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Cover of Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution – REVIHAAP Project

Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution – REVIHAAP Project

Technical Report


Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe; .


This document presents answers to 24 questions relevant to reviewing European policies on air pollution and to addressing health aspects of these policies. The answers were developed by a large group of scientists engaged in the WHO project “Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution – REVIHAAP”. The experts reviewed and discussed the newly accumulated scientific evidence on the adverse effects on health of air pollution, formulating science-based answers to the 24 questions. Extensive rationales for the answers, including the list of key references, are provided. The review concludes that a considerable amount of new scientific information on the adverse effects on health of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, observed at levels commonly present in Europe, has been published in recent years. This new evidence supports the scientific conclusions of the WHO air quality guidelines, last updated in 2005, and indicates that the effects in some cases occur at air pollution concentrations lower than those serving to establish these guidelines. It also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the burden of disease associated with air pollution in Europe.

This publication arises from the project REVIHAAP and has been co-funded by the European Union.

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate borderlines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either express or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. The views expressed by authors, editors, or expert groups do not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the World Health Organization.

The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union.

Address requests about publications of the WHO Regional Office for Europe to:


WHO Regional Office for Europe

Scherfigsvej 8

DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark

Alternatively, complete an online request form for documentation, health information, or for permission to quote or translate, on the Regional Office web site (


The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn, WHO Regional Office for Europe, coordinated the development of this publication

© World Health Organization 2013.

All rights reserved. The Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full.

Bookshelf ID: NBK361805PMID: 27195369


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