Table 2Number of primary studies on calcium intake and specific health outcomes that could be applicable to certain life stages

GrowthCVD clinicalBody weight (adults)Total cancerProstate cancerColorectal cancerColorectal adenomaBreast cancerBreast mammographic densityPancreatic cancerImmune function clinical outcomesPreeclampsia & pregnancy outcomesAll-cause mortalityBone health clinical outcomesBone mineral density or contentHypertensionBlood pressure
0–6 mo1
7 mo–2 y
3–8 y11B
9–18 y3
19–50 y2313111153
51 – 70 y9511217652142
≥71 y1111B12
Pregnant & lactating women114
Total unique studies per outcome [Total number of RCTs per outcome]3118312216612C01415D5
Systematic reviews (unique studies) per outcome103001100001006

Shaded cells indicate that either the eligibility criteria excluded outcomes in those life stages or the outcomes are not applicable to those life stages. Blank unshaded cells indicate no primary studies were identified in this report in those life stages.


Only RCTs were eligible for this outcome


Association between total calcium intake in childhood and colorectal cancer after 65 years of followup


1 study was a combined analysis of Nurses Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study


6 analyses, including 2 separate analyses of NHANES I

From: 3, Results

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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