TABLE 4.1Common Research Procedures by Category of Risk

Category of Risk
ProcedureMinimalMinor Increase over MinimalMore Than a Minor Increase over Minimal
Routine history takingX
Urine collection via bagX
Urine collection via catheterX
Urine collection via suprapubic tapX
Chest X-rayX
Bone density testX
Wrist X-ray for bone ageX
Lumbar punctureX
Collection of salivaX
Collection of small sample of hairX
Vision testingX
Hearing testingX
Complete neurological examX
Oral glucose tolerance testX
Skin punch biopsy with topical pain reliefX
Bone marrow aspirate with topical pain reliefX
Organ biopsyX
Standard psychological testsX
Classroom observationX

NOTE: The category of risk is for a single procedure. Multiple or repetitive procedures are likely to affect the level of risk.


From: 4, Defining, Interpreting, and Applying Concepts of Risk and Benefit in Clinical Research Involving Children

Cover of Ethical Conduct of Clinical Research Involving Children
Ethical Conduct of Clinical Research Involving Children.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Clinical Research Involving Children; Field MJ, Behrman RE, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2004.
Copyright © 2004, National Academy of Sciences.

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