Evidence Table 31

Outcomes in studies addressing the impact of CHI applications on intermediate outcomes in miscellaneous conditions of interest

Author, yearOutcomesControl InterventionnMeasure at BLMeasure at time point 2Measure at time point 3Measure at time point 4Measure at final time pointRatios at time pointsSignificance
CVD
Kukafka, 20021SymptomsControl17Self-efficacy scoresBL, time point 2, <.05
Final time point,
Non-Tailored13Self-efficacy scores
Tailored17Self-efficacy scoresBL, time point 3, <.001
ActionControl32Self-efficacy scores1 month3 monthBL, time point 2, <.05
final time point,
Non-tailored31self-efficacy scores1 month3 month
Tailored31self-efficacy scores1 month3 monthBL, time point 2, <.05
time point 3, <.05
CognitiveControlSelf-efficacy scores1 month3 month
Non-TailoredSelf-efficacy scores1 month3 month
TailoredSelf-efficacy scores1 month3 monthBL, time point 2, <.05
time point 3, <.001
time point 4,
final time point,
Simkins, 19862Medication refill complianceControl104Compliant monthsMonth 3: mean, 0.58 SD, 0.5
Group 2 received reminder by postcard101Compliant monthsMonth 3: mean, 0.65 SD, 0.52
Group 3 received reminder by calling69Compliant monthsMonth 3 mean, 0.64 SD, 0.46
Medication refill non-complianceControl104non-compliant monthsMonth 1Month 3 mean, 0.43 SD, 0.5
Group 2 received reminder by postcard101Non-compliant monthsMonth 1Month 3 mean, 0.35 SD, 0.52
Group 3 received reminder by calling69Non-compliant monthsMonth 1Month 3 mean, 0.36 SD, 0.46
Arthritis
Lorig, 20083Health distressControl344Mean, 2.37 SD, 1.196months1year: mean, 2.25 SD, 1.19
Online intervention307Mean, 2.41 SD, 1.26months1year: mean, 2 SD, 1.18
Activity limitationControl344Mean, 3.22 SD, 0.9036months1year mean, 3.29 SD, 0.885
Online intervention307Mean, 3.17 SD, 0.9736months1year mean, 3.09 SD, 0.962
Self reported global healthControl344Mean, 0.569 SD, 0.4466months1year mean, 0.573 SD, 0.457
Online intervention307Mean, 0.547 SD, 0.4016months1year mean, 0.514 SD, 0.445
PainControl344Mean, 6.37 SD, 2.226months1year mean, 6.1 SD, 2.35
Online intervention3076months1year mean, 5.77 SD, 2.53
Self efficacyControl344Mean, 4.96 SD, 1.986months1year: mean, 5.34 SD, 2.06
Online intervention307Mean, 5.08 SD, 2.136months1year: mean, 5.89 SD, 2.09
Back pain
Buhrman, 20044CSQ-Diverting attentionControl29Mean, 12.3 SD, 7.42 months: mean, 11.9 SD, 6.9
Cognitive behavior intervention22Mean, 11.6 SD, 5.72 months: mean, 12.3 SD, 5.2
CSQ-Reinterpret pain sensationsControl29Mean, 5.4 SD, 6.52 months mean, 4.6 SD, 5.9
Cognitive behavior intervention22Mean, 3.6 SD, 3.52 months mean, 4.4 SD, 3.6
CSQ-Coping self-statementControlMean, 18.3 SD, 6.62 months mean, 17.3 SD, 6.7
Cognitive behavior interventionMean, 18.4 SD, 6.52 months mean, 19.1 SD, 5.8
CSQ-Ignore pain sensationsControl29Mean, 13.5 SD, 6.62 months mean, 12.9 SD, 6.5
Cognitive behavior intervention222 months mean, 13.7 SD, 7
CSQ-Praying or hopingControl29Mean, 10.4 SD, 6.72 months: mean, 8.5 SD, 6
Cognitive behavior intervention22Mean, 12 SD, 6.92 months: mean, 9.8 SD, 5.1
CSQ-CatastrophizingControl29Mean, 13.7 SD, 6.92 months mean, 12.3 SD, 7.2
Cognitive behavior intervention22Mean, 13.6 SD, 7.72 months mean, 8.6 SD, 5.2
CSQ-Increase activity levelControl22Mean, 17.3 SD, 6.12 months mean, 16.9 SD, 6.3
Cognitive behavior intervention22Mean, 14.4 SD, 52 months mean, 14.8 SD, 5.6
CSQ-Control over painControl29Mean, 2.9 SD, 1.12 months: mean, 2.9 SD, 1
Cognitive behavior intervention22Mean, 2.8 SD, 12 months: mean, 3.9 SD, 0.7
Behavioral risk factors
Oenema, 20085Self-rated saturated fat intakeControl930Mean, −0.16 SD, 0.82one month: mean, −0.19 SD, 0.82
Internet group887Mean, −0.19 SD, 0.78One month: mean, −0.18 SD, 0.79
Self rated PA levelControl890Mean, −0.29 SD, 0.92One month mean, −0.3 SD, 0.93
Internet group827Mean, −0.31 SD, 0.91One month mean, −0.29 SD, 0.85
Breast cervical prostate and laryngeal cancer
Jones, 19996Satisfaction Score >2 (n (%))Booklet (control)15058(40)
Personal computer information15668(46)
Satisfaction Score >2(95% CI of percentageBooklet (control)15032 to 48
Personal computer information15638 to 54
Prefer computer to 10 minute consultation with professionalBooklet (control)15012/122(10)
Personal computer information15638/131(29)
Cervical cancer
Campbell, 19977Pap smear within 6 months in women who were under screened by Path report 18–49 yearsControl326 months (24.6), 95% CI
Experimental566 months (37.8), 95% CINS
Pap smear within 6 months in women who were under screened by Self report 18–49 yearsControl446 months
Intervention526 monthsNS
Pap smear within 6 months in women who were under screened by Path report 50–70 yearsControl416 months
Intervention386 monthsNS (0.09)
Pap smear within 6 months in women who were under screened by Self report 50–70 yearsControl216 months
Intervention226 months0.026
Cancer, Prostate
Forsch, 20088Total knowledge scores(completer cases only), mean (SE)Traditional decision aid155Posttest: mean, 8.65 SD, 0.18
Chronic disease trajectory model153Posttest: mean, 8.03 SD, 0.18
Combined152Posttest: mean, 8.03 SD, 0.18
Caregiver decision making
Brennan, 19959Decision confidenceControl49Likert scale, 14 items, 5 choices mean, 54.65 SD, 7.312 months: mean, 54.7 SD, 6.1
Experimental47Likert scale 14 items, 5 choices mean, 51.9 SD, 612 months: mean, 56.8 SD, 7<.01
Improved decision making skillControl49Number of alternatives caregiver considers to solve a problem: mean, 2.51 SD, 0.9112 months mean, 2.37 SD, 78
Experimental47Number of alternatives caregiver considers to solve a problem: mean, 2.53 SD, 0.7812 months mean, 2.4 SD, 0.610.2
IsolationControl49Score on Instrumental and Expressive Support Scale (IESS) mean, 62.7 SD, 15.512 months mean, 62.6 SD, 16
Experimental47Mean, 63.4 SD, 16.612 months mean, 65 SD, 17.40.51
Change in health behavior
Harari, 200810Self-reported health behaviorControl106612 months:(84)
HRA-O intervention group94012 months (76)
Preventative care uptakeControl106612 months (84)
HRA-O intervention group94012 months (76)
Paperny, 199011High cigarette useControl10
Intervention group 125P=<0.01
Intervention group 225P=<0.03
Frequent marijuana use (weekly)Control8
Intervention group 119P=<0.04
Intervention group 222P=<0.03
High alcohol use (weekly)Control13
Intervention group 128P=<0.02
Intervention group 228NS
Problems at home with parents, familyControl24
Intervention group 170P=<0.001
Intervention group 272P=<0,001
Often sad, upset or unhappyControl34
Intervention group 169P=<0.001
Intervention group 266P=<0,007
Feeling sad or down latelyControl45
Intervention group 167P=<0.04
Intervention group 263NS
Would like contraceptive informationControl27
Intervention group 174P=<0.001
Intervention group 266P=<0.001
Has a lover nowControl56
Intervention group 182P=<0.03
Intervention group 282NS
Had sexual intercourseControl56
Intervention group 175NS
Intervention group 275NS
Taking medicationsControl50
Intervention group 161NS
Intervention group 262NS
Headache
Devineni, 200512Headache symptom questionnaireControl47Mean, 35.5 SD, 20.92 months mean, 31.7 SD, 22.4
Intervention39Mean, 33.8 SD, 19.32 months mean, 20.3 SD, 15.9
Headache disability inventoryControl39Mean, 54.2 SD, 20.52 months mean, 49.6 SD, 23.1
Intervention39Mean, 52.9 SD, 18.82 months mean, 38 SD, 19.5
CES-D (depression scale)47Mean, 13.9 SD, 9.52 months mean, 14.3 SD, 12.1
Trait-anxiety scaleControl39Mean, 25.6 SD, 15.92 months mean, 20.8 SD, 17.2
Intervention392 months mean, 18.4 SD, 15.7
HIV/AIDS
Flatley-Brennan, 199813Improved decision making confidenceControl26Mean score mean, 52.8 SD, 6Post-intervention: mean, 56.47 SD, 4.2BL, 0.05 time point 2, final time point, 0.05
Computer link31Mean score mean, 54.35 SD, 5.9Post-intervention: mean, 51.45 SD, 6.9BL, 0.05 time point 2, final time point, 0.05
Improved decision making skillControl26Mean score: mean, 4.73 SD, 1.4Post-intervention mean, 5.47 SD, 1.3BL, 0.05 time point 2, final time point, 0.05
Computer link31Mean Score: mean, 4.58 SD, 5.4Post-intervention mean, 5.4 SD, 1.5BL, 0.05 time point 2, final time point, 0.05
Reduced social isolationControl26Mean score mean, 67.05 SD, 17Post-intervention mean, 68 SD, 16.8BL, 0.05 time point 2, final time point, 0.05
Computer Link31Mean score mean, 63.5 SD, 14.4Post-intervention mean, 66.08 SD, 13.68BL, 0.05 time point 2, final time point, 0.05
Differential decline in health statusControl26Mean score mean, 13.8 SD, 4.93Post-intervention mean, 13.65 SD, 1.3BL, 0.05 final time point, 0.05
Computer link31Post-intervention mean, 13 SD, 1.7RR or OR time point 2, 0.05BL, 0.05 time point 2, No improvement over control
Gustafson, 199414Average Quality of life
(%)
Control28(65)
CHESS30(68)
Hospital cost
($/person/Month)
Control97Cost went up $457
CHESS107Cost went down $148
Menopause HRT
Rostom, 200215Realistic expectationsControl26Final score: difference in Mean scores; baseline and point 4 score: mean score mean, 37.2 SD, 25.5Difference in posttest score-baseline score: mean, 52.7 SD, 37.5p=0.015, t=2.530, mean deviation =0.25.
p=0.023, Mann-Whitney U = 205, Z = −2.282
Computerized decision aid25Final score: difference in Mean scores; baseline and point 4 score: mean score mean, 32 SD, 30.4Difference in posttest score-baseline score: mean, 52.7 SD, 37.5p=0.015, t=2.530, mean deviation =0.25.
p=0.023, Mann-Whitney U = 205, Z = −2.282
KnowledgeControl26Final score: difference in Mean scores; baseline and point 4 score: mean score: mean, 78.7 SD, 16.7Post-intervention questionnaire mean, 87.1 SD, 11.8Difference in posttest score-baseline score mean, 8.4 SD, 13.3p= 0.019, t = 2.423, mean deviation = 0.0906.
p=0.017, Mann-Whitney U = 201, Z= −2.397
Computerized decision aid25Final score: difference in Mean scores; baseline and point 4 score: mean score: mean, 76.4 SD, 14.9Post-intervention questionnaire mean, 93.8 SD, 9Difference in posttest score-baseline score mean, 17.5 SD, 13.4p= 0.019, t = 2.423, mean deviation = 0.0906.
p=0.017, Mann-Whitney U = 201, Z= −2.397
Schapira, 200716Menopause-related knowledge and health-risk expectationsControl863 months mean, 15.5 ; median, ; range, 14.9, 16.0;
Computer-based decision aid853 months mean, 15.1 ; median, ; range, 14.5, 15.7;,
Satisfaction with decisionControl853 months prior decision3 months mean, 4.37 median, range, 4.26, 4.48
Computer-based decision aid853 months prior decision3 months mean, 4.37 median, range, 4.26, 4.47
Decisional conflictControl853 months prior decision3 months mean, 1.78 median, range, 1.67, 1.90
computer-based decision aid853 months prior decision3 months mean, 1.74 median, range, 1.62, 1.85
Decisional conflict Decisional uncertainty subscaleControl853 months prior decision3 months mean, 1.9 median, range, 1.75, 2.05
Computer-based decision aid853 months prior decision3 months mean, 1.88 range, 1.73, 2.03
Decisional conflict Factors of uncertainty subscaleControl853 months prior decision3 months: mean, 1.78 : range, 1.66, 1.91:
Computer-based decision aid853 months prior decision3 months: mean, 1.73 SD, 1.61, 1.86
Decisional conflict Effective decision-making subscale853 months prior decision3 months mean, 1.70 median, range, 1.58, 1.82 SD,
Decision to use hormone therapyControl863 months - prior decision3 months
Decision to use hormone therapyComputer-based decision aid853 months - prior decision3 months0.85
preventing falls in the elderly
Yardley, 200717Intention to carry out the recommended activitiesControl1366 point scaleAdter reviewing the intervention or control web site: mean, 4.65 SD, 0.79
Tailored1446 point scaleAdter reviewing the intervention or control web site: mean, 4.86 SD, 0.61
Personal relevanceControl136Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site mean, 4.6 SD, 0.77
Tailored144Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site mean, 4.83 SD, 0.65
InterestControl136Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site mean, 5.08 SD, 0.64
Tailored144Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site mean, 5.03 SD, 0.61
Suitability of the activitiesControl136Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site mean, 4.8 SD, 0.79
Tailored144Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site mean, 4.95 SD, 0.6BL, time point 2, CI −0.055, 0.009 NS
Self-efficacyControl136Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site: mean, 4.35 SD, 0.95
Tailored144Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site: mean, 4.61 SD, 0.7
Outcome expectancyControl136Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site mean, 4.79 SD, 0.74
Tailored144Adter reviewing the intervention or control web site mean, 4.78 SD, 0.67
use of contraception
Chewning, 199918OC knowledge ChicagoControlNAMean, 1.95 SD, 1.13Initial visit mean, 2.29 SD, 1.031 year: mean, 3.05 SD, 1.24BL, 0.709 time point 2, 0 final time point, NS
Computerized decision aidNAMean, 1.89 SD, 1.07Initial visit mean, 3.28 SD, 1.171 year: mean, 3.23 SD, 1.27BL, 0.709 time point 2, 0 final time point, NS
OC knowledge MadisonControlNAMean, 2.48 SD, 1.21Initial visit mean, 3.58 SD, 1.061 year mean, 3.76 SD, 1.02BL, 0.813 time point 2, 0 final time point, 0.031
Computerized decision aidNAMean, 2.46 SD, 1.3Initial visit mean, 4.49 SD, 0.781 year mean, 3.95 SD, 0.91BL, 0.813 time point 2, 0 final time point, 0.031
OC efficacy ChicagoControlNAInitial visit mean, 11.26 SD, 15.931 year mean, 6.38 SD, 13.45BL, time point 2, 0 final time point, NS
Computerized decision aidNAInitial visit mean, 4.59 SD, 9.21 year mean, 5.66 SD, 8.45BL, time point 2, 0 final time point, NS
OC efficacy MadisonControlNAInitial visit mean, 4.8 SD, 5.581 year mean, 4.83 SD, 9.15BL, time point 2, 0
Computerized decision aidNAMean, 2.09 SD, 2.2Initial visit1 year mean, 4 SD, 8.26BL, NS time point 2,

BL = baseline, SD = standard deviation, CI = confidence interval, OC = oral contraceptive, CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale

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From: Appendix G

Cover of Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Applications
Impact of Consumer Health Informatics Applications.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 188.
Gibbons MC, Wilson RF, Samal L, et al.

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