NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Levine C, Armstrong K, Chopra S, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Specific Breast Abnormalities. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2001 Sep. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 33.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

Cover of Diagnosis and Management of Specific Breast Abnormalities

Diagnosis and Management of Specific Breast Abnormalities.

Show details


  1. Albertini JJ, Lyman GH, Cox C, et al Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer. JAMA. 1996;276:1818–22. [PubMed: 8946902]
  2. Armstrong K, Eisen A, Weber B Assessing the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:564–71. [PubMed: 10684916]
  3. Askins DG Jr Common breast problems: detection and management JSC Med Assoc 1999 Nov95(11):415–9. [PubMed: 10590590]
  4. Barton MB, Elmore JG, Fletcher SW Breast symptoms among women enrolled in a health maintenance organization: frequency, evaluation, and outcome. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:651–7. [PubMed: 10215561]
  5. Bass SS, Dauway E, Mahatme A, et al Lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancers < 1 centimeter (T1A-T1B) Am Surg. 1999;65:857–61. [PubMed: 10484089]
  6. Bassett LW, Hendrick RE, Bassford TL, et al High-quality mammography: information for referring providers. Quick reference guide for clinicians No. 13. AHCPR Publication No 95-0633. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. October 1994.
  7. Bassett L, Winchester DP, Caplan RB, et al Stereotactic core needle biopsy of the breast -- a report of the Joint Task Force of the American College of Radiology, American College of Surgeons, and College of American Pathologists. CA Cancer J clin. 1997;47:171–90. [PubMed: 9152175]
  8. Bianchi S, Palli D, Ciatto S, et al Accuracy and reliability of frozen section diagnosis in a series of 672 nonpalpable breast lesions. Am J Clin Pathol. 1995;103:199–205. [PubMed: 7856563]
  9. Bodian CA, Perzin KH, Lattes R Lobular neoplasia: long-term risk of breast cancer and relation to other factors. Cancer. 1996;78:1024–34. [PubMed: 8780540]
  10. Brendlinger DL, Robinson R, Sylvest V, et al Stereotactic core breast biopsy. An alternative. Va Med Q. 1994;121:179–84. [PubMed: 8061069]
  11. Brown TA, Wall JW, Christensen ED, et al Atypical hyperplasia in the era of stereotactic core needle biopsy. J Surg Oncol. 1998;67:168–73. [PubMed: 9530887]
  12. Bruzzi P, Green SB, Byar DP, et al Estimating the population attributable risk for multiple risk factors using case-control data. Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122:904–14. [PubMed: 4050778]
  13. Burbank F Stereotactic breast biopsy of atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ lesions: improved accuracy with directional, vacuum-assisted biopsy. Radiology. 1997;202:843–7. [PubMed: 9051043]
  14. Byrne C, Schairer C, Wolfe J, et al Mammographic features and breast cancer risk -- effects with time, age, and menopause status. J Nat Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1622–9. [PubMed: 7563205]
  15. Cabanas RM An approach for the treatment of penile carcinoma. Cancer. 1977;39:456–66. [PubMed: 837331]
  16. Carson W, Sanchez-Forgach E, Stomper P Lobular carcinoma in situ: observation without surgery as an appropriate therapy. Ann Surg Onc. 1994:141–6. [PubMed: 7834439]
  17. Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD Autosomal dominant inheritance of early-onset breast cancer: implications for risk prediction. Cancer. 1994;73:643–51. [PubMed: 8299086]
  18. Cody H Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer. Oncology. 1999;13:25–34. [PubMed: 10027197]
  19. Colditz GA, Hankinson SE, Hunter DJ, et al The use of estrogens and progestins and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:1589–93. [PubMed: 7753136]
  20. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Hunter DJ, et al Family history, age, and risk of breast cancer: prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study. JAMA. 1993;270:338–43. [PubMed: 8123079]
  21. Costantino JP, Gail MH, Pee D, et al Validation studies for models projecting the risk of invasive and total breast cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:1541–8. [PubMed: 10491430]
  22. Cox CE, Pendas S, Cox JM, et al Guidelines for sentinel node biopsy and lymphatic mapping of patients with breast cancer. Ann Surg. 1998;228:645–53. [PMC free article: PMC1191339] [PubMed: 9605656]
  23. Daly MB, Lerman CL, Ross E, et al Gail model breast cancer risk components are poor predictors of risk perception and screening behavior. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1996;41:59–70. [PubMed: 8932877]
  24. Dupont WD, Page DL, Parl FF, et al Estrogen replacement therapy in women with a history of proliferative breast disease. Cancer. 1999;85:1277–83. [PubMed: 10189132]
  25. Edge SB and Hurd TA Sentinel node update: breast cancer. Oncology NCCN Proceedings. 1999:213–7.
  26. Ernster VL, Barclay J, Kerlikowske K Mortality among women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in the population-based surveillance, epidemiology and end results program. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:953–8. [PubMed: 10761960]
  27. Falkeborn M, Persson I, Adami HO, et al The risk of acute myocardial infarction after oestrogen and oestrogen-progestogen replacement. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992;99:821–8. [PubMed: 1419993]
  28. Feldman SM, Krag DN, McNally RK, et al Limitation in gamma probe localization of the sentinel node in breast cancer patients with large excisional biopsy. J Am Coll Surg. 1999;188:248–54. [PubMed: 10065813]
  29. Felson DT, Zhang Y, Hannan MT, et al The effect of postmenopausal estrogen therapy on bone density in elderly women. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:1141–6. [PubMed: 8377776]
  30. Finucane FF, Madans JH, Bush TL, et al Decreased risk of stroke among postmenopausal hormone users. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:73–9. [PubMed: 8422201]
  31. Fisher B, Costantino JP, Wickerham DL, et al Tamoxifen for prevention of breast cancer: report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90:1371–88. [PubMed: 9747868]
  32. Fleming ID, Cooper JS, Henson DE, et al, editors AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1997.
  33. Foote FW, Stewart FE Lobular carcinoma in situ, a rare form of mammary cancer. Am J Pathol. 1941;17:491–505. [PMC free article: PMC1965212] [PubMed: 19970575]
  34. Ford K, Marcus E, Lum B Breast cancer screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Dis Mon. 1999;45:333–405. [PubMed: 10513286]
  35. Fowble B, Hanlon AL, Patchefsky A, et al The presence of proliferative breast disease with atypia does not significantly influence outcome in early-stage invasive breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;42:105–15. [PubMed: 9747827]
  36. Gabriel H The dilemma of lobular carcinoma in situ at percutaneous biopsy: to excise or to monitor. AJR. 1999;173:300–2. [PubMed: 10430123]
  37. Gail MH, Brinton LA, Byar DP, et al Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1989;81:1879–86. [PubMed: 2593165]
  38. Gapstur SM, Morrow M, Sellers TA Hormone replacement therapy and risk of breast cancer with a favorable histology: results of the Iowa Women's Health Study. JAMA. 1999;281:2091–7. [PubMed: 10367819]
  39. Giuliano AE, Haigh PI, Brennan MB, et al Prospective observational study of sentinel lymphadenectomy without further axillary dissection in patients with sentinel node-negative breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:2553–9. [PubMed: 10893286]
  40. Grady D, Rubin SM, Petitti DB, et al Hormone therapy to prevent disease and prolong life in postmenopausal women. Ann Int Med. 1992;117:1016–41. [PubMed: 1443971]
  41. Gulec SA, Moffat FL, Carroll RG, et al Sentinel node localization in early breast cancer. J Nucl Med. 1998;39:1388–93. [PubMed: 9708514]
  42. Gump F, Dinne D, Schwartz GF Current treatment for lobular carcinoma in situ. Ann Surg Oncol. 1998;5:33–6. [PubMed: 9524705]
  43. Hammond CB Menopause and hormone replacement therapy: an overview. Obstet Gynecol (Suppl) 1996;87:2S–15S. [PubMed: 8559549]
  44. Harkins K, Tartter PI, Hermann G, et al Multivariate analysis of roentgenologic characteristics and risk factors for nonpalpable carcinoma of the breast. J Am Coll Surg. 1994;178:149–54. [PubMed: 8173725]
  45. Harvey JA Use and cost of breast imaging for postmenopausal women undergoing hormone replacement therapy. AJR. 1999;172:1615–9. [PubMed: 10350301]
  46. Herrington D Study could show whether estrogen treatment stops advancing heart disease in women. ACC 49th Annual Scientific Session Late-Breaking Clinical Trials in Interventional Cardiology; 2000; Anaheim California. Available from: < http://www​​/conf2000/media/late/estrogen.html>
  47. Hong MK, Romm PA, Reagan K, et al Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on serum lipid values and angiographically defined coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. Am J Cardiol. 1992;69:176–8. [PubMed: 1731455]
  48. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, et al Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. JAMA. 1998;280:605–13. [PubMed: 9718051]
  49. Irwig L, Tosteson PNA, Gatsonis C, et al Guidelines for meta-analyses evaluating diagnostic tests. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:667–76. [PubMed: 8135452]
  50. Jackman RJ, Burbank F, Parker SH, et al Atypical ductal hyperplasia diagnosed at stereotactic breast biopsy: improved reliability with 14-gauge, directional, vacuum-assisted biopsy. Radiology. 1997;204:485–8. [PubMed: 9240540]
  51. Kerin MJ, O'Hanlon DM, Khalid AA, et al Mammographic assessment of the symptomatic nonsuspicious breast. Am J Surg. 1997;173:181–4. [PubMed: 9124622]
  52. Lambe M, Hsieh CC, Trichopoulos D, et al Transient increase in the risk of breast cancer after giving birth. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:5–9. [PubMed: 8202106]
  53. Lee MM, Petrakis NL, Wrensch MR, et al Association of abnormal nipple aspirate cytology and mammographic pattern and density. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1994;3:33–6. [PubMed: 8118383]
  54. Liberman L, Abramson AF, Squires FB, et al The breast imaging reporting and data system: positive predictive value of mammographic features and final assessment categories. AJR. 1998;171:35–40. [PubMed: 9648759]
  55. Liberman L, Cody HS, Hill AD, et al Sentinel lymph node biopsy after percutaneous diagnosis of nonpalpable breast cancer. Radiology. 1999;211:835–44. [PubMed: 10352613]
  56. Liberman L, Cohen MA, Dershaw DD, et al Atypical ductal hyperplasia diagnosed at stereotaxic core biopsy of breast lesions: an indication for surgical biopsy. AJR. 1995;164:1111–3. [PubMed: 7717215]
  57. Liberman L, Sama M, Susnik B, et al Lobular carcinoma in situ at percutaneous breast biopsy: surgical biopsy findings. AJR. 1999;173:291–9. [PubMed: 10430122]
  58. Linehan DC, Hill ADK, Tran KN, et al Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: unfiltered radioisotope is superior to filtered. J Am Coll Surg. 1999;188:377–81. [PubMed: 10195721]
  59. Lishman SC and Lakhani SR Atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ: surgical and molecular pathology. Histopathology. 1999;35:199–200. [PubMed: 10469210]
  60. Lumachi F, Marzola MC, Zucchetta P, et al Breast cancer detection with 99m-Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy, mammography, and fine needle aspiration cytology: comparative study in 64 surgically treated patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999;6:568–71. [PubMed: 10493625]
  61. Madigan MP, Ziegler RG, Benichous J, et al Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1681–5. [PubMed: 7473816]
  62. Maffioli L, Agresti R, Chiti A, et al Prone scintimammography in patients with non-palpable breast lesions. Anticancer Res. 1996:1269–73. [PubMed: 8702249]
  63. Margolese RG, Cantin J, Bouchard F The palpable breast lump: information and recommendations to assist decision-making when a breast lump is detected. The Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer CMAJ 1998158(Suppl 3):S3–8. [PubMed: 9484272]
  64. Markopoulos C, Kakisis J, Kouskos S, et al Management of nonpalpable, mammographically detectable breast lesions. World J Surg. 1999;23:434–8. [PubMed: 10085389]
  65. Marshall LM, Hunter DJ, Connoly JL, et al Risk of breast cancer associated with atypical hyperplasia of lobular and ductal types. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6:297–301. [PubMed: 9149887]
  66. McMasters KM, Tuttle TM, Carlson DJ, et al Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer: a suitable alternative to routine axillary dissection in multi-institutional practice when optimal technique is used. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:2560–6. [PubMed: 10893287]
  67. Miner TJ, Shriver CD, Jaques DP, et al Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer: The role of previous biopsy on patient eligibility. Am Surg. 1999;65:493–8. [PubMed: 10366201]
  68. Moore MM, Hargett CW, Hanks JB, et al Association of breast cancer with the finding of atypical ductal hyperplasia at core breast biopsy. Ann Surg. 1997;225:726–33. [PMC free article: PMC1190878] [PubMed: 9230813]
  69. Morrow M Clinical assessment of breast cancer risk. In: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book, 36th Annual Meeting. Alexandria, VA: ASCO; 2000. p. 621-3.
  70. Mulrow C, Cook DJ, Davidoff F Systematic reviews: critical links in the great chain of evidence. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:389–91. [PubMed: 9054284]
  71. Overmoyer B Breast cancer screening. Med Clin North Am. 1999;83:1443–66. [PubMed: 10584602]
  72. Ozdemir A, Oznur II, Vural G, et al Tl-201 scintigraphy, mammography and ultrasonography in the evaluation of palpable and nonpalpable breast lesions: a correlative study. Eur J Radiol. 1997;24:145–54. [PubMed: 9097057]
  73. Psaty BM, Heckbert SR, Atkins D, et al The risk of myocardial infarction associated with the combined use of estrogens and progestins in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:1333–9. [PubMed: 8002685]
  74. Raju U, Vertes D Breast papillomas with atypical ductal hyperplasia: a clinicopathologic study. Hum Pathol. 1996;27:1231–8. [PubMed: 8912836]
  75. Roumen RMH, Valkenburg JGM, Geuskens LM Lymphoscintigraphy and feasibility of sentinel node biopsy in 83 patients with primary breast cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1997;23:495–502. [PubMed: 9484918]
  76. Sacks HS, Berrier J, Reitman D, et al Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. N Engl J Med. 1987;316:450–455. [PubMed: 3807986]
  77. Sardanelli F, Melani E, Ottonello C, et al Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast in characterizing positive or uncertain mammographic findings. Cancer Detect Prev. 1998;22:39–42. [PubMed: 9466047]
  78. Schairer C, Lubin J, Troisi R, et al Menopausal estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. JAMA. 2000;283:485–91. [PubMed: 10659874]
  79. Schootman M, Myers-Geadelmann J, Fuortes, L Factors associated with adequacy of diagnostic workup after abnormal breast cancer screening results. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2000;13:94–100. [PubMed: 10764189]
  80. Sellers TA, Mink PJ, Cerhan JR, et al The role of hormone replacement therapy in the risk for breast cancer and total mortality in women with a family history of breast cancer. Ann Intern Med. 1997;127:973–80. [PubMed: 9412302]
  81. Sickles EA Breast Imaging: From 1965 to the present. Radiology. 2000;215:1–16. [PubMed: 10751459]
  82. Simonetti G, Cossu E, Montanaro M, et al What's new in mammography European J of Radiol 199827(Suppl 2):S234–S241. [PubMed: 9652528]
  83. Sparano J, Mocharnuk R Management of premalignant breast lesions and carcinoma in situ. Daily Summaries from the 22nd Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. New York: Medscape; 1999. p. 16-7.
  84. Speroff L Postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer. Obstet Gynecol (Suppl) 1996;87:44S–54S. [PubMed: 8559553]
  85. Stanford JL, Weiss NS, Voigt LF, et al Combined estrogen and progestin hormone replacement therapy in relation to risk of breast cancer in middle-aged women. JAMA. 1995;274:137–42. [PubMed: 7596001]
  86. Stark A, Hulka BS, Joens S, et al HER-2/neu amplification in benign breast disease and the risk of subsequent breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18:267–74. [PubMed: 10637239]
  87. Symmans WF, Weg N, Gross J, et al A prospective comparison of stereotaxic fine-needle aspiration versus stereotaxic core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of mammographic abnormalities. Cancer. 1999;85:1119–32. [PubMed: 10091797]
  88. Velentgas P, Daling JR Risk factors for breast cancer in younger women. JNCI Monogr. 1994;16:15–22. [PubMed: 7999458]
  89. Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Galimberti V, et al Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph nodes. Lancet. 1997;349:1864–7. [PubMed: 9217757]
  90. Vetto JT, Pommier RF, Schmidt WA, et al Diagnosis of palpable breast lesions in younger women by the modified triple test is accurate and cost-effective. Arch Surg. 1996;131:967–74. [PubMed: 8790167]
  91. Wakefield SE, Powis SJA Benign breast surgery: is there a need for outpatient follow-up? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1995;77:457–9. [PMC free article: PMC2502462] [PubMed: 8540668]
  92. White J, Levine A, Gustafson G, et al Outcome and prognostic factors for local recurrence in mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1995;31:791–7. [PubMed: 7860390]
  93. Writing Group for the PEPI Trial Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women: the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial. JAMA. 1995;273:199–208. [PubMed: 7807658]
  94. Zurrida S, Bartoli C, Galimberti V, et al Interpretation of the risk associated with the unexpected finding of lobular carcinoma in situ. Ann Surg Oncol. 1996;3:57–61. [PubMed: 8770303]


  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...