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Cover of Carbon Black, Titanium Dioxide, and Talc

Carbon Black, Titanium Dioxide, and Talc

IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, No. 93

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This volume of the IARC Monographs provides a reassessment of the carcinogenicity of carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc. All of these agents are poorly soluble particles that are weakly toxic, and were chosen for assessment because evidence suggests that they cause cancer in the respiratory tract of rats through mechanisms similar to those that are operative in people who work in dusty environments (e.g. coal mines). An IARC Monographs Working Group reviewed epidemiological evidence, animal bioassays, and mechanistic and other relevant data to reach conclusions as to the carcinogenic hazard of these particles upon inhalation by humans.

Contents

Corrigenda to the IARC Monographs are published online at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Publications/corrigenda.php

LIBRARY CATALOGUING DATA

This publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, which met in Lyon, 7–14 February 2006

Lyon, France - 2010

IARC MONOGRAPHS

In 1969, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) initiated a programme on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans involving the production of critically evaluated monographs on individual chemicals. The programme was subsequently expanded to include evaluations of carcinogenic risks associated with exposures to complex mixtures, lifestyle factors and biological and physical agents, as well as those in specific occupations. The objective of the programme is to elaborate and publish in the form of monographs critical reviews of data on carcinogenicity for agents to which humans are known to be exposed and on specific exposure situations; to evaluate these data in terms of human risk with the help of international working groups of experts in chemical carcinogenesis and related fields; and to indicate where additional research efforts are needed. The lists of IARC evaluations are regularly updated and are available on the Internet at http://monographs.iarc.fr/.

This programme has been supported since 1982 by Cooperative Agreement U01 CA33193 with the United States National Cancer Institute, Department of Health and Human Services. Additional support has been provided since 1986 by the Health, Safety and Hygiene at Work Unit of the European Commission Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, and since 1992 by the United States National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Health and Human Services. The contents of this volume are solely the responsibility of the Working Group and do not necessarily represent the official views of the U.S. National Cancer Institute, the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or the European Commission Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities.

This volume was made possible, in part, through Cooperative Agreement CR 834012 with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. The contents of this volume do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  • Published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer,
  • 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
  • ©International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2010
  • Distributed by WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: tni.ohw@sredrokoob).
  • Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate IARC publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: tni.ohw@snoissimrep).

The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

The IARC Monographs Working Group alone is responsible for the views expressed in this publication.

IARC Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

  • Carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc / IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2006: Lyon, France)
  • (IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans; v. 93)
  • 1. Carcinogens, Environmental 2. Inhalation Exposure – adverse effects 3. Lung Neoplasms – chemically induced 4. Soot – toxicity 5. Talc – toxicity 6. Titanium – toxicity
  • I. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans II. Series
  • ISBN 978 92 832 1293 5 (NLM Classification: W1)
  • ISSN 1017-1606
  • PRINTED IN FRANCE
Image front

Cover photograph: The white-wall automobile tyre represents carbon black and titanium dioxide; the chemical structure illustrates the platy structure of talc (see Section 1 for details).

Cover photograph and design: Roland Dray, IARC

Source of the talc structure: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Talc.GIF

©International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2010.
Bookshelf ID: NBK326521

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