NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events. Crisis Standards of Care: Summary of a Workshop Series. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2010.

Cover of Crisis Standards of Care

Crisis Standards of Care: Summary of a Workshop Series.

Show details


  1. AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). Altered standards of care in mass casualty events. AHRQ Publication No. 05-0043. Rockville, MD: AHRQ; 2005.
  2. ANA (American Nurses Association). Adapting standards of care under extreme conditions: Guidance for professionals during disasters, pandemics, and other extreme emergencies. 2008. [accessed September 8, 2009]. http://www​.nursingworld​.org/MainMenuCategories​/HealthcareandPolicyIssues​/DPR/TheLawEthicsofDisasterResponse​/AdaptingStandardsofCare.aspx .
  3. California Department of Public Health. Standards and guidelines for healthcare surge during emergencies. 2008. [accessed September 8, 2009]. http:​//bepreparedcalifornia​​/PublicHealthPrograms​/EmergencyPreparednessOffice​/EPOProgramsServices​/Surge/StandGuide/SSG1.htm .
  4. CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). MDS 20 for nursing homes. 2002. [accessed September 9, 2009]. http://www​​/nursinghomequalityinits/20_NHQIMDS20​.asp .
  5. Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Guidance for alterations in the healthcare system during a moderate to severe influenza pandemic. 2009. (unpublished)
  6. DeBruin D, Parilla E, Liaschenko J, Marshall M, Leider J, Brunnquell D, Garrett J, Vawter D.Implementing ethical frameworks for rationing scarce health resources in Minnesota during severe influenza pandemic: Preliminary report. 2009. [accessed September 9, 2009]. http://www​​/mnpanflu/prod/groups​/ahc/@pub/@ahc/@ethicsmpep​/documents/content​/ahc_content_090510.pdf .
  7. Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, Christian MD, Dubler NN, Sandrock CE, Hick JL, Powell T, Geiling JA, Amundson DE, Baudendistel TE, Braner DA, Klein MA, Berkowitz KA, Curtis JR, Rubinson L. Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: A framework for allocation of scarce resources in mass critical care: From a Task Force for Mass Critical Care Summit meeting, January 26–27, 2007, Chicago, IL. Chest. 2008;133(5 Suppl):51S–66S. [PubMed: 18460506]
  8. Flacker JM, Kiely DK. A practical approach to identifying mortality-related factors in established long-term care residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998;46(8):1012–1015. [PubMed: 9706893]
  9. Gebbie KM, Peterson CA, Subbarao I, White KM. Adapting standards of care under extreme conditions. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(2):111–116. [PubMed: 19190493]
  10. Hick JL, O’Laughlin DT. Concept of operations for triage of mechanical ventilation in an epidemic. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(2):223–229. [PubMed: 16400088]
  11. Hick JL, Barbera JA, Kelen GD. Refining surge capacity: Conventional, contingency, and crisis capacity. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(2 Suppl):S59–S67. [PubMed: 19349869]
  12. Hodge J, Anderson E. Principles and practice of legal triage during public health emergencies. NYU Annual Survey of American Law. 2008;64:249–292.
  13. Hodge JG Jr, Garcia AM, Anderson ED, Kaufman T. Emergency legal preparedness for hospitals and health care personnel. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(2 Suppl):S37–S44. [PubMed: 19491586]
  14. IOM (Institute of Medicine). Dispensing medical countermeasures for public health emergencies: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2008.
  15. IOM. Guidance for establishing crisis standards of care for use in disaster situations: A letter report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009.
  16. Levin D, Cadigan RO, Biddinger PD, Condon S, Koh HK.Altered standards of care during an influenza pandemic: Identifying ethical, legal, and practical principles to guide decision making. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009. [accessed September 14, 2009]. http://www​
  17. Lieberman D, Nachshon L, Miloslavsky O, Dvorkin V, Shimoni A, Lieberman D. How do older ventilated patients fare? A survival/functional analysis of 641 ventilations. J Crit Care. 2009;24(3):340–346. [PubMed: 19664523]
  18. Matzo ML. Palliative care: Prognostication and the chronically ill: Methods you need to know as chronic disease progresses in older adults. Am J Nurs. 2004;104(9):40–49. quiz 50. [PubMed: 15365339]
  19. Minnesota Department of Health. Minnesota healthcare system preparedness program standards of care for scarce resources. 2008. [accessed September 8, 2009]. http://www​.health.state​ .
  20. Mitchell SL, Kiely DK, Hamel MB, Park PS, Morris JN, Fries BE. Estimating prognosis for nursing home residents with advanced dementia. JAMA. 2004;291(22):2734–2740. [PubMed: 15187055]
  21. New Jersey Hospital Association. Planning today for a pandemic tomorrow: Video vignettes. 2008. [accessed September 8, 2009]. http://www​ .
  22. O’Laughlin DT, Hick JL. Ethical issues in resource triage. Respir Care. 2008;53(2):190–197. discussion 197–200. [PubMed: 18218150]
  23. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care. Ontario health plan for an influenza pandemic. 2008. [accessed September 8, 2009]. http://www​​​/program/emu/pan_flu/pan_flu_plan​.html#section .
  24. Phillips S, Knebel A, editors. Mass medical care with scarce resources: A community planning guide. AHRQ Publication No. 07-0001. Rockville, MD: AHRQ; 2007.
  25. Powell T, Christ KC, Birkhead GS. Allocation of ventilators in a public health disaster. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008;2(1):20–26. [PubMed: 18388654]
  26. PricewaterhouseCoopers. Closing the seams: Developing an integrated approach to health system disaster preparedness. 2007. [accessed November 2, 2009]. http://www​​/en/healthcare/publications​/closing-the-seams.jhtml .
  27. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Guidelines for the development of altered standards of care for influenza pandemic. 2007. (unpublished)
  28. The Utah Hospitals and Health Systems Association. Utah pandemic influenza hospital and ICU triage guidelines Version 1. 2009. [accessed September 8, 2009]. http://www​.pandemicflu​ .
  29. VHA (Veterans Health Administration). Tertiary triage protocol for allocation of scarce life-saving resources in VHA during an influenza pandemic. 2008a. (unpublished)
  30. VHA. VA staff discussion forums on ethics issues in pandemic influenza preparedness. 2008b. [accessed September 30, 2009]. http://www​​.gov/activities/pandemic​_influenza_preparedness.asp .
  31. VHA. Draft guidance: Meeting the challenge of pandemic influenza: Ethical guidance for VHA leaders and clinicians. 2009a. (unpublished)
  32. VHA. IntegratedEthics Program. 2009b. [accessed September 30, 2009]. http://www​​.gov/integrated/ethics/index.asp .
  33. Virginia Department of Health. Virginia Hospital and Healthcare Association Altered Standards of Care Workgroup: Critical resource shortages: A planning guide. 2008. [accessed September 8, 2009]. http://www​.troutmansanders​.com/files/upload​/Critical%20Resource​%20Shortages-A%20Planning%20Guide.pdf .
  34. Walter LC, Brand RJ, Counsell SR, Palmer RM, Landefeld CS, Fortinsky RH, Covinsky KE. Development and validation of a prognostic index for 1-year mortality in older adults after hospitalization. JAMA. 2001;285(23):2987–2994. [PubMed: 11410097]
  35. Washington State Department of Health’s Altered Standards of Care Work-group. Report and recommendations to the Department of Health Secretary on establishing altered standards of care during an influenza pandemic. 2008. (unpublished)
  36. Wynia M.IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations. Paper presented at IOM Committee on Guidance for Establishing Standards of Care for Use in Disaster Situations; September 2; Washington, DC. 2009.
Copyright © 2010, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK32744


Related information

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...