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Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002.

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Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.

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Figure 14-10. A summary of energy-generating metabolism in mitochondria.

Figure 14-10A summary of energy-generating metabolism in mitochondria

Pyruvate and fatty acids enter the mitochondrion (bottom) and are broken down to acetyl CoA. The acetyl CoA is then metabolized by the citric acid cycle, which reduces NAD+ to NADH (and FAD to FADH2, not shown). In the process of oxidative phosphorylation, high-energy electrons from NADH (and FADH2) are then passed along the electron-transport chain in the inner membrane to oxygen (O2). This electron transport generates a proton gradient across the inner membrane, which is used to drive the production of ATP by ATP synthase (see Figure 14-1).

The NADH generated by glycolysis in the cytosol also passes electrons to the respiratory chain (not shown). Since NADH cannot pass across the inner mitochondrial membrane, the electron transfer from cytosolic NADH must be accomplished indirectly by means of one of several “shuttle” systems that transport another reduced compound into the mitochondrion; after being oxidized, this compound is returned to the cytosol, where it is reduced by NADH again.

Image ch14f1

From: The Mitochondrion

Copyright © 2002, Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walter; Copyright © 1983, 1989, 1994, Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and James D. Watson .

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