Table 18Vitamin D and prostate cancer: Characteristics of nested case-control studies

Author Year
Study Name
Location
(Latitude)
[PMID]
Population25(OH)DComparisonsConfounders/Effect Modifiers AdjustedComments
NutrientsDemographicAnthropMedicalUV exposureLife styles
Ahn 200854
PLCO US
(21°N to 44°N)
[18505967]
Health status
Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
8% current smoker
67.8 (5.3)


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA (Heartland)



nd
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D quintilesXXXX
Platz 200463
Mikhak 200761
HPFS US
(multiple latitudes)
[15090720]
[17440943]
Health status

Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
Smoked 18%; DM 3.6%
66 (7)


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA



nd
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D quartilesXXXXXX6% nonwhite
Freedman 200753
NHANES III US
(multiple latitudes)
[17971526]
Health status

Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
28% current smoker
44


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA



South: Nov to Mar; North: Apr to Oct
Prostate cancer mortality stratified by 2 baseline 25(OH)D categoriesXXXXXX71% white; 14% black; 6% Hispanics
Tuohimaa 200464
Helsinki
Heart Vasterbotten;
Janus Project;
Finland
(60°N)
[14618623]
Health status

Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
Gemfibrozil vs. placebo subjects
<40 to >60


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA (Incstar)



nd
Prostate cancer risk stratified by 5 baseline 25(OH)D categoriesXX
Li 200760
Gann 199666
PHS
US
(multiple latitudes)
[17388667]
[8850273]
Health status



Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
on ASA, β-carotene, placebo trial; 9% current smoker
58.9 (8.3)


100
Assa




Season blood drawn
Assay




Season blood drawn
RIA (Bruce Hollis)




24% spring or winter
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D quartilesXX94% white
Corder 199358
San Francisco US
(37°N)
[8220092]
Health status
Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
nd

57 (38–81)

100
Assay



Season blood drawn
Competitive protein-binding (Haddad, 1971)
nd
Prostate cancer risk compared by baseline 25(OH)DXX50% black; 50% white
Ahonen 200055
Helsinki Heart
Finland
(60°N)
[11075874]
Health status

Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
Gemfibrozil vs. placebo subjects
40–57


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA (Incstar)



Jan-Feb; Mar-May; Sep
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D quartilesXXXXX
Nomura 199862
Honolulu Heart
US
(21°N)
[9794175]
Health status
Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
64% smoked
58 (49–70)


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
Protein-binding



nd
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D quartilesXXX100% Japanese Americans
Tuohimaa 200765
Helsinki Heart
Finland
(60°N)
17301263
Health status

Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
Gemfibrozil vs. placebo subjects,br>51 (3.7)


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA (Incstar)



Most in winter
Prostate cancer risk stratified by 3 baseline 25(OH)D categoriesXXX
Jacobs 200459
NPC
Eastern US
(25°46’N to 41°N)
[15225833]
Health status

Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
Selenium vs. placebo subjectsA
68 (nd)
100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA



nd
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D tertilesXXXXX
Braun 199557
WCC, MD
US
(39°N)
[7612803]
Health status
Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
nd

<45–75+


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA (Bruce Hollis, 1993)


Aug through Nov
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D quintilesX100% white
Baron 200556
CPP
US
(multiple latitudes)
[15767334]B
Health status


Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
had >1 colon adenoma removal
62 (8.7)


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
Competitive protein-binding (Quest)


nd
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D tertilesXXX5% black
Braun 199557
WCC, MD
US
(39°N)
[7612803]
Health status
Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
nd

<45–75+


100
Assay



Season blood drawn
RIA (Bruce Hollis, 1993)


Aug through Nov
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D quintilesX100% white
Baron 200556
CPP
US
(multiple latitudes)
[15767334]B
Health status


Mean age (range/SD), y
Male (%)
had >1 colon adenoma removal
62 (8.7)


100
Assay




Season blood drawn
Competitive protein-binding (Quest)


nd
Prostate cancer risk stratified by baseline 25(OH)D tertilesXXX5% black
A

For prevention of recurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer

B

This is a cohort study, not a nested case-control study.

From: 3, Results

Cover of Vitamin D and Calcium
Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 183.
Chung M, Balk EM, Brendel M, et al.

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