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Table 15.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Vitamins (292)

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, The National Academies

Life Stage
Group
Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D ± Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin B6 Folate Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Choline
(µg/d) a(mg/d)(µg/d) b,c(mg/d) d(µg/d)(mg/d)(mg/d)(mg/d) e(mg/d)(µg/d) f(µg/d)Acid (mg/d)(µg/d)(mg/d) g
Infants
0–6 mo400*40*5*4*2.0*0.2*0.3*2*0.1*65*0.4*1.7*5*125*
7–12mo500*50*5*5*2.5*0.3*0.4*4*0.3*80*0.5*1.8*6*150*
Children
1–3 y 300 15 5* 6 30* 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 2*8*200*
4–8 y 400 25 5* 7 55* 0.6 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 3*12*250*
Males
9–13 y 600 45 5* 11 60* 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4*20*375*
14–18 y 900 75 5* 15 75* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5*25*550*
19–30 y 900 90 5* 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5*30*550*
31–50 y 900 90 5* 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5*30*550*
51–70 y 900 90 10* 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4 h5*30*550*
> 70 y 900 90 15* 15 120* 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4 h5*30*550*
Females
9–13 y 600 45 5* 11 60* 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 4*20*375*
14–18 y 700 65 5* 15 75* 1.0 1.0 14 1.2 400 i 2.4 5*25*400*
19–30 y 700 75 5* 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400 i 2.4 5*30*425*
31–50 y 700 75 5* 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400 i 2.4 5*30*425*
51–70 y 700 75 10* 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4 h5*30*425*
> 70 y 700 75 15* 15 90* 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4 h5*30*425*
Pregnancy
≤ 18 y 750 80 5* 15 75* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600 j 2.6 6*30*450*
19–30 y 770 85 5* 15 90* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600 j 2.6 6*30*450*
31–50 y 770 85 5* 15 90* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600 j 2.6 6*30*450*
Lactation
≤ 18 y 1,200 115 5* 19 75* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7*35*550*
19–30 y 1,300 120 5* 19 90* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7*35*550*
31–50 y 1,300 120 5* 19 90* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7*35*550*
NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.a As retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 µg retinol, 12 µg ß-carotene, 24 µg ∂-carotene, or 24 µg ß-cryptoxanthin. To calculate RAEs from REs of provitamin A carotenoids in foods, divide the REs by 2. For preformed vitamin A in foods or supplements and for provitamin A carotenoids in supplements, 1 RE = 1 RAE.b calciferol. 1 µg calciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.c In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.d As ∂-tocopherol. ∂-Tocopherol includes RRR-- tocopherol, the only form of ∂-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R -stereoisomeric forms of ∂-tocopherol ( RRR -, RSR -, RRS -, and RSS -∂-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S -stereoisomeric forms of ∂-tocopherol ( SRR -, SSR -, SRS -, and SSS -∂-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.e As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).f As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.g Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.h Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B 12 , it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B 12 or a supplement containing B 12 .± In 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics adjusted their 2003 recommendations for vitamin D in children from 5 µg per day (200 IU), beginning in the first two months of life, to 10 µg per day (400 IU) within the first few days of life. This increased recommendation is based on the amount of vitamin D that can be given safely per day to prevent or treat rickets and possibly provide additional health benefits. The 2004 DRIs have not yet been updated to reflect this.i In view of evidence linking inadequate folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.j It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 2/15/01

From: Dietary Treatment of Obesity

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