Evidence table of systematic review of the effect of vitamin D on bone health

Author Year [PMID]Cranney 2007 [18088161]
DesignSystematic review of RCTs and observational studies
  • Include all ages
  • Exclude secondary causes of osteoporosis (e.g., glucocorticoid-induced, renal or liver disease)
  • Exclude studies on the treatment of vitamin D-dependent rickets (to minimize clinical heterogeneity as treatments is often non-dietary sources of vitamin D)
Intervention (Exposure) and ComparatorIntervention (Exposure):
  • Include vitamin D2 or D3 with or without calcium.
  • Exclude vitamin D preparations, calcitriol, alphacalcidol (because they are not nutritional supplements, and have different safety profile)
  • No vitamin D or lower doses/levels of vitamin D
ResultsSee text for summary results for the following outcomes in both vitamin D and combined vitamin D and calcium sections of the report:
  • Rickets
  • Fractures, falls, or performance measures
  • Bone mineral density or bone mineral contents
  • How does dietary intake of vitamin D from fortified foods and vitamin D supplementation affect serum 25(OH)D Concentrations
  • Adverse events
CommentsCase-control studies were included but always summarized separately from cohort studies and RCTs. Meta-analyses were performed to pool results from RCTs only.
A priori design?YesStudy quality assessment performed?Yes
Two independent reviewers?YesStudy quality appropriately used in analysis?Yes
Comprehensive literature search?YesAppropriate statistical synthesis?Yes
All publication types and languages included?NoPublication bias assessed?No
Included and excluded studies listed?YesConflicts of interest stated?Yes
Study characteristics provided?Yes

From: Appendix D, Evaluation of existing systematic reviews and evidence tables of the qualified systematic reviews

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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