Table 1.7

An example of a classification of epilepsy syndromes 3

Groups of syndromesSpecific syndromes
Idiopathic focal epilepsies of infancy and childhood Benign infantile seizures (nonfamilial)
Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes
Early-onset benign childhood occipital epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos type)
Late-onset childhood occipital epilepsy (Gastaut type)
Familial (autosomal dominant) focal epilepsies Benign familial neonatal seizures
Benign familial infantile seizures
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy
Familial temporal lobe epilepsy
Familial focal epilepsy with variable focia
Symptomatic and probably symptomatic focal epilepsies Limbic epilepsies
 Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis
 Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy defined by specific etiologies
 Other types defined by location and etiology
Neocortical epilepsies
 Rasmussen syndrome
 Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome
 Other types defined by location and etiology
 Migrating partial seizures of early infancya
Idiopathic generalized epilepsies Benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy
Epilepsy with myoclonic astatic seizures
Childhood absence epilepsy
Epilepsy with myoclonic absences
Idiopathic generalized epilepsies with variable phenotypes
 Juvenile absence epilepsy
 Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
 Epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only
Generalized epilepsies with febrile seizures plusa
Reflex epilepsies Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy
Other visual sensitive epilepsies
Primary reading epilepsy
Startle epilepsy
Epileptic encephalopathies
(in which the epileptiform abnormalities may contribute to progressive dysfunction)
Early myoclonic encephalopathy
Ohtahara syndrome
West syndrome
Dravet syndrome (previously known as severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy)
Myoclonic status in nonprogressive encephalopathiesa
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome
Landau-Kleffner syndrome
Epilepsy with continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep
Progressive myoclonus epilepsies See specific diseases
Seizures not necessarily requiring a diagnosis of epilepsy Benign neonatal seizures
Febrile seizures
Reflex seizures
Alcohol-withdrawal seizures
Drug or other chemically induced seizures
Immediate and early post traumatic seizures
Single seizures or isolated clusters of seizures
Rarely repeated seizures (oligoepilepsy)

Syndromes in development

From Engal (2001)3 with permission of the author and the editor of Epilepsia

From: Chapter 1, Clinical Aspects of the Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures and Epileptic Syndromes

Cover of The Epilepsies
The Epilepsies: Seizures, Syndromes and Management.
Panayiotopoulos CP.
Oxfordshire (UK): Bladon Medical Publishing; 2005.
Copyright © 2005, Bladon Medical Publishing, an imprint of Springer Science+Business Media.

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