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Common colds: Relief for a stuffy nose, cough and sore throat

Last Update: October 8, 2020; Next update: 2023.

There are no treatments that fight cold viruses directly. But nasal sprays and painkillers like ibuprofen and acetaminophen (paracetamol) can provide some relief from cold symptoms. Many other treatments have either not been studied well enough or have no proven benefit.

Colds are very common: On average, adults come down with a cold 2 to 4 times a year, and children have as many as 6 to 8 colds a year. The reason that colds are so common is that they can be caused by very many different kinds of viruses. So having had one virus doesn't make you immune to other cold viruses.

Colds usually go away on their own after about one to two weeks. Although the symptoms – such as a runny or stuffy nose, cough and headache – can be bothersome, you don't need to take medication. None of the currently available treatments can shorten the length of a cold. Antibiotics only fight bacteria so they don’t help in the treatment of simple common colds that are caused by viruses. They can have side effects too, so they should only be used if a bacterial infection develops as a complication of the cold.


Painkillers like acetylsalicylic acid (ASA – the drug in medicines such as Aspirin), ibuprofen and acetaminophen (paracetamol) can relieve cold-related symptoms such as headache, earache and joint pain. These painkillers can also lower a fever. They don't help to relieve a cough or stuffy nose.

Acetaminophen is the painkiller of choice for children in particular because it is tolerated better than painkillers like ASA and ibuprofen. ASA shouldn’t be used in children and teenagers who have a fever anyway. This is because it can cause a rare but dangerous side effect (Reye’s syndrome).

Nasal sprays

Decongestant nasal sprays or drops can help relieve a runny or stuffy nose and make it easier to breathe. But it's not advisable to use these sprays or drops for longer than a week at a time because then they could have the opposite effect, known as rebound congestion (a permanently stuffy nose). When that happens, just a few hours after using the medication the membranes lining the nose swell up again. The more often the medication is used, the stronger this effect is.

There are various types of decongestants with different active ingredients. They may cause side effects such as a dry nose, allergic reactions or headaches.

Vitamin supplements

Vitamin C and D are essential for good health. Most people tend to get enough vitamin C in their usual diet. And enough vitamin D is produced by the body itself using sunlight.

But there are still commercials promoting the additional use of vitamin C and vitamin D products. Studies have shown that taking extra vitamin C does not protect you from getting a cold, though.

Vitamin C products can only make the symptoms of the cold go away a little faster. But they don't have this effect if you only take the vitamin C once the cold has already started.

Things are similar with vitamin D. Products that contain vitamin D probably only prevent colds if you have a vitamin D deficiency.

Herbal products and honey

A number of herbal products are claimed to help relieve cold symptoms. But there's a lack of reliable studies on the benefits of these products. Some studies have shown that certain extracts of ivy, eucalyptus, primrose, pelargonium (umckaloabo) and thyme can at best slightly relieve a cough.

The situation with honey is similar: Honey can probably relieve the symptoms of a cough somewhat in children if they take it either pure or dissolved in water in the evening before going to bed (and before brushing their teeth).

Products made from echinacea extracts are also commonly recommended for the treatment of colds. They are claimed to strengthen the body’s immune system. But the research on these products has not led to clear conclusions.

Inhaling steam and drinking a lot of fluids

Many people find it pleasant to breathe in (inhale) steam with or without adding things like chamomile or peppermint oil, because the warmth and moisture can have a short-term soothing effect on the mucous membranes lining the nose. But this kind of inhalation doesn't have a clear effect on cold symptoms.

Drinking a lot of fluids is also often recommended if you have a cold. There's no scientific proof that this will help, though, so there's no need to force yourself to drink more fluids than you feel like drinking when you have a cold. Still, people often find that hot tea or warm milk have a soothing and warming effect.


Many people think that antibiotics will help to fight any kind of infection. But antibiotics are actually only effective against bacterial infections. They don't fight viruses so they can't help in the treatment of colds.

Studies confirm that antibiotics can't shorten the length of time someone is ill with a simple cold. And antibiotics often have side effects: About 1 out of 10 people have side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headaches and skin rashes. In women, antibiotics can upset the balance of things in the vagina and increase the risk of thrush.

Things are different if, as a result of a cold, bacteria spread within the airways or to the middle ear and cause an infection there. Then treatment with antibiotics may be considered.

The following symptoms may be signs of a bacterial infection, especially if they occur together with a fever:

  • Green nasal mucus (snot) or green sputum (coughed-up phlegm) lasting several days
  • Persistent severe sore throat and pus on tonsils
  • Stuffy nose that won't go away, and severe headache around the forehead
  • Severe earache and poor hearing
  • Chest pain and trouble breathing

You should see a doctor if you have these kinds of symptoms. If you have a mild bacterial infection, your doctor can also write a prescription for antibiotics in case your symptoms don't improve over the next few days. Then you can keep the prescription on hand and see if the symptoms go away on their own.


© IQWiG (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care)
Bookshelf ID: NBK279542


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