotti A. et al. Average intake of anti-oxidant (pro)vitamins and subsequent cancer mortality in the 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Int J Cancer. 1995;61(4):480–4. [PubMed: 7759153]
  295. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Southon S. et al. Serum concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins A, E, and C in control subjects from five European countries. Br J Nutr. 2001;85(2):227–38. [PubMed: 11242491]
  296. Olsen S J, Love R R. A new direction in preventive oncology: chemoprevention. Semin Oncol Nurs. 1986;2(3):211–21. [PubMed: 3529275]
  297. Omenn G S. Research on antioxidants to prevent cancer or heart disease. Am J Health Promot. 1992;6(5):334.
  298. Osaki T, Ueta E, Yoneda K, Hirota J, Yamamoto T. Prophylaxis of oral mucositis associated with chemoradiotherapy for oral carcinoma by A zelastine hydrochloride (Azelastine) with other antioxidants. Head Neck. 1994;16(4):331–9. [PubMed: 8056578]
  299. Osborne M, Boyle P, Lipkin M. Cancer prevention. Lancet. 1997;349(suppl 9063):27–30. [PubMed: 9164445]
  300. Overvad O K, Diamant B, Holm L, Holmer G, Mortensen S A, Stender S. [Efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation containing Q10] Ugeskr Laeger. 1997;159(49):7309–15. [PubMed: 9417730]
  301. Paajanen H, Harmoinen A, Sisto T. et al. Effect of antioxidants on postoperative hyperamylasemia in coronary bypass surgery. Pancreas. 1996;13(3):236–40. [PubMed: 8884843]
  302. Padayatty S J, Levine M. Reevaluation of ascorbate in cancer treatment: emerging evidence, open minds and serendipity. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(4):423–5. [PubMed: 10963459]
  303. Paganelli G M, Biasco G, Brandi G. et al. Effect of vitamin A, C, and E supplementation on rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal adenomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84(1):47–51. [PubMed: 1738173]
  304. Palan P R, Mikhail M S, Goldberg G L, Basu J, Runowicz C D, Romney S L. Plasma levels of beta-carotene, lycopene, canthaxanthin, retinol, and alpha-and tau-tocopherol in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 1996;2(1):181–5. [PubMed: 9816105]
  305. Paleologos M, Cummings R G, Lazarus R. Cohort study of vitamin C intake and cognitive impairment. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148:45–50. [PubMed: 9663403]
  306. Paltiel O, Avitzour M, Peretz T. et al. Determinants of the use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(9):2439–48. [PubMed: 11331323]
  307. Pandey D K, Shekelle R, Selwyn B J, Tangney C, Stamler J. Dietary vitamin C and beta-carotene and risk of death in middle-aged men. The Western Electric Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142(12):1269–78. [PubMed: 7503047]
  308. Paolini M, Luigi Biagi G, Cantelli-Forti G, Bauer C. Plasma ascorbic acid in heart disease [4] Lancet. 2001;358(9275):71–72. [PubMed: 11458936]
  309. Paolisso G, Esposito R, D'Alessio M A, Barbieri M. Primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis: Is there a role for antioxidants? Diabetes Metab. 1999;25(4):298–306. [PubMed: 10566118]
  310. Paolisso G, Gambardella A, Galzerano D, Varricchio M, D'Onofrio F. Antioxidants in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1994;343(8897):596. [PubMed: 7906339]
  311. Papoz L. [Prevention of cardiovascular disease - a literature review] Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2001;62(N4):274–279.
  312. Pappalardo G, Guadalaxara A, Maiani G. et al. Antioxidant agents and colorectal carcinogenesis: role of beta-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C. Tumori. 1996;82(1):6–11. [PubMed: 8623507]
  313. Pardo B, Mena M A, Fahn S, Garcia de Yebenes J. Ascorbic acid protects against levodopa-induced neurotoxicity on a catecholamine-rich human neuroblastoma cell line. Mov Disord. 1993;8(3):278–84. [PubMed: 8341291]
  314. Patterson R E, White E, Kristal A R, Neuhouser M L, Potter J D. Vitamin supplements and cancer risk: the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8(5):786–802. [PubMed: 9328202]
  315. Pauling L. Vitamin C therapy of advanced cancer. N Engl J Med. 1980;302:694. [PubMed: 7354772]
  316. Pauling L, Moertel C. A proposition: megadoses of vitamin C are valuable in the treatment of cancer. Nutr Rev. 1986;44(1):28–32. [PubMed: 3951764]
  317. Perticone F, Ceravolo R, Maio R. et al. Effects of atorvastatin and vitamin C on endothelial function of hypercholesterolemic patients. Atheroscler. 2000;152(2):511–518. [PubMed: 10998481]
  318. Plevova P. Prevention and treatment of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a review. Oral Oncol. 1999;35(5):453–70. [PubMed: 10694945]
  319. Polakoff P L. Can chemointervention impede cancer growth? Occup Health Saf. 1983;52(6):23–4. [PubMed: 6877729]
  320. Ponz de Leon M, Roncucci L. Chemoprevention of colorectal tumors: role of lactulose and of other agents. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1997;222:72–5. [PubMed: 9145453]
  321. Porkkala-Sarataho E, Salonen J T, Nyyssonen K. et al. Long-term effects of vitamin E, vitamin C, and combined supplementation on urinary 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, serum cholesterol oxidation products, and oxidation resistance of lipids in nondepleted men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20(9):2087–2093. [PubMed: 10978253]
  322. Poulter J M, White W F, Dickerson J W. Ascorbic acid supplementation and five year survival rates in women with early breast cancer. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1984;6(3):175–82. [PubMed: 6524577]
  323. Prasad KN, Cole WC, Kumar B, Prasad KC. Scientific rationale for using high-dose multiple micronutrients as an adjunct to standard and experimental cancer therapies. J Am Coll Nutr 2001; 20(suppl 5): 450S–463S; discussion 473S–475S. [PubMed: 11603656]
  324. Prasad K N, Kumar A, Kochupillai V, Cole W C. High doses of multiple antioxidant vitamins: essential ingredients in improving the efficacy of standard cancer therapy. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18(1):13–25. [PubMed: 10067654]
  325. Preston-Martin S, Pogoda J M, Mueller B A. et al. Prenatal vitamin supplementation and pediatric brain tumors: huge international variation in use and possible reduction in risk. Childs Nerv Syst. 1998;14(10):551–7. [PubMed: 9840378]
  326. Raineri R, Weisburger J H. Reduction of gastric carcinogens with ascorbic acid. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975;258:181–9. [PubMed: 1060401]
  327. Raitakari O, Adams M R, McCredie R J, Griffiths K A, Stocker R, Celermajer D S. Oral vitamin C and endothelial function in smokers: Short-term improvement, but no sustained beneficial effect. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35(6):1616–1621. [PubMed: 10807468]
  328. Rath M. How vitamin C and other nutrients can help nip heart disease in the bud. Exec Health's Good Health Rprt. 1993;30(1):1.
  329. Rautalahti M, Huttunen J. Antioxidants and carcinogenesis. Ann Med. 1994;26(6):435–41. [PubMed: 7695870]
  330. Rawson R W. Future perspectives for studies on the inhibition of carcinogenesis and their relationship to the prevention of human cancer. Prev Med. 1980;9(3):368–70. [PubMed: 7208444]
  331. Reaven P D, Khouw A, Beltz W F, Parthasarathy S, Witztum J L. Effect of dietary antioxidant combinations in humans: Protection of LDL by vitamin E but not by beta-carotene. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993;13(4):590–600. [PubMed: 8466894]
  332. Reed P I, Johnston B J. [Primary prevention of gastric cancer - the ECP-IM intervention study.] Acta Endoscopica. 1995;25(1):45–54.
  333. Reynolds T. Antioxidants and cancer: what is the evidence? J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(13):1033–4. [PubMed: 10880540]
  334. Rich-Edwards J W, Manson J E, Hennekens C H, Buring J E. Medical Progress: The primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women. New Engl J Med. 1995;332(26):1758–1766. [PubMed: 7760894]
  335. Richardson M A, Ramirez T, Nanney K. Alternative/complementary medicine: implications for patient-provider communication. Proc Am Soc Clin Concol. 1999;18:590a.
  336. Richardson M A, Sanders T, Palmer J L, Greisinger A, Singletary S E. Complementary/alternative medicine use in a comprehensive cancer center and the implications for oncology. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(13):2505–14. [PubMed: 10893280]
  337. Riemersma R A, Oliver M, Elton R A. et al. Plasma antioxidants and coronary heart disease: Vitamins C and E, and selenium. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1990;44:143–50. [PubMed: 2132414]
  338. Riemersma R A, Wood D A, Macintyre C C A, Elton R A, Gey K F, Oliver M F. Risk of angina pectoris and plasma concentrations of vitamins A, C, and E and carotene. Lancet. 1991;337:1–5. [PubMed: 1670647]
  339. Rimm E B, Stampfer M J, Ascherio A. et al. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1450–56. [PubMed: 8479464]
  340. Riordan H, Jackson J A, Schultz M. Case study: high-dose intravenous vitamin C in the treatment of a patient with adenocarcinoma of the kidney. J Orthomol Med. 1990;5(1):5–7.
  341. Riordan M, Jackson J A, Riordan N H, Schultz M. High-dose intravenous vitamin C in the treatment of a patient with renal cell carcinoma of the kidney. J Orthomol Med. 1998;13(2):72–3.
  342. Rodriguez J R, Gonzalez M J. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia with vitamins E, C and lecithin: A case report. J Orthomol Med. 1991;6(2):78–80.
  343. Rohan T E, Howe G R, Friedenreich C M, Jain M, Miller A B. Dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, and risk of breast cancer: a cohort study. Cancer Causes Control. 1993;4(1):29–37. [PubMed: 8381678]
  344. Rokkas T, Papatheodorou G, Karameris A, Mavrogeorgis A, Kalogeropoulos N, Giannikos N. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric juice vitamin C levels. Impact of eradication. Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40(3):615–21. [PubMed: 7895555]
  345. Romney S L, Palan P R, Duttagupta C. et al. Retinoids and the prevention of cervical dysplasias. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981;141(8):890–4. [PubMed: 7198387]
  346. Romney S, Palan P R, Basu J, Mikhail M. Nutrient antioxidants in the pathogenesis and prevention of cervical dysplasias and cancer. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1995;23//:96–103. [PubMed: 8747383]
  347. Ronco A, De Stefani E, Boffetta P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Leborgne F. Vegetables, fruits, and related nutrients and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer. 1999;35(2):111–9. [PubMed: 10693163]
  348. Roncucci L, Di Donato P, Carati L. et al. Antioxidant vitamins or lactulose for the prevention of the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Colorectal Cancer Study Group of the University of Modena and the Health Care District 16. Dis Colon Rectum. 1993;36(3):227–34. [PubMed: 8449125]
  349. Roncucci L, Ponz de Leon M. Antioxidant vitamins or lactulose as chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer. In: Waldron K, Johnson I, Fenwick G, eds.Food and Cancer Prevention: Chemical and Biological Aspects. Cambridge, UK: Royal Society of Cambridge; 1993:p.147–150.
  350. Rosenberg I H. Effect of wheat fiber and vitamins C and E supplements on rectal polyps in patients at high risk for colon cancer. (Brief Critical Reviews) Nutr Rev. 1990;48(5):218(3). [PubMed: 2164648]
  351. Rustin P, von Kleist-Retzow J C, Chantrel-Groussard K, Sidi D, Munnich A, Rotig A. Effect of idebenone on cardiomyopathy in Friedreich's ataxia: a preliminary study. Lancet. 1999;354(9177):477–9. [PubMed: 10465173]
  352. Salonen J T, Nyyssonen K, Salonen R. et al. Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study: A randomized trial of the effect of vitamins E and C on 3-year progression of carotid atherosclerosis. J Intern Med. 2000;248(5):377–386. [PubMed: 11123502]
  353. Sandler R S, Halabi S, Kaplan E B, Baron J A, Paskett E, Petrelli N J. Use of vitamins, minerals, and nutritional supplements by participants in a chemoprevention trial. Cancer. 2001;91(5):1040–5. [PubMed: 11251957]
  354. Sasaki S, Tsubono Y, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Kakizoe T, Tsugane S. Effects of three-month oral supplementation of beta-carotene and vitamin C on serum concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins in middle-aged subjects: a pilot study for a randomized controlled trial to prevent gastric cancer in high-risk Japanese population. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2000;91(5):464–70. [PubMed: 10835489]
  355. Scheen A J. [Antioxidant vitamins in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. 2nd part: results of clinical trials] Rev Med Liege. 2000;55(2):105–9. [PubMed: 10769580]
  356. Schlegel J U. Proposed uses of ascorbic acid in prevention of bladder carcinoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975;258:432–7. [PubMed: 1060411]
  357. Schlegel J U, Pipkin G E, Nishimura R, Duke G A. Studies in the etiology and prevention of bladder carcinoma. J Urol. 1969;101(3):317–24. [PubMed: 5765878]
  358. Schlegel J U, Pipkin G E, Nishimura R, Shultz G N. The role of ascorbic acid in the prevention of bladder tumor formation. J Urol. 1970;103(2):155–9. [PubMed: 5410590]
  359. Schulz K F, Chalmers I, Hayes R J, Altman D G. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA. 1995;273(5):408–12. [PubMed: 7823387]
  360. Schwartz L H, Urban T, Hercberg S. [Antioxidant minerals and vitamins. Role in cancer prevention] Presse Med. 1994;23(39):1826–30. [PubMed: 7899307]
  361. Shaw S, Jayatilleke E, Herbert V. Evidence against antioxidant-prooxidant vitamin c supplements protecting against cancer. Clin Res. 1994;42(2):172A.
  362. Shibata A, Paganini-Hill A, Ross R, Henderson B E. Intake of vegetables, fruits, beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin supplements and cancer incidence among the elderly: a prospective study. Br J Cancer. 1992;66(4):673–9. [PMC free article: PMC1977409] [PubMed: 1419605]
  363. Shimpo K, Nagatsu T, Yamada K. et al. Ascorbic acid and adriamycin toxic ity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(suppl 6):1298S–1301S. [PubMed: 1962586]
  364. Shklar G. Mechanisms of cancer inhibition by anti-oxidant nutrients. Oral Oncol. 1998;34(1):24–9. [PubMed: 9659516]
  365. Shklar G, Schwartz J, Trickler D, Cheverie S R. The effectiveness of a mixture of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione, and ascorbic acid for cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer. 1993;20:145–151. [PubMed: 8233980]
  366. Silverman J. Nutritional aspects of cancer prevention: an overview. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1981;179(12):1404–9. [PubMed: 7042664]
  367. Simon J A. Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease: A review. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992;11:107–25. [PubMed: 1578086]
  368. Simonenko V B. [Antioxidants in the comprehensive therapy of myocardial infarction] Klin Med (Mosk) 1998;76(11):20–5. [PubMed: 10050526]
  369. Singal P K, Siveski-Iliskovic N, Hill M, Thomas T P, Li T. Combination therapy with probucol prevents adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1995;27(4):1055–1063. [PubMed: 7563102]
  370. Singh DK, Lippman SM. Cancer chemoprevention. Part 1: Retinoids and carotenoids and other classic antioxidants. Oncology (Huntingt). 1998;12(11):1643–53, 1657–8. [PubMed: 9834941]
  371. Singh DK, Lippman SM. Cancer chemoprevention. Part 2: Hormones, nonclassic antioxidant natural agents, NSAIDs, and other agents. Oncology (Huntingt). 1998; 12(12):1787–800; discussion 1802, 1805. [PubMed: 9874850]
  372. Singh R B, Niaz M A, Rastogi S S, Rastogi S. Usefulness of antioxidant vitamins in suspected acute myocardial infarction (the Indian experiment of infarct survival-3) Am J Cardiol. 1996;77(4):232–6. [PubMed: 8607399]
  373. Singh R B, Gosh S, Niaz M A. et al. Dietary intake, plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, and oxidative stress in relation to coronary artery disease in elderly subjects. Am J Cardiol. 1995;76:1233–38. [PubMed: 7503002]
  374. Singh V N, Gaby S K. Premalignant lesions: role of antioxidant vitamins and beta-carotene in risk reduction and prevention of malignant transformation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(suppl 1):386S–390S. [PubMed: 1985417]
  375. Singhal S, Gupta R, Goyle A. Comparison of antioxidant efficacy of vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin A and fruits in coronary heart disease: a controlled trial. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001;49:327–31. [PubMed: 11291971]
  376. Sirtori C. [Importance of active and passive prevention of cancer, arteriosclerosis and senility] Minerva Med. 1982;73(41):2867–72. [PubMed: 7133500]
  377. Sisto T, Paajanen H, Metsa-Ketela T, Harmoinen A, Nordback I, Tarkka M. Pretreatment with antioxidants and allopurinol diminishes cardiac onset events in coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 1995;59(6):1519–23. [PubMed: 7771834]
  378. Slaga T J. Multistage skin carcinogenesis: a useful model for the study of the chemoprevention of cancer. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 1984;55(suppl 2):107–24. [PubMed: 6385617]
  379. Smigel K. Dietary supplements reduce cancer deaths in China. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993;85(18):1448–50. [PubMed: 8360924]
  380. Smythies J. Recent advances in oxidative stress and antioxidants in medicine. J Orthomol Med. 1998;13(1):11–18.
  381. Soloway M S, Cohen S M, Dekernion J B, Persky L. Failure of ascorbic acid to inhibit FANFT-induced bladder cancer. J Urol. 1975;113(4):483–6. [PubMed: 1117519]
  382. Solzbach U, Hornig B, Jeserich M, Just H. Vitamin C improves endothelial dysfunction of epicardial coronary arteries in hypertensive patients. Circulation. 1997;96:1513–9. [PubMed: 9315540]
  383. Sparber A, Bauer L, Curt G. et al. Use of complementary medicine by adult patients participating in cancer clinical trials. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2000;27(4):623–30. [PubMed: 10833691]
  384. Stahelin H B, Gey K F, Eichholzer M, Ludin E. Beta-carotene and cancer prevention: the Basel Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(suppl 1):265S–269S. [PubMed: 1985397]
  385. Stahl P. The antioxidant conundrum: two recent studies point in different directions. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100(5):510. [PubMed: 10812372]
  386. Steinberg D. Antioxidant vitamins and coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(20):1487–9. [PubMed: 8117345]
  387. Steinberg D. Antioxidants in the prevention of human atherosclerosis: Summary of the proceedings of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop: September 5–6, 1991, Bethesda, Maryland. Circulation. 1992;85(6):2338–44. [PubMed: 1591855]
  388. Steinberg D. Clinical trials of antioxidants in artherosclerosis: Are we doing the right thing? Lancet. 1995;346(8966):36–38. [PubMed: 7603147]
  389. Steinmetz K, Potter J D. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996;96(10):1027–39. [PubMed: 8841165]
  390. Stephens N. Anti-oxidant therapy for ischaemic heart disease: where do we stand? Lancet. 1997;349(9067):1710–1. [PubMed: 9193375]
  391. Subar A F, Block G. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements: demographics and amounts of nutrients consumed: The 1987 Health Interview Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1990;132:1091–101. [PubMed: 2260541]
  392. Sullivan J L. Antioxidants and coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1991;337(8738):432–433. [PubMed: 1671455]
  393. Szarka C E, Grana G, Engstrom P F. Chemoprevention of cancer. Curr Probl Cancer. 1994;18(1):6–79. [PubMed: 8005001]
  394. Taddei S, Virdis A, Ghiadoni L, Magagna A, Salvetti A. Vitamin C improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation by restoring nitric oxide activity in essential hypertension. Circulation. 1998;97:2222–9. [PubMed: 9631871]
  395. Tanaka T. Chemoprevention of human cancer: biology and therapy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 1997;25(3):139–74. [PubMed: 9177939]
  396. Taper H S, Jamison J M, Gilloteaux J, Gwin C A, Gordon T, Summers J L. In vivo reactivation of DNases in implanted human prostate tumors after administration of a vitamin C/K(3) combination. J Histochem Cytochem. 2001;49(1):109–20. [PubMed: 11118483]
  397. Tardif J C, Cote G, Lesperance J. et al. Probucol and multivitamins in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Multivitamins and Probucol Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(6):365–72. [PubMed: 9241125]
  398. Taylor P R, Li B, Dawsey S M. et al. Prevention of esophageal cancer: the nutrition intervention trials in Linxian, China. Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials Study Group. Cancer Res. 1994;54(suppl 7):2029s–2031s. [PubMed: 8137333]
  399. Thangaraju M, Vijayalakshmi T, Sachdanandam P. Effect of tamoxifen on lipid peroxide and antioxidative system in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Cancer. 1994;74(1):78–82. [PubMed: 8004586]
  400. Thompson I M, Coltman C A, Brawley O W, Ryan A. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Semin Urol. 1995;13(2):122–9. [PubMed: 7638469]
  401. Todd S, Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Bolton-Smith C. Dietary antioxidant vitamins and fiber in the etiology of cardiovascular disease and all-causes mortality: Results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;150(10):1073–1080. [PubMed: 10568622]
  402. Tribble D L, Frank E. Dietary antioxidants, cancer, and atherosclerotic heart disease. West J Med. 1994;161(6):605–612. [PMC free article: PMC1022749] [PubMed: 7856167]
  403. Trizna Z, Schantz S P, Hsu T C. Effects of N-acetyl-L-cysteine and ascorbic acid on mutagen-induced chromosomal sensitivity in patients with head and neck cancers. Am J Surg. 1991;162(4):294–8. [PubMed: 1719835]
  404. Trout D L. Vitamin C and cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53:322S–5S. [PubMed: 1985405]
  405. Tseng M, Murray S, Kupper L L, Sandler R S. Micronutrients and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Am J Epidemiol. 1996;144(11):1005–14. [PubMed: 8942430]
  406. Tsubono Y, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Kakizoe T, Tsugane S. A randomized controlled trial for chemoprevention of gastric cancer in high-risk Japanese population; study design, feasibility and protocol modification. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997;88(4):344–9. [PubMed: 9197524]
  407. Tsugane S, Tsubono Y, Okubo S, Hayashi M, Kakizoe T. A pilot study for a randomized controlled trial to prevent gastric cancer in high-risk Japanese population: study design and feasibility evaluation. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1996;87:676–9. [PubMed: 8698614]
  408. Uddin S, Ahmad S. Antioxidants protection against cancer and other human diseases. Compr Ther. 1995;21(1):41–5. [PubMed: 7697981]
  409. Upritchard J E, Sutherland W H, Mann J I. Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C on LDL oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(6):733–8. [PubMed: 10840987]
  410. van het Hof K H, de Boer H, Wiseman S, Lien N, Westrate J, Tijburg L. Consumption of green or black tea does not increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in humans. Am J ClinNutr. 1997;66(5):1125–1132. [PubMed: 9356529]
  411. van Poppel G, van den Berg H. Vitamins and cancer. Cancer Lett. 1997;114(12):195–202. [PubMed: 9103291]
  412. van Zandwijk N, Pastorino U, de Vries N. Chemoprevention of cancer. Eur Respir J. 1993;6(3):322–4. [PubMed: 8472818]
  413. Vazquez Martinez C, Galan P, Preziosi P, Ribas L, Serra L L, Hercberg S. The SUVIMAX (France) study: the role of antioxidants in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 1998;72(3):173–83. [PubMed: 9810825]
  414. Verhoeven D T, Assen N, Goldbohm R A. et al. Vitamins C and E, retinol, beta-carotene and dietary fibre in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. Br J Cancer. 1997;75(1):149–55. [PMC free article: PMC2222693] [PubMed: 9000614]
  415. Vermeer I T, Moonen E J, Dallinga J W, Kleinjans J C, van Maanen J M. Effect of ascorbic acid and green tea on endogenous formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopiperidine in humans. Mutat Res. 1999;428(12):353–61. [PubMed: 10518007]
  416. Violi F, Micheletta F, Iuliano L. Vitamin E supplementation. Lancet. 2001;357(9256):632–3. [PubMed: 11558505]
  417. Violi F, Micheletta F, Luliano L. Antioxidant strategy for cardiovascular disease. Lancet. 2001;357(9269):1704. [PubMed: 11428361]
  418. Vogel R. Cholesterol lowering and endothelial function. Am J Med. 1999;107(5):479–487. [PubMed: 10569303]
  419. Von Eggers Doering W, Pietrzik K, DeGrand D. et al. Antioxidant vitamins, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (2) New Engl J Med. 1996;335(14):1065–1069. [PubMed: 8801449]
  420. Voorrips L E, Goldbohm R A, Brants H A. et al. A prospective cohort study on antioxidant and folate intake and male lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2000;9(4):357–65. [PubMed: 10794479]
  421. Waddell W R, Gerner R E. Indomethacin and ascorbate inhibit desmoid tumors. J Surg Oncol. 1980;15(1):85–90. [PubMed: 7421272]
  422. Wagdi P, Fluri M, Aeschbacher B, Fikrle A, Meier B. Cardioprotection in patients undergoing chemo -and/or radiotherapy for neoplastic disease. A pilot study. Jpn Heart J. 1996;37(3):353–9. [PubMed: 8774628]
  423. Wang G Q, Dawsey S M, Li J Y. et al. Effects of vitamin/mineral supplementation on the prevalence of histological dysplasia and early cancer of the esophagus and stomach: results from the General Population Trial in Linxian, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1994;3(2):161–6. [PubMed: 8049638]
  424. Wardman P, Folkes L K, Bentzen S M. et al. Influence of plasma glutathione levels on radiation mucositis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;51(2):460–4. [PubMed: 11583019]
  425. Watanabe H, Kakihana M, Ohtsuka S, Sugishita Y. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of ascorbate on the preventive effect of nitrate tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1998;97(9):886–91. [PubMed: 9521337]
  426. Watson R R, Leonard T K. Selenium and vitamins A, E, and C: nutrients with cancer prevention properties. J Am Diet Assoc. 1986;86(4):505–10. [PubMed: 3514733]
  427. Weijl N I, Cleton F J, Osanto S. Free radicals and antioxidants in chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cancer Treat Rev. 1997;23(4):209–40. [PubMed: 9377594]
  428. Weijl N I, Hopman G D, Wipkink-Bakker A. et al. Cisplatin combination chemotherapy induces a fall in plasma antioxidants of cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 1998;9(12):1331–7. [PubMed: 9932164]
  429. Weisburger J H. Nutritional approach to cancer prevention with emphasis on vitamins, antioxidants, and carotenoids. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(suppl 1):226S–237S. [PubMed: 1985392]
  430. Weisburger J H. Vitamin C and disease prevention. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995;14(2):109–111. [PubMed: 7790682]
  431. Weisburger J H. Vitamin C and prevention of nitrosamine formation. Lancet. 1977;2(8038):607. [PubMed: 71419]
  432. Weisburger J, Horn C L. Human and laboratory studies on the causes and prevention of gastrointestinal cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1984;104:15–26. [PubMed: 6098959]
  433. Westhuyzen J, Cochrane A D, Tesar P J. et al. Effect of preoperative supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac operations. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997;113(5):942–8. [PubMed: 9159629]
  434. Whelan R L, Horvath K D, Gleason N R. et al. Vitamin and calcium supplement use is associated with decreased adenoma recurrence in patients with a previous history of neoplasia. Dis Colon Rectum. 1999;42(2):212–7. [PubMed: 10211498]
  435. White E, Shannon J S, Patterson R E. Relationship between vitamin and calcium supplement use and colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6:769–74. [PubMed: 9332757]
  436. Willett W, Sampson L, Bain C. et al. Vitamin supplement use among registered nurses. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34(6):1121–1125. [PubMed: 7234740]
  437. Willett W C, MacMahon B. Diet and cancer—an overview. N Engl J Med. 1984;310(10):633–8. [PubMed: 6363924]
  438. Wilson C W. Clinical pharmacological aspects of ascorbic acid. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1975;258:355–76. [PubMed: 1106299]
  439. Wilson T S, Datta S B, Murrell J S, Andrews C T. Relation of vitamin C levels to mortality in a geriatric hospital: a study of the effect of vit amin C administration. Age Aging. 1973;2(3):163–71. [PubMed: 4591257]
  440. Witte K K, Clark A L, Cleland J G. Chronic heart failure and micronutrients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37(7):1765–74. [PubMed: 11401109]
  441. Woodside J V, Yarnell J W, McMaster D. et al. Effect of B-group vitamins and antioxidant vitamins on hyperhomocysteinemia: a double-blind, randomized, factorial-design, controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(5):858–66. [PubMed: 9583842]
  442. Woodside J V, Young I S, Yarnell J W. et al. Antioxidants, but not B-group vitamins increase the resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation: a randomized, factorial design, placebo-controlled trial. Atheroscler. 1999;144(2):419–27. [PubMed: 10407503]
  443. Wyatt G K, Friedman L L, Given C W, Given B A, Beckrow K C. Complementary therapy use among older cancer patients. Cancer Pract. 1999;7(3):136–44. [PubMed: 10352076]
  444. Yamanaka WK. Vitamins and cancer prevention. How much do we know? Postgrad Med. 1987;82(3):149–51, 153. [PubMed: 3306635]
  445. Yang C S, Miao J, Yang W. et al. Diet and vitamin nutrition of the high esophageal cancer risk population in Linxian, China. Nutr Cancer. 1982;4:154–64. [PubMed: 7162996]
  446. Yong L C, Brown C C, Schatzkin A. et al. Intake of vitamins E, C, and A and risk of lung cancer. The NHANES I epidemiologic followup study. First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1997;146(3):231–43. [PubMed: 9247007]
  447. Youn H S, Ko G H, Chung M H, Lee W K, Cho M J, Rhee K H. Pathogenesis and prevention of stomach cancer. J Korean Med Sci. 1996;11(5):373–85. [PMC free article: PMC3054180] [PubMed: 8934391]
  448. Young V R, Newberne P M. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas. Cancer. 1981;47(suppl 5):1226–40. [PubMed: 7237379]
  449. Young V R, Richardson D P. Nutrients, vitamins and minerals in cancer prevention. Facts and fallacies. Cancer. 1979;43(suppl 5):2125–2136. [PubMed: 376109]
  450. Yun T K. Update from Asia. Asian studies on cancer chemoprevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;889:157–92. [PubMed: 10668493]
  451. Yusuf S, Lessem J, Jha P, Lonn E. Primary and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and strokes: An update of randomly allocated, controlled trials. J Hypertens. 1993;11(suppl 4):S61–S73. [PubMed: 8104243]
  452. Zhang S, Hunter D J, Forman M R. et al. Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(6):547–56. [PubMed: 10088626]
  453. Zheng W, Anderson K E, Kushi L H. et al. A prospective cohort study of intake of calcium, vitamin D, and other micronutrients in relation to incidence of rectal cancer among postmenopausal women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7(3):221–5. [PubMed: 9521437]
  454. Zheng W, Sellers T, Doyle T J, Kushi L H, Potter J D, Folsom A R. Retinol, antioxidant vitamins, and cancers of the upper digestive tract in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142(9):955–60. [PubMed: 7572976]
  455. Zullo A, Rinaldi V, Hassan C. et al. Ascorbic acid and intestinal metaplasia in the stomach: a prospective, randomized study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14(10):1303–9. [PubMed: 11012475]
Bookshelf ID: NBK36866

Views

  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...