Table 7. Studies with association of cognitive & neurological development to Failure to Thrive compared to healthy comparison groups in developed countries

Author, Year, UISample NAge (mo) at assessmentFollow-up duration (mo)ApplicabilityInternal validityInstrumentAssociation
Mitchell, 1980 80166667FTT 3036–6012–36
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef1.jpg
McCarthy-GCI
Image er-failthrivef11.jpg
Ctrl 282
Hack, 1982 82227864Gp1 38 a 8i ~5–7g
Image er-failthrivef5.jpg
Image er-failthrivef1.jpg
Bayley
Image er-failthrivef7.jpg
Gp2 154Neurological exam
Singer, 1984 85057547FTT 1120.6h ~12g
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef2.jpg
Bayley MDI-Kent Scoring Adaptation
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Ctrl 11
Haynes, 1984 84233543FTT 50 b ND6
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef2.jpg
Bayley MDI & PDI
Image er-failthrivef11.jpg
Ctrl 25
Drotar, 1992 92372721FTT 4836> 24
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef2.jpg
Stanford-Binet
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Ctrl 47
Kelleher, 1993 93234174FTT 18012 & 2412 & 24
Image er-failthrivef5.jpg
Image er-failthrivef2.jpg
Bayley MDI & PDI
Image er-failthrivef7.jpg
Ctrl 591
Skuse, 1994 94253258FTT 4714.6h NAj
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef1.jpg
Bayley MDI & PDI
Image er-failthrivef7.jpg
Ctrl 4714.2
Reif, 1995 95362505FTT 6174.4h 61.5
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef2.jpg
Developmental delay / academic performance
Image er-failthrivef7.jpg
Ctrl 6581.6
Puckering, 1995 95378341FTT 2348> 12
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef1.jpg
McCarthy-GCI
Image er-failthrivef7.jpg
Ctrl 23
Corbett, 1996 97113595FTT 4872–84> 36g
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef1.jpg
Bayley MDI
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Ctrl 46
Wilensky, 1996 97022837FTT 5020h NAj
Image er-failthrivef5.jpg
Image er-failthrivef1.jpg
Bayley MDI
Image er-failthrivef7.jpg
Ctrl 50
Mackner, 1997 97381196FTT 97c ~14NAj
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef2.jpg
Bayley MDI
Image er-failthrivef7.jpg
Ctrl 80~17.7
Drewett, 1999 99284054FTT 107d 97.4h > 60g
Image er-failthrivef5.jpg
Image er-failthrivef2.jpg
WISC-III
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Ctrl 11797.2
Kerr,e2000 20277217FTT 92f ~73.8> 46
Image er-failthrivef4.jpg
Image er-failthrivef2.jpg
WPPSI-R
Image er-failthrivef11.jpg
Ctrl 101~73.3

Ctrl, control; FTT, failure-to-thrive; GCI, general cognitive index; Gp, group; IQ, intelligence quotient; MDI, mental development index; Mo, month; NA, not applicable; ND, no data; UI, Medline® unique identifier; WISC, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; WPPSI-R, Wechsler Pre-school and Primary Scale of Intelligence.

a

Gp1 (n=38) = small for gestational age, Gp2 (n=154) = appropriate for gestational age.

b

25 FTT had Lay Health Visitor intervention.

c

4 Study arms collapsed to 2: FTT group includes 70 diagnosed FTT and 27 diagnosed FTT & Neglect; Ctrl group includes 57 with neither diagnosis and 23 diagnosed with Neglect.

d

2 FTT and 9 Ctrl with definite medical condition affecting growth; 1 FTT and 2 Ctrl with possible medical condition affecting growth.

e

Sample overlaps with Mackner, 1997 .

f

4 Study arms collapsed to 2: FTT group includes 64 diagnosed FTT and 28 diagnosed FTT & Maltreatment; Ctrl group includes 80 with neither diagnosis and 21 diagnosed with Maltreatment.

g

See Chapter 2 - Methods.

h

Mean age.

i

Corrected age.

j

Cross-sectional study.

Image er-failthrivef7.jpg
FTT associated with decreased cognitive, motor, or neurological measures compared to controls, (statistically significant, p < .05).

Image er-failthrivef11.jpg
FTT associated with decreased cognitive, motor, or neurological measures compared to controls.

From: 3, Results

Cover of Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Failure to Thrive
Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Failure to Thrive.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 72.
Perrin EC, Frank DA, Cole CH, et al.

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