Table 17.Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL a ) for Vitamins (130)Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B 6 Folate Vitamin B 12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Choline Carotenoids e
(µg/d) b(mg/d)(µg/d)(mg/d) c,d --- --- --- (mg/d) d(mg/d)(µg/d) d --- --- --- (g/d) ---
Infants
0-6 mo600ND f25NDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND
7-12 mo600ND25NDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDNDND
Children
1-3 y60040050200NDNDND1030300NDNDND1.0ND
4-8 y90065050300NDNDND1540400NDNDND1.0ND
Males, Females
9-13 y1,7001,20050600NDNDND2060600NDNDND2.0ND
14-18 y2,8001,80050800NDNDND3080800NDNDND3.0ND
19-70 y3,0002,000501,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
> 70 y3,0002,000501,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
Pregnancy
≤ 18 y2,8001,80050800NDNDND3080800NDNDND3.0ND
19-50 y3,0002,000501,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
Lactation
≤ 18 y2,8001,80050800NDNDND3080800NDNDND3.0ND
19-50 y3,0002,000501,000NDNDND351001,000NDNDND3.5ND
a UL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B 12 , pantothenic acid, biotin, or carotenoids. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes.b As preformed vitamin A only.c As ∂-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental ∂-tocopherol.d The ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.e ß-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency.f ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake.SOURCES : Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B 6 , Folate, Vitamin B 12 , Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 2/15/01

From: Dietary Treatment of Obesity

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