Table 46.4Auscultation

Minimal examinationDyspneaWheezingCough/expectorationHemoptysisCigarette smokeEnvironmentalOther organ diseases
Breath sounds:
 GeneralI
 Inappropriate:
  Location of bronchial breath soundsI
Abnormal breath sounds:
 Wheezes:IM
  GeneralM
  LocalII
 CracklesI
 Early inspiratoryMIM
 Late inspiratoryM"Collagen vascular diseases"; congestive heart failure
 GurglesIIPulmonary edema

I = indicated; M = mandatory.

From: Chapter 46, Chest Examination

Cover of Clinical Methods
Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition.
Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors.
Boston: Butterworths; 1990.
Copyright © 1990, Butterworth Publishers, a division of Reed Publishing.

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