Evidence Table 7. Studies associating cognitive & neurological development with Failure to Thrive patients compared to healthy control subjects in developed countries Part III

Author, YearPotential biasesComments
Mitchell, 1980 80166667Physical exams & growth status by PI not blindedGovernment & privately funded
Hack, 1982 822278648 LTF, 4 incomplete dataSGA mothers incr % pregnancy HTN (p < .05) & multiple births (p < .05) than AGA, also incr antepartum risk score (p < .005) & greater gestational age (p < .005); privately funded
Singer, 1984 85057547Recognition memory tasks differed based on age; etiology for OFTT includes primary neurological disease, methadone addiction, cerebral palsy, congenital heart disease, pulmonary stenosis, cyanotic heart disease, polycystic renal disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, & Aarskoog syndromeGovernment funded
Haynes, 1984 84233543“…because of scheduling, few admissions were not evaluated”, 2 refused participation; 10 Gp1 & 3 Gp2 premature - overall similar from FTT vs. Ctrl; at 6 mo fwup: for FTT1 & FTT2 each-3 cases refused reevaluation & from1 dissolution of pair, 1Gp1 died SIDS, 1 Gp2 mother gave up childBlock assignment to Gp1 & Gp2 for hospital convenience & case load requirements; government funded
Drotar, 1992 92372721---No difference for attrition group vs. group evaluated, index gp hospitalized avg 14 d for dx & nutritional intervention; government funded
Kelleher, 1993 93234174Of 985 enrolled, 71 LTF, 12%(20) OFTT, 16%(28) were both OFTT & NOFTT21% of babies develop FTT by 36 wks; ND on funding source
Skuse, 1994 942532582 cases & 3 controls didn't complete assessments & were excluded from analyses, 1 case had microcephaly, hypotonia, & an action tremor or ataxia of unknown originResearchers blinded to patient's status in measures except anthropometry; government & privately funded
Reif, 1995 9536250525 cases not re-evaluated because not located or refused participation; inpatient enrollment of FTT-48 & Ctrl-42; outpatient enrollment of FTT-13 & Ctrl-23(ER)ND on funding source
Puckering, 1995 95378341---Other than clinic anthropometric measures, home visits by assessors blinded to child's group status; The FTT children were significantly smaller than the controls; government funded
Corbett, 1996 971135953 from each group refused consent at follow-up, LTF or moved - 2 cases, 3 controls, 1 case not originally studied participated for follow-up study, 4 of those cases were the slowest growing 5% - also removed from home, all controls stayed with parents. Edward's diagnostic criteria for growth measure considered limited.Additional aubgroup analyses for FTT cases showed significant association between full-scale IQ and cases with lowest Thrive Index values, p = 0.03; ND on funding source.
Wilensky, 1996 97022837Feeding behaviors and HOME environment are causal factors given time dissociation as FTT was established at 15 months, where as, maternal interview/home assessment at 25 months.Reported associations for FTT without specific data: paternal age (p<.01), maternal education, & behavioral observations of lower sociability (p<.05) & fear of examiner (p<.05); ND on funding source
Mackner,a 1997 97381196By group sex data not given, unknown whether Bayley tester was blinded to subject's group assignmentGovernment funded
Drewett, 1999 99284054Of 136 cases, 1 died, 9 LTF, 15 declined psychological testing, 4 moved; of 136 controls, 2 were preterm, 5 LTF, 12 declined psychological testing, 14 moved & were replaced. 2 FTT cases & 1 control with medical condition affecting growth, & 9 FTT cases & 2 controls with possible medical conditionsTesters blinded to child's status; privately funded
Kerr,a 2000 20277217Hx of maltreatment not part of original recruitment criteria; unknown number of original sample, also inMackner 1997 sample (n=177) is reported to be a subsample; maltreatment group may not include all because of definition of a CPS report filedAt 6 year, most FTT children had recovered & 3% had weight for height < 5th percentile; government funded

Overlapping sample for Mackner 1997 & Kerr 2000.

From: Evidence Tables

Cover of Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Failure to Thrive
Criteria for Determining Disability in Infants and Children: Failure to Thrive.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 72.
Perrin EC, Frank DA, Cole CH, et al.

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