Table 1.1Main substances (and classes of substances) to which workers may be exposed in the painting tradesa

MaterialPrincipal uses or sources of emissionsAgent evaluatedEvaluation
Acrylates (e.g. ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate)Acrylic resins, ultraviolet curing paintsEthyl acrylate
Acrylic acid
Methyl acrylate
Methyl methacrylate
2B
3
3
3
Acrylic resinsBindersAs above
Alcohols, aliphatic (e.g. methanol, isopropanol, n-butanol)Solvents (lacquers), paint removersMethanol
Ethanol
Isopropanol
n-Butanol


3
Alkalis (e.g. sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide)Paint removers
Alkyd resinsBinders
Aluminium, powderPigment
Amides, aliphatic (e.g. dimethylformamide)SolventsDimethylformamide2A
Amines (mono), aliphatic (e.g. diethylamine) and alkanolamines (e.g. 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol)Water-based paintsTriethanolamine3
Amines (poly), aliphatic (e.g. diethylenetriamine)Curing agents (epoxy resins)
Amines, aromatic (e.g. meta-phenylenediamine, 4,4-methylenedianiline)Curing agents (epoxy resins)meta-Phenylenediamine
4,4-Methylenedianiline
3
2B
Amino resins (e.g. urea-formaldehyde resins, melamine-formaldehyde resins)BindersSee formaldehyde
AmmoniaWater-based paints
Anhydrides, organic (e.g. maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, trimellitic anhydride)Alkyd resin synthesis, curing agents (epoxy resins)Succinic anhydride3
Antimony compounds (e.g. antimony trioxide)Pigments, fire retardant pigmentsAntimony trioxide
Antimony trisulfide
2B
3
Arsenic compounds (e.g. copper aceto-arsenate)Antifouling agents1
AsbestosFiller, spackling and taping compounds, talcAsbestos1
Barium compounds (e.g. barium sulfate, barium carbonate)Pigments
Benzoyl peroxideCatalystBenzoyl peroxide3
Bisphenol AEpoxy resins3
Cadmium compounds (e.g. cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfoselenide)PigmentsCadmium and cadmium compounds1
Calcium compounds (e.g. calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate)Fillers
CamphorPlasticizer
Carbon blackPigmentCarbon black2B
Cellulose ester resins (e.g. cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate)Binders
ChloracetamideFungicide (water-based paints)
ChlorofluorocarbonsSpray-can paint propellantsChlorofluoromethane3
Chromium and chromium compounds (e.g. chromic oxide, chromates)PigmentsChromium (III) compounds
Chromium (VI) compounds
Chromium, metallic
3
1
3
Clays (e.g. bentonite)Fillers
Coal-tar and asphaltSpecial waterproof coatings (ships, tanks, pipes)Coal tar
Coal-tar pitches
Bitumen extracts
Bitumen refined
1
1
2B
3
Cobalt compoundsPigments, driersCobalt and cobalt compounds
Cobalt, metallic
2B
2B
Copper and copper compounds (e.g. bronze powder, cuprous oxide)Pigments, antifouling agents
Dyes and pigments, organic (e.g. aromatic azo dyes, phthalocyanines, rhodamine)PigmentsCI Basic Red 9 }
Magenta production }
2-naphthylamine }
4-aminobiphenyl }
Auramine production }
Benzidine }
Benzidine-based dyes }
2B
1
1
1
1
1
1
EpichlorohydrinEpoxy resinsEpichlorohydrin2A
Epoxy resinBinders
Esters, aliphatic (e.g. ethyl acetate, isopropyl acetate)Solvents
Ethers, aliphatic (e.g. isopropyl ether, tetrahydrofuran) and glycol ethers (e.g. methyl cellosolve)Solvents2-Butoxyethanol
1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol
3
3
FormaldehydeAmino resin varnishes, biocide (water-based paints)Formaldehyde1
GasolineSolventGasoline2B
Glycidyl ethers (e.g. n-butyl glycidyl ether and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether)Epoxy resin diluents and constituentsPhenylglycidyl ether
Triethylene glycol diglycidyl ether
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether
2B
3
3
Glycols (e.g. ethylene glycol)Polyester resins, water-based paints
Hydrocarbons, aliphatic (e.g. hexanes, heptanes)Solvents (naphthas, white spirits)
Hydrocarbons, aromatic (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylenes, trimethylbenzene)Solvents (naphthas, white spirits), paint removersBenzene
Toluene
Xylene
Ethylbenzene
1
3
3
2B
Hydrocarbons, chlorinated
(e.g. dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene)
Solvents, paint removers, metal degreasersDichloromethane
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Carbon tetrachloride
Trichloroethylene
2B
3
2B
2A
Hydrochloric acid (hydrogen chloride)Catalyst (amino resins)3
Iron compounds (e.g. iron oxides, ferric ferrocyanide)PigmentsFerric oxide3
Isocyanates (e.g. 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate)Two-component polyurethane resinsToluene diisocyanate2B
Isothiazolones (e.g. 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one)Biocides in tinned foods
KeroseneSolventJet fuel3
Ketones, aliphatic (e.g. acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, cyclohexanone, isophorone, diacetone alcohol)Solvents, lacquers, paint removersCyclohexanone3
Lead compounds (e.g. lead chromate, lead oxides, basic lead carbonate, lead naphthenate)Primers, pigments, driersLead
Lead compounds, inorganic
2B
2A
Magnesium compounds (e.g. magnesium carbonate)Fillers
Manganese naphthenateDrier
Mercury compounds (e.g. mercuric oxide, phenyl mercuric acetate)Fungicides (water-based paints)Mercury and inorganic mercury compounds3
Methyl celluloseThickener (water-based paints)
MicaFiller
Molybdenum compounds (e.g. lead molybdate)Pigments
Nickel, metal powderPigmentNickel compounds
Nickel, metallic and alloys
1
2B
2B
Nitroparaffins (e.g. nitroethane, 2-nitropropane)Solvents2-Nitropropane2B
Oils, vegetable (e.g. linseed oil, tung oil)Binders
Oximes (e.g. methyl ethyl ketoxime)Anti-oxidants, anti-skinning agents
Petroleum solvents (e.g. Stoddard solvent, VM & P naphtha)Solvents, paint removersPetroleum solvents3
PhenolPhenol-formaldehyde resins, paint remover (formerly)Phenol3
Phenol-formaldehyde resinsBindersSee phenol, and formaldehyde
Phenols, chlorinated (e.g. pentachlorophenol)Fungicides (water-based paints)Polychlorophenols and their sodium salts
Pentachlorophenol
2B
2B
Phosphates, organic (e.g. tricresyl-ortho-phosphate, tributyl phosphate)Plasticizers
Phthalate esters (e.g. dibutyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalatePlasticizersDi(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
Butyl benzyl phthalate
3
3
Polychlorinated biphenylsPlasticizersPolychlorinated biphenyls2A
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsSpecial waterproof coatings (ships, tanks, pipes)Selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsb
Polyester resinsBinders
Polyurethane resinsBindersPolyurethane foams3
Polyvinylacetate resinsBindersPolyvinyl acetate3
Pyrolysis fumesRemoval of paint by burning; heat-curing operations
RosinBinder
Rubber, synthetic (e.g. butyl rubber, styrene-butadiene rubber)Binders (special paints, water-based paints)Rubber industry1
Shellac resinBinder
Silica, amorphous (e.g. diatomaceous earth)FillerSilica, amorphous3
Silica, crystalline (e.g. quartz)Filler, sand-blasting operationSilica, crystalline1
Silicates (e.g. sodium silicate, aluminium silicate)Fillers
Stearates (e.g. aluminium stearates, zinc stearates)Soaps, flattening agents
Strontium compounds (e.g. strontium chromate, strontium sulfide)PigmentsStrontium chromate see chromium and chromium compounds
StyrenePolyester resinsStyrene2B
Styrene oxideDiluent (epoxy resins)Styrene-7,8-oxide2A
Sulfuric acidMetal cleaner
TalcFillerTalc containing asbestiform fibres
Talc, not containing asbestiform fibres
1
3
Tin, metal powderLacquers (tinplate containers)
Tin, organic compounds (e.g. tri-n-butyltin oxide, dibutyltin laurate)Antifouling agents, catalysts
Titanium dioxidePigmentTitanium dioxide2B
para-Toluenesulfonic acidCatalyst (amino resins)
TurpentineSolvent
Vinyl acetatePolyvinylacetate resinsVinyl acetate
Vinyl chloride – vinyl acetate copolymers
2B
3
Zinc and compounds (e.g. zinc metal powder, zinc oxide, zinc chromate)Pigments, catalysts, bodying agentsZinc chromate see chromium and chromium compounds

a Updated from IARC (1989)

b Groups 1–3; see (IARC, 2010d) for details

–, not evaluated by IARC

From: OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE AS A PAINTER

Cover of Chemical Agents and Related Occupations
Chemical Agents and Related Occupations.
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, No. 100F.
IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans.
© International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2012. For more information contact publications@iarc.fr.

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