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Mulrow CD, Williams JW Jr, Trivedi M, et al. Treatment of Depression: Newer Pharmacotherapies. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1999 Feb. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 7.)

  • This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

This publication is provided for historical reference only and the information may be out of date.

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Treatment of Depression: Newer Pharmacotherapies.

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Appendix 1: Search Strategies

1.1 Searches of Electronic Bibliographic Databases

The CCDAN has formed a collaborative network with multiple individuals and groups in order to gain access to multiple electronic databases, some of which contain regional literature not included in the more common databases. The table below describes the databases searched by the CCDAN. The search strategies used with each of the databases are listed in A1.4.

DatabaseDescriptionYears SearchedUpdate Frequency
MEDLINEBiomedical focus.
3,700 journals in 70 countries.
1966-present.
1966-97Monthly
EMBASEPharmacologic and biomedical foci.
3,500 journals in 110 countries.
1974-present.
1980-97Bi-monthly
PsycLITPsychology focus.
Journals in 45 countries.
1974-present.
1974-97Quarterly
LILACSLatin American and Caribbean Health
Sciences Literature
1982-97Quarterly
PsyndexGerman-language psychiatric database1977-96
SIGLEGrey literature, especially thesis1997-97Quarterly
CINAHLNursing and allied health foci.
650 journals.
1982-present.
1982-97Quarterly
MRC
database
Ongoing trials register1997Quarterly
Biological
Abstracts
Life sciences focus.
6,000 journals worldwide.
1980-present.
1984-97Quarterly
Cochrane
Controlled
Trials
Register
(CCTR)
A repository of references culled from
multiple sources (primarily various
electronic databases and handsearches)
through Cochrane Collaboration
members and groups.
1997 1 Quarterly
1

The CCTR is compiled from multiple other databases and source. There is no specific "start" date for the database.

1.2 Journals Handsearched

The Cochrane Collaboration places a strong emphasis on systematically handsearching medical journals in order to identify all reports of controlled clinical trials. The CCDAN and Schizophrenia Group have handsearched 69 journals. All reports of controlled clinical trials identified from these journals are included in the CCDAN database.

Acta Neurol Scand
Acta Psychiatr ScandJ Anxiety Disord
Acta Psychiatr Scand SupplJ Behav Medicine
Alzheimers Dis Assoc DiscordJ Behav The Exp Psychiatry
Am J Geriatric PsychiatryJ Child Psychology Psychiatry
Am J PsychiatryJ Clin Psychiatry
1 Arab J PsychiatryJ Clin Psychology
Arch Gen PsychiatryJ Clin Consult Psychology
Aus N Z J PsychiatryJ Clin Psychopharmacol
Behav Res TheJ Consult Clin Psychology
1 Behavior TherapyJ Nerv Mental Dis
Br J AddictionJ Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
1 Br J CriminologyJ Psychosom Res
Br J Med PsychologyJ Psychosom Obstet Gyn
Br J PsychiatryJ Psychiatry Res
Br J PsychologyJ Trauma Stress
1 Br J Soc WorkNervenarzt
Can J Psychiatry 1 Nord Psychiatr J
Can J Psychology 1 Pak J Clin Psychiatr
1 Chin J Clin Psychol 1 Pol J Psychiatry
1 Chin J Nerv Mental DisPsychiatry Res
1 Chin J Neurol PsychiatryPsychol Med
1 Chin Mental Health JPsychol Rep
Clin Pharmacol The 1 Psychologica Sinica (Prc)
1 Cognitive The Res 1 Psychological Science (Chinese)
CrisisPsychopathology
1 Egyptian J Mental HealthPsychopharmacology
Egyptian J PsychiatryPsychopharmacology Bull
1 Eur J PsychiatryPsychosom Med
Gen Hosp PsychiatrySchizophr Bull
Hosp Community Psychiatry 1 Shanghai Archives Psychiatry
Int Clin PsychopharmacolSocial Psychiatry
Int J Eating DisordersSocial Psychiatry Psychiatric
Int J Geriatr PsychiatrEpidemiology
1 J AdolescenceSuicide Life Threat Behav
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
1

These journals are not indexed in MEDLINE.

1.3 Pharmaceutical Companies

The CCDAN approached 30 pharmaceutical companies identified through the British National Formulary. The aim was to identify all published and unpublished trials suitable for inclusion in the register in which their company has been involved since 1948. A standard letter was sent to the Information Officer in each company outlining the aims of the Controlled Trials Register and asking for their assistance. All companies that did not reply were sent a second letter again outlining the project and mentioning that other similar companies have provided references for inclusion onto the register. Links are being maintained with these companies to ensure that any new trials within the scope of CCDAN are identified.

Of nine replies to date, five have been favorable (marked with a + below) and four negative (marked with a -). Of the five positive responses, two companies have forwarded reference lists to the CCDAN with a promise of further information should it be required. The remaining three companies are either collating the information for the CCDAN or have forwarded the request to other individuals either within the company or a parent company. The companies that responded favorably sent references to published material as well as references to conference presentation which were well received. Unpublished material was rarely included.

Antigen PharmaceuticalsLundbeck Limited (+)
Approved Prescription Services LimitedE Merck Pharmaceuticals
Ashbourne Pharm. Ltd Merck Sharp & Dohme
Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharm. Ltd.(+)Novartis (+)
Cambridge LaboratoriesH N Norton & Co Ltd (-)
A.H. Cox & Co Limited (-)Parke-Davis Medical
DDSA Pharmaceuticals LimitedPfizer Limited
Du Pont Pharmaceuticals Ltd.Rhone-Poulenc Rorer Ltd.
Evans Medical LimitedRoche Products Limited (+)
Forley Limited (-)Rosemont Pharmaceuticals Ltd
Generics (UK) LimitedSanofi Winthrop Limited (-)
Hillcross PharmaceuticalsSmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals
Hoechst Roussel LtdSolvay Healthcare
Kent Pharmaceuticals LimitedWyeth Laboratories
Eli Lilly & Co. Ltd.Zeneca Pharma (+)

1.4 Duplicate Publications

Each of the following "sets" of references refers to a single trial with the same patient population. The first reference is considered the primary reference. Each subsequent reference is considered a secondary reference. Relevant information from all references was abstracted for this review, though only the primary reference is cited.

Andersen 1994

  1. Andersen G, Vestergaard K, Lauritzen L Effective treatment of poststroke depression with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Stroke. 1994;25(6):1099–104. [PubMed: 8202964]
  2. Andersen G, Vestergaard K, Lauritzen LU [Effective treatment of depression following apoplexy with citalopram] Ugeskr Laeger. 1995;157(14):2000–3. [PubMed: 7740639]

Arminen 1994

  1. Arminen SL, Ikonen U, Pulkkinen P, Leinonen E, Mahlanen A, Koponen H, Kourula K, Ryyppo J, Korpela V, Lehtonen ML, et al A 12-week double-blind multi-centre study of paroxetine and imipramine in hospitalized depressed patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1994;89(6):382–9. [PubMed: 8085467]
  2. Arminen SL, Ikonen U, Pulkkinen M, Leinonen E, et al Paroxetine and imipramine: A 12-week, double-blind, multicentre study in hospitalized depressed patients. Nord J Psychiatry. 1992;46(Suppl 27):27–31.

Bakish 1992

  1. Bakish D, Bradwejn J, Nair N, McClure J, Remick R, Bulger L A comparison of moclobemide, amitriptyline and placebo in depression: A Canadian multicentre study [published erratum appears in Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1993;111(3):389-90] Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992;106(Suppl):S98–S101. [PMC free article: PMC161672] [PubMed: 1546154]
  2. Bakish D, Wiens A, Ellis J, Alda M, Lapierre YD A double-blind placebo-controlled comparison of moclobemide and amitriptyline in the treatment of depression. Can J Psychiatry. 1992;37(Suppl 1):12–7. [PubMed: 1394026]
  3. Kusalic M, Engelsmann F, Bradwejn J Thyroid functioning during treatment for depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 1993;18(5):260–3. [PMC free article: PMC1188546] [PubMed: 8297924]

Bakish 1993

  1. Bakish D, Lapierre YD, Weinstein R, Klein J, Wiens A, Jones B, Horn E, Browne M, Bourget D, Blanchard A, et al Ritanserin, imipramine, and placebo in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;13(6):409–14. [PubMed: 8120154]
  2. Bakish D, Ravindran A, Hooper C, Lapierre YD Psychopharmacological treatment response of patients with a DSM-III diagnosis of dysthymic disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1994;30(1):53–9. [PubMed: 7972630]

Berman 1997

  1. Berman RM, Darnell AM, Miller HL, Anand A, Charney DS Effect of pindolol in hastening response to fluoxetine in the treatment of major depression: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(1):37–43. [PubMed: 8988956]
  2. Chamey D Dourish's symposium. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.

Berzewski 1997

  1. Berzewski H, Van Moffaert M, Gagiano CA Efficacy and tolerability of reboxetine compared with imipramine in a double-blind study in patients suffering from major depressive episodes. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1997;7(Suppl 1):S37–47; discussion S71-S73. [PubMed: 9169309]
  2. Berzewski H, van Moffaert M, Gagiano CA Reboxetine versus Imipramin in the treatment of major depressive episodes. 10th World Congress of Psychiatry, Madrid, Spain; 1996.

Besancon 1993

  1. Besancon G, Cousin R, Guitton B, Lavergne F [Double-blind study of mianserin and fluoxetine in ambulatory therapy of depressed patients] Encephale. 1993;19(4):341–5. [PubMed: 8275922]
  2. Lavergne F, Berlin I, Payan C, Besancon G Clinical differences in response to mianserin and fluoxetine in depressive patients. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.

Bowden 1993

  1. Bowden CL, Schatzberg AF, Rosenbaum A, Contreras SA, Samson JA, Dessain E, Sayler M Fluoxetine and desipramine in major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;13(5):305–11. [PubMed: 8227488]
  2. Bowden CL, Rosenbaum A, Schatzberg AF Double-blind trial of fluoxetine and desipramine in depression. Unpublished .

Bremner 1996

  1. Bremner JD Double-blind comparison of mirtazapine, amitriptyline and placebo in major depression. NerVenheilkunde. 1996;15(8):533–40.
  2. Bremner JD, Smith WT, et al Org 3770 vs amitriptyline in the continuation treatment of depression: A placebo controlled trial. Eur J Psychiatry. 1996;10(1):5–15.

Burke 1996

  1. Burke WJ, Hendricks SE, McArthur Campbell D, Jacques D, Stull T Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine serum concentrations and clinical response in weekly versus daily dosing. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1996;32(1):27–32. [PubMed: 8927671]
  2. Burke WJ, Hendricks S, McArthur D, Bessette D, McKillip T Weekly fluoxetine controls symptoms of depression. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1995;524

Cassano 1986

  1. Cassano GB, Conti L, Massimetti G, Mengali F, Waekelin JS, Levine J Use of a standardized documentation system (BLIPS/BDP) in the conduct of a multicenter international trial comparing fluvoxamine, imipramine, and placebo. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1986;22(1):52–8. [PubMed: 3088668]
  2. Amin MM, Ananth JV, Coleman BS, Darcourt G, Farkas T, Goldstein B, et al Fluvoxamine: Antidepressant effects confirmed in a placebo-controlled international study. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1984;7(Suppl I):580–1.
  3. Conti L, Placidi GF, Dell'Osso L, Lenzi A, et al Therapeutic response in subtypes of major depression. New Trends Exp Clin Psychiatry. 1987;3(2):101–7.
  4. Lapierre YD, Browne M, Horn E, Oyewumi LK, Sarantidis D, Roberts N, Badoe K, Tessier P Treatment of major affective disorder with fluvoxamine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1987;48(2):65–8. [PubMed: 3100510]
  5. Wagner W, Cimander K, Schnitker J, Koch HF Influence of concomitant psychotropic medication on the efficacy and tolerance of fluvoxamine. Adv Pharmacother. 1986;2:34–56.

Chouinard 1983

  1. Chouinard G Bupropion and amitriptyline in the treatment of depressed patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1983;44(5 Pt 2):121–9. [PubMed: 6406440]
  2. Fogel P, Mamer OA, Chouinard G, Farrell PG Determination of plasma bupropion and its relationship to therapeutic effect. Biomed Mass Spectrum. 1984;11(12):629–32. [PubMed: 6442168]

Chouinard 1993

  1. Chouinard G, Saxena BM, Nair NP, Kutcher SP, Bakish D, Bradwejn J, Kennedy SH, Sharma V, Remick RA, Kukha Mohamad SA, et al Brofaromine in depression: A Canadian multicenter placebo trial and a review of standard drug comparative studies. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1993;16(Suppl 2):S51–S54. [PubMed: 8313397]
  2. Chouinard G, Saxena BM, Nair NP, Kutcher SP, Bakish D, Bradwejn J, Kennedy SH, Sharma V, Remick RA, Kukha Mohamad SA, et al Efficacy and safety of brofaromine in depression: A Canadian multicenter placebo controlled trial and a review of comparative controlled studies. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992;15(Suppl 1 Pt A):426A–427A. [PubMed: 1498901]

Claghorn 1992

  1. Claghorn JL The safety and efficacy of paroxetine compared with placebo in a double-blind trial of depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychiatry. 1992;53(Suppl):33–5. [PubMed: 1531821]
  2. Claghorn J A double-blind comparison of paroxetine and placebo in the treatment of depressed outpatients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992;6(Suppl 4):25–30. [PubMed: 1431007]

Cohn 1990

  1. Cohn JB, Crowder JE, Wilcox CS, Ryan PJ A placebo- and imipramine-controlled study of paroxetine. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1990;26(2):185–9. [PubMed: 2146697]
  2. Cohn JB, Wilcox CS Paroxetine in major depression: A double-blind trial with imipramine and placebo. J Clin Psychiatry. 1992;53(Suppl):52–6. [PubMed: 1531826]

Cornelius 1997

  1. Cornelius JR, Salloum IM, Ehler JG, Jarrett PJ, Cornelius MD, Perel JM, Thase ME, Black A Fluoxetine in depressed alcoholics. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997;54(8):700–5. [PubMed: 9283504]
  2. Cornelius JC Fluoxetine versus placebo in depressed alcoholics. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1994;661
  3. Cornelius JR, Salloum IM, Ehler JG, Jarrett PJ, Perel J, Thase ME Double-blind fluoxetine in depressed alcoholics. American Psychiatric Association, 149th Annual Meeting; 1996.
  4. Cornelius JR, Salloum IM, Cornelius MD, Perel JM, Ehler JG, Jarrett PJ, Levin RL, Black A, Mann JJ Preliminary report: Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in depressed alcoholics. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1995;31(2):297–303. [PubMed: 7491382]
  5. Cornelius JR, Salloum IM, Ehler JG, Jarrett PJ, Cornelius MD, Black A, Perel JM, Thase ME Double-blind fluoxetine in depressed alcoholic smokers. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1997;33(1):165–70. [PubMed: 9133770]

D'Amico 1990

  1. D'Amico MF, Roberts DL, Robinson DS, Schwiderski UE, Copp J Placebo-controlled dose-ranging trial designs in phase II development of nefazodone. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1990;26(1):147–50. [PubMed: 2196622]
  2. Feighner JP, Bennett M, Roberts D, D'Amico F, O'Brien K Efficacy of nefazodone versus placebo in a double-blind trial of depressed inpatients. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.
  3. Feighner JP, Bennett ME, Roberts DL Jr., D'Amico MF, O'Brien K A double-blind trial of nefazodone versus placebo in depressed inpatients. American Psychiatric Association, 149th Annual Meeting; 1996.

Dalery 1992

  1. Dalery J, Rochat C, Peyron E, Bernard G [Comparative study of the efficacy and acceptability of amineptine and fluoxetine in patients with major depression] Encephale. 1992;18(3):257–62. [PubMed: 1299597]
  2. Dalery J, Rochat C, Peyron E, Bernard G The efficacy and acceptability of amineptine versus fluoxetine in major depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997;12(Suppl 3):S35–S38. [PubMed: 9347391]

Doogan 1994

  1. Doogan DP, Langdon CJ A double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sertraline and dothiepin in the treatment of major depression in general practice. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1994;9(2):95–100. [PubMed: 8057000]
  2. Thompson C Management of depression in real-life settings: Knowledge gained from large-scale clinical trials. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1994;9(Suppl 3):21–5. [PubMed: 7963447]

Dubini 1997

  1. Dubini A, Bosc M, Polin V Do noradrenaline and serotonin differentially affect social motivation and behaviour? Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1997;7(Suppl 1):S49–S55; discussion S71-S73. [PubMed: 9169310]
  2. Bosc M, Dubini A, Polin V, et al Development and validation of a social functioning scale, the Social adaptation Self-evaluation Scale. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1997;7 Suppl 1:S57–S70; discussion S71-S73. [PubMed: 9169311]

Fabre 1987

  1. Fabre LF, Putman HP 3d A fixed-dose clinical trial of fluoxetine in outpatients with major depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1987;48(10):406–8. [PubMed: 3312176]
  2. Fieve RR, Goodnick PJ, Peselow ED, Barouche F, Schlegel A Pattern analysis of antidepressant response to fluoxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 1986;47(11):560–2. [PubMed: 3533909]
  3. Goodnick PJ, Fieve RR, Peselow ED, Barouche F, Schlegel A Double-blind treatment of major depression with fluoxetine: Use of pattern analysis and relation of HAM-D score to CGI change. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1987;23(1):162–3. [PubMed: 3496624]
  4. Wernicke JF, Dunlop SR, Dornseif BE, Zerbe RL Fixed-dose fluoxetine therapy for depression. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1987;23(1):164–8. [PubMed: 3496625]

Fabre 1995

  1. Fabre LF, Abuzzahab FS, Amin M, Claghorn JL, Mendels J, Petrie WM, Dube S, Small JG Sertraline safety and efficacy in major depression: A double-blind fixed-dose comparison with placebo. Biol Psychiatry. 1995;38(9):592–602. [PubMed: 8573661]
  2. Amin M, Lehmann H, Mirmiran J, et al A double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study with sertraline. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1989;25(2):164–7. [PubMed: 2690162]
  3. Lapierre YD Controlling acute episodes of depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1991;6(Suppl 2):23–35. [PubMed: 1806627]

Fairweather 1993

  1. Fairweather DB, Kerr JS, Harrison DA, Moon CA, et al A double blind comparison of the effects of fluoxetine and amitriptyline on cognitive function in elderly depressed patients. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. 1993;8(1):41–7.
  2. Kerr JS, Fairweather DB, Hindmarch I Effects of fluoxetine on psychomotor performance, cognitive function and sleep in depressed patients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;8(4):341–3. [PubMed: 8277161]

Fava 1995

  1. Fava M, Rappe SM, Pava JA, Nierenberg AA, Alpert JE, Rosenbaum JF Relapse in patients on long-term fluoxetine treatment: Response to increased fluoxetine dose. J Clin Psychiatry. 1995;56(2):52–5. [PubMed: 7852252]
  2. Amsterdam JD, Fava M, Maislin G, Rosenbaum J, Hornig Rohan M TRH stimulation test as a predictor of acute and long-term antidepressant response in major depression. J Affect Disord. 1996;38(2-3):165–72. [PubMed: 8791185]

Feiger 1996

  1. Feiger A, Kiev A, Shrivastava RK, Wisselink PG, Wilcox CS Nefazodone versus sertraline in outpatients with major depression: Focus on efficacy, tolerability, and effects on sexual function and satisfaction. J Clin Psychiatry. 1996;57(Suppl 2):53–62. [PubMed: 8626364]
  2. Shrivastava RK, Feiger A, Kiev A, Wisselink PG Nefazodone vs. sertraline in outpatients with major depression: Focus on efficacy, tolerability, and effects on sexual function and satisfaction. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.

Feighner 1989

  1. Feighner JP, Boyer WF Paroxetine in the treatment of depression: A comparison with imipramine and placebo. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1989;350:125–9. [PubMed: 2530763]
  2. Dunbar GC, Cohn JB, Fabre LF, Feighner JP, Fieve RR, Mendels J, Shrivastava RK A comparison of paroxetine, imipramine and placebo in depressed out-patients. Br J Psychiatry. 1991;159:394–8. [PubMed: 1835664]
  3. Feighner JP A double-blind comparison of paroxetine, imipramine and placebo in depressed outpatients. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992;6(Suppl 4):31–5. [PubMed: 1431008]
  4. Claghorn JL, Feighner JP A double-blind comparison of paroxetine with imipramine in the long-term treatment of depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;13(6 Suppl 2):23S–27S. [PubMed: 8106652]
  5. Feighner JP, Boyer WF Paroxetine in the treatment of depression: A comparison with imipramine and placebo. J Clin Psychiatry. 1992;53(Suppl):44–7. [PubMed: 1531824]
  6. Feighner JP, Cohn JB, Fabre LF Jr, Fieve RR, Mendels J, Shrivastava RK, Dunbar GC A study comparing paroxetine placebo and imipramine in depressed patients. J Affect Disord. 1993;28(2):71–9. [PubMed: 8354771]

Franchini 1994

  1. Franchini L, Gasperini M, Smeraldi E A 24-month follow-up study of unipolar subjects: A comparison between lithium and fluvoxamine. J Affect Disord. 1994;32(4):225–31. [PubMed: 7897085]
  2. Zanardi R, Franchini L, Perez J, Smeraldi E Fluvoxamine and lithium in long-term treatment of unipolar subjects. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.

Geisler 1992

  1. Geisler A, Mygind S, Knudsen OR, Sloth-Nielsen M Ritanserin and flupenthixol in dysthymic disorder: A controlled double blind study in general practice. Nord J Psychiatry. 1992;46(4):237–43.
  2. Geisler A, Mygind S, Riis Knudsen O, Sloth-Nielsen M A controlled double-blind study in general practice of ritanserin and flupenthixol in dysthymic disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1991;103:–. [PMC free article: PMC161672]

Gillin 1997

  1. Gillin JC, Rapaport M, Erman MK, Winokur A, Albala BJ A comparison of nefazodone and fluoxetine on mood and on objective, subjective, and clinician-rated measures of sleep in depressed patients: A double-blind, 8-week clinical trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58(5):185–92. [PubMed: 9184611]
  2. Armitage R, Yonkers K, Cole D, Rush AJ A multicenter, double-blind comparison of the effects of nefazodone and fluoxetine on sleep architecture and quality of sleep in depressed outpatients. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1997;17(3):161–8. [PubMed: 9169959]
  3. Gillin JC, Rush AJ, Armitage R, Moldofsky H Comparative effects of nefazodone and fluoxetine on sleep in outpatients with major depressive disorder. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.
  4. Rush AJ, Gillin C, Armitage R, Moldofsky H Comparative effects of nefazodone and fluoxetine on sleep in outpatients with major depressive disorders. American Psychiatric Association, 149th Annual Meeting; 1996.

Haffmans 1996

  1. Haffmans PMJ, Timmerman L, Hoogduin CAL, and the LUCIFER group Efficacy and tolerability of citalopram in comparison with fluvoxamine in depressed outpatients: A double-blind, multicentre study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1996;11:157–64. [PubMed: 8923094]
  2. Timmerman L, Haffmans PMJ, Hoogduin CAL Citalopram in major depression: A comparative study with fluvoxamine, preliminary results. In: Past, present and future of psychiatry; 1993.

Harris 1991

  1. Harris B, Szulecka TK, Anstee JA Fluvoxamine versus amitriptyline in depressed hospital out-patients: A multicentre, double-blind, comparative trial. Br J Clin Res. 1991;2:89–99.
  2. Harris B, Ashford J Maintenance antidepressants and weight gain: A comparison of fluvoxamine and amitriptyline. Br J Clin Res. 1991;2:81–8.

Heiligenstein 1993

  1. Heiligenstein JH, Tollefson GD, Faries DE A double-blind trial of fluoxetine, 20 mg, and placebo in out-patients with DSM-III-R major depression and melancholia. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;8(4):247–51. [PubMed: 8277143]
  2. Heiligenstein JH, Faries DE, Rush AJ, Andersen JS, Pande AC, Roffwarg HP, Dunner D, Gillin JC, James SP, Lahmeyer H, et al Latency to rapid eye movement sleep as a predictor of treatment response to fluoxetine and placebo in nonpsychotic depressed outpatients. Psychiatry Res. 1994;52(3):327–39. [PubMed: 7991725]
  3. Heiligenstein JH, Tollefson GD, Faries DE Response patterns of depressed outpatients with and without melancholia: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine versus placebo. J Affect Disord. 1994;30(3):163–73. [PubMed: 8006243]
  4. Satterlee WG, Faries D The effects of fluoxetine on symptoms of insomnia in depressed patients. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1995;31(2):227–37. [PubMed: 7491373]

Jakovljevic 1996

  1. Jakovljevic M, Vujic D, Aleksandrovsky Y, Faltus F, Szelenberger W Central-east European study of fluoxetine (Portal, Lek) and maprotiline (Ladiomil, Pliva) in major depressive episode. Psychiatria Danubina. 1996;8(Suppl 1):1–5.
  2. Jakovljevic M, Vujic D, Aleksandrovsky Y, Szerenberger W, Faltus F, Henigsberg N Efficacy and tolerability of fluoxetine compared with maprotiline in major depressive episode: Results of central-east European study. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.

Jenkins 1990

  1. Jenkins SW, Robinson DS, Fabre LF Jr, Andary JJ, Messina ME, Reich LA Gepirone in the treatment of major depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1990;10(3 Suppl):77S–85S. [PubMed: 1973942]
  2. Yevich JP, Eison MS, Eison AS, Taylor DP, Yocca FD, VanderMaelen CP, Riblet LA, Robinson DS, Roberts DL, Temple DL Gepirone hydrochloride: Preclinical pharmacology and recent clinical findings. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1990;361:443–51. [PubMed: 1981261]

Judd 1993

  1. Judd FK, Moore K, Norman TR, Burrows GD, Gupta RK, Parker G A multicentre double blind trial of fluoxetine versus amitriptyline in the treatment of depressive illness. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1993;27(1):49–55. [PubMed: 8481170]
  2. Judd F Preliminary report of a double-blind study comparing fluoxetine and amitriptyline in the treatment of depression. JAMA. 1991;(SEA Suppl):313–3.

Katona 1995

  1. Katona CLE, Abou Saleh MT, Harrison DA, Nairac BA, Edwards DRL, Lock T, Burns RA, Robertson MM Placebo-controlled trial of lithium augmentation of fluoxetine and lofepramine. Br J Psychiatry. 1995;166:80–6. [PubMed: 7894881]
  2. Katona CL, Robertson MM, Abou Saleh MT, Nairac BL, Edwards DR, Lock T, Burns R, Harrison DA, Taylor NS Placebo-controlled trial of lithium augmentation of fluoxetine and lofepramine. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;8(4):–. [PubMed: 8277156]

Katona 1998

  1. Katona CLE, Hunter BN, Bray J A double-blind comparison of the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine in the treatment of depression with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1998;13:100–8. [PubMed: 9526179]
  2. Katona LEC, Hunter B, Judge R A double-blind comparison of the efficacy and safety of paroxetine and imipramine in the treatment of depression with dementia. 10th World Congress of Psychiatry, Madrid, Spain; 1996.

Keegan 1991

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  2. Davis BA, Boulton AA, Yu PH, Durden DA, Keegan DL, Bowen RC, Blackshaw S, D'Arcy C, Remillard AJ, Dayal N, et al Longitudinal effect of amitriptyline and fluoxetine treatment on plasma phenylacetic acid concentrations in depression. Biol Psychiatry. 1991;30(6):600–8. [PubMed: 1932407]
  3. Richardson JS, Keegan DL, Bowen RC, Blackshaw SL, Cebrian Perez S, Dayal N, Saleh S, Shrikhande S Verbal learning by major depressive disorder patients during treatment with fluoxetine or amitriptyline. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1994;9(1):35–40. [PubMed: 8195581]

Keller 1995

  1. Keller MB, Harrison W, Fawcett JA, Gelenberg A, Hirschfeld RMA, Klein D, Kocsis JH, McCullough JP, Rush AJ, Schatzberg A, et al Treatment of chronic depression with sertraline or imipramine: Preliminary blinded response rates and high rates of under-treatment in the community. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1995;31(2):205–12. [PubMed: 7491369]
  2. Keller MB Treatment of chronic depression with sertraline or imipramine. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1994;631
  3. Keitner GI, Ryan CE, Miller IW, Keller MB Family functioning and chronic depression. American Psychiatric Association, 149th Annual Meeting; 1996.
  4. Keller M Cross-over study of sertraline versus imipramine in chronic depression. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.
  5. Russell JM, Finkelstein SN, Berndt ER, Greenberg PE Economic impact of improved work performance after treatment of chronic depression. 20th Collegium Internationale Neuro-psychopharmacologicum, Melbourne, Australia; 1996.
  6. Finkelstein SN, Berndt ER, Greenberg PE, Parsley RA, Russell JM, Keller MB, Gelenberg A, Delgado P, Dean J, Steward J, et al Improvement in subjective work performance after treatment of chronic depression: Some preliminary results. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1996;32(1):33–40. [PubMed: 8927672]

Kiev 1997

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  3. Kiev A, Feiger A Comparison of fluvoxamine and paroxetine in depression. 10th World Congress of Psychiatry, Madrid, Spain; 1996.

Kragh 1995

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la Pia 1992

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  2. la Pia S, Giorgio D, Ciriello R, Sannino A, et al Double blind controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of fluoxetine versus mianserin in the treatment of depressive disorders among the elderly and their effects on cognitive-behavioral parameters. New Trends Exp Clin Psychiatry. 1992;8(4):139–46.

Lecrubier 1997

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Levine 1989

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  2. Levine S, Deo R, Mahadevan K A comparative trial of a new antidepressant, fluoxetine. Br J Psychiatry. 1987;150:653–5. [PubMed: 3307982]

Lonnqvist 1994

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Lydiard 1989

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Marttila 1995

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Mertens 1989

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Moller 1992

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Moller 1993a

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Moller 1993b

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  3. Kuhs H, Rudolf GA A double-blind study of the comparative antidepressant effect of paroxetine and amitriptyline. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1989;350:145–6. [PubMed: 2530773]
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  5. Kuhs H, Rudolf GAE Cardiovascular effects of paroxetine. Psychopharmacology. 1990;102(3):379–82. [PubMed: 2147517]

Montgomery 1991

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Montgomery 1993

  1. Montgomery SA, Rasmussen JG, Tanghoj P A 24-week study of 20 mg citalopram, 40 mg citalopram, and placebo in the prevention of relapse of major depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1993;8(3):181–8. [PubMed: 8263316]
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  3. Montgomery SA, Rasmussen JG Citalopram 20 mg, citalopram 40 mg and placebo in the prevention of relapse of major depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992;6(Suppl 5):71–3. [PubMed: 1431025]

Moon 1994

  1. Moon CA, Jago W, Wood K, Doogan DP A double-blind comparison of sertraline and clomipramine in the treatment of major depressive disorder and associated anxiety in general practice. J Psychopharmacol. 1994;8(3):171–6. [PubMed: 22298585]
  2. Moon CA, Jago W, Wood K, Doogan DP Sertraline and clomipramine in mixed anxiety depression. J Psychopharmacol. 1993;(Suppl):–.

Nyth 1992

  1. Nyth AL, Gottfries CG, Lyby K, Smedegaard Andersen L, Gylding Sabroe J, Kristensen M, Refsum HE, Ofsti E, Eriksson S, Syversen S A controlled multicenter clinical study of citalopram and placebo in elderly depressed patients with and without concomitant dementia. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1992;86(2):138–45. [PubMed: 1529737]
  2. Gottfries CG, Karlsson I, Nyth AL Treatment of depression in elderly patients with and without dementia disorders. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1992;6(Suppl 5):55–64. [PubMed: 1431023]

Ohrberg 1992

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Tollefson 1995

  1. Tollefson GD, Bosomworth JC, Heiligenstein JH, Potvin JH, Holman S A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of fluoxetine in geriatric patients with major depression. The Fluoxetine Collaborative Study Group. Int Psychogeriatr. 1995;7(1):89–104. [PubMed: 7579025]
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Tome 1997

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  6. Isaac MT, Tome MB, Sherwood R, Eldridge P Comparison of serotonin levels in depression treated by new and standard antidepressant regimes. American Psychiatric Association, 149th Annual Meeting; 1996.
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  8. Isaac M, Tome De Lagrana M, Cloninger R, Watson J Personality variables and response to antidepressants. 10th World Congress of Psychiatry, Madrid, Spain; 1996.

Versiani 1990

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Wernicke 1988

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Wilcox 1995

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  2. Volz HP, Faltus F, Magyar I, Moller HJ Brofaromine in treatment-resistant depressed patients -- a comparative trial versus tranylcypromine. J Affect Disord. 1994;30(3):209–17. [PubMed: 8006247]

1.5 Search Strategies Used to Identify Reports of Uncommon but Serious Adverse Effects

1.5.1 MEDLINE (Uncommon but serious adverse effects)

1.

bupropion/ or bupropion.tw. or bupropion.rw. or 34841-39-9.rn. or wellbutrin.tw.

2.

fluoxetine/ or fluoxetine.tw. or fluoxetine.rw. or 54910-89-3.rn. or prozac.tw.

3.

fluvoxamine/ or fluvoxamine.tw. or fluvoxamine.rw. or 54739-18-3.rn. or luvox.tw.

4.

mirtazapine/ or mirtazapine.tw. or remeron.tw.

5.

nefazodone/ or nefazodone.tw. or nefazodone.rw. or 83366-66-9.rn. or serzone.tw.

6.

paroxetine/ or paroxetine.tw. or paroxetine.rw. or 61869-08-7.rn. or paxil.tw.

7.

sertraline/ or sertraline.tw. or sertraline.rw. or 79617-96-2.rn. or zoloft.tw.

8.

venlafaxine/ or venlafaxine.tw. or venlafaxine.rw. or 93413-69-5.rn. or effexor.tw. or "effexor xr".tw.

9.

("john$ wort" or hyperic$ or johanniskraut$ or johannesort).tw.

10.

exp serotonin uptake inhibitors/

11.

or/1-10

12.

(ae or po or to or mo or ci or de or et or co or sc).fs.

13.

11 and 12

14.

exp Inappropriate ADH Syndrome/

15.

hyponatremia/ or hyponatrem$.tw.

16.

seroton$ syndrome.tw. or serotonin/

17.

exp monoamine oxidase inhibitors/

18.

exp seizures/

19.

exp suicide/

20.

serum sickness/

21.

exp fetal development/ or exp fetal death/ or exp fetal diseases/

22.

exp fetal heart/ or exp abortion/ or exp infant, low birth weight/

23.

delirium/

24.

exp basal ganglia diseases/ or exp basal ganglia/

25.

(parkinson$ or extrapyramidal or akathisia or dystonia or tardive).tw.

26.

exp angioneurotic edema/ or exp tongue/ or exp tongue diseases/

27.

or/14-26

28.

11 and 27

29.

13 or 28

30.

risk factors/

31.

exp survival analysis/

32.

exp death/

33.

exp drug interactions/

34.

critical illness/

35.

exp mortality/

36.

abnormalities, drug-induced/

37.

or/30-36

38.

11 and 37

39.

29 or 38

40.

..l/39 hu=y

41.

(malignan$ or rare or surviv$ or risk#).tw.

42.

(death or fatal$ or grave or die or lethal$ or mortal$).tw.

43.

(adverse or serious or severe or poison$ or patholog$ or toxic$).tw.

44.

(threaten$ or abnormal$ or failure event# or hazard$).tw.

45.

or/41-44

46.

11 and 45

47.

39 or 46

48.

..l/47 hu=y

1.5.2 EMBASE (Uncommon but serious adverse effects)

1.5.2 EMBASE (Uncommon but serious adverse effects)

S1FLUOXETINE(L)(AE OR IT OR SI OR TO)
S2SERTRALINE(L)(AE OR IT OR SI OR TO)
S3PAROXETINE(L)(AE OR IT OR SI OR TO)
S4VENLAFAXINE(L)(AE OR IT OR SI OR TO)
S5NEFAZODONE(L)(AE OR IT OR SI OR TO)
S6MIRTAZAPINE(L)(AE OR IT OR SI OR TO)
S7BUPROPION(L)(AE OR IT OR SI OR TO)
S8SAINT JOHNS WORT(L)(AE OR IT OR SI OR TO)
S9S1 OR S2 OR S3 OR S4 OR S5 OR S6 OR S7 OR S8
S10S9/HUMAN
S11DC=G1.680.670.330?
S12DC=G1.680.670.250?
S13DC=G1.680.670.355?
S14S11 OR S12 OR 13
S15FLUOXETINE/DE
S16SERTRALINE/DE
S17PAROXETINE/DE
S18VENLAFAXINE/DE
S19NEFAZODONE/DE
S20MIRTAZAPINE/DE
S21BUPROPION/DE
S22SAINT JOHNS WORT/DE
S23S15 OR S16 OR S17 OR S18 OR S19 OR S20 OR S21 OR S22
S24S14 AND S23
S25S24/HUMAN
S26DC=C3.555.285?
S27DC=C2.610.150.10.290?
S28AKATHISIA/DE
S29EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SYSTEM/DE
S30DC=C3.220.170.220?
S31SEROTONIN/DE OR SEROTONIN()SYNDROME
S32DC=D15.720.720.50.560?
S33SH=037030101?
S34HYPONATREMIA/DE
S35DC=C5.60.305?
S36SPONTANEOUS ABORTION/DE
S37ANGIONEUROTIC EDEMA/DE
S38DC=A14.50.70?
S39DC=C2.560.875?
S40TONGUE(2N)SWELL?
S41DC=C2.610.150.10.795?
S42DC=F3.90.850?
S43SERUM SICKNESS/DE
S44S26 OR S27 OR S28 OR S29 OR S30 OR S31 OR S32 OR S33 OR S34 OR S35
S45S36 OR S37 OR S38 OR S39 OR S40 OR S41 OR S42 OR S43
S46S44 OR S45
S47S23 AND S46
S48S47/HUMAN
S49S10 OR S25 OR S48
S50S49 AND PY=1990:1997

1.5.3 PsycLIT(Uncommon but serious adverse effects)

1.

fluoxetine/ or fluoxetine.tw. or prozac.tw

2.

(sertraline or zoloft).tw

3.

paroxetine/ or paroxetine.tw. or paxil.tw

4.

(venlafaxine or effexor).tw.

5.

(nefazodone or serzone).tw.

6.

(mirtazapine or remeron).tw.

7.

bupropion/ or bupropion.tw. or wellbutrin.tw.

8.

(john$ wort or hyperic$ or johanniskraut$ or johannesort).tw

9.

or/1-8

10.

extrapyramidal symptoms/

11.

parkinsonism/

12.

akathisia/

13.

muscular disorders/

14.

tardive dyskinesia/

15.

delirium/

16.

serotonin syndrome.tw.

17.

monoamine oxidase inhibitors/

18.

hyponatremia/

19.

prenatal development/

20.

prenatal exposure/

21.

spontaneous abortion/

22.

birth weight/

23.

angioedema.tw.

24.

tongue/

25.

convulsions/

26.

suicide/

27.

attempted suicide/

28.

serum sickness.tw.

29.

or/10-28

30.

9 and 29

31.

exp "side effects (drug)"/

32.

drug interactions/

33.

drug sensitivity/

34.

drug tolerance/

35.

drug induced congenital disorders/

36.

exp toxic disorders/

37.

toxicity/

38.

"death and dying"/

39.

treatment effectiveness evaluation/

40.

or/31-39

41.

9 and 40

42.

mortal$.tw.

43.

(death or fatal$ or grave or die or lethal$).tw.

44.

adverse.tw.

45.

induced.tw.

46.

side effect#.tw.

47.

threaten$.tw.

48.

abnormal$.tw.

49.

suicid$.tw.

50.

provok$.tw.

51.

or/42-50

52.

9 and 51

53.

30 or 41 or 52

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