NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Guideline: Fortification of Food-Grade Salt with Iodine for the Prevention and Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.

Cover of Guideline: Fortification of Food-Grade Salt with Iodine for the Prevention and Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders

Guideline: Fortification of Food-Grade Salt with Iodine for the Prevention and Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

Show details

References

1.
Resolution WHA65.6. Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition; Resolutions and decisions, annexes; Sixty-fifth World Health Assembly; Geneva. 21–26 May 2012; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. [19 June 2014]. pp. 55–68. WHA62/2009/REC/1; http://apps​.who.int/gb​/DGNP/pdf_files/A65_REC1-en.pdf.
2.
Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013-2020. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013. [15 August 2014]. http://apps​.who.int/iris​/bitstream/10665​/94384/1/9789241506236_eng.pdf.
3.
Follow-up to the Political Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases; Sixth-sixth World Health Assembly; Geneva. 21 May 2013; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013. [18 June 2014]. http://apps​.who.int/gb​/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA66/A66_R10-en.pdf.
4.
Rohner F, Zimmermann M, Jooste P, Pandav C, Caldwell K, Raghavan, et al. Biomarkers of nutrition for development-iodine review. J Nutr. 2014;144(8):1322S–42S. [PMC free article: PMC4093988] [PubMed: 24966410] [CrossRef]
5.
Codex Alimentarius. Codex Standard for food grade salt. CODEX STAN 150-1985. [19 June 2014]. Adopted in 1985; revised in 1997; 2012; amended in 1999; 2001; 2006 www​.codexalimentarius​.org/input/download​/standards/3/CXS_150e.pdf.
6.
Andersson M, Karumbunathan V, Zimmerman MB. Global iodine status in 2011 and trends over the past decade. J Nutr. 2012;142(4):744–50. [PubMed: 22378324] [CrossRef]
7.
Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency. New York: United Nations Children's Fund; 2008.
8.
Bleichrodt N, Born MP. A metaanalysis of research on iodine and its relationship to cognitive development. In: Stanbury JB, editor. The damaged brain of iodine deficiency. New York: Cognizant Communication; 1994. pp. 195–200.
9.
Kapil U, Singh P. Current status of urinary iodine excretion levels in 116 districts of India. J Trop Pediatr. 2004;50:245–7. [PubMed: 15357569]
10.
Kapil U. Successful efforts toward elimination iodine deficiency disorders in India. Indian J Community Med. 2010;35(4):455–68. [PMC free article: PMC3026120] [PubMed: 21278862] [CrossRef]
11.
World Health Organization; United Nations Children's Fund; International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: a guide for programme managers. 3rd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. [19 June 2014]. http://whqlibdoc​.who​.int/publications/2007​/9789241595827_eng.pdf.
12.
Zimmerman M, Jooste P, Pandav C. Iodine-deficiency disorders. Lancet. 2008;372(9645):1251–62. [PubMed: 18676011] [CrossRef]
13.
Roti E, Uberti E. Iodine excess and hyperthyroidism. Thyroid. 2001;11(5):493–500. [PubMed: 11396708]
14.
Lauberg P, Cerqueira C, Ovensen L, Rasmussen L, Perrild H, Andersen S, et al. Iodine intake as a determinant of thyroid disorders in populations. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;24(1):3–27. [PubMed: 20172467] [CrossRef]
15.
Carlé A, Krejbjerg A, Laurberg P. Epidemiology of nodular goitre. Influence of iodine intake. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;28(4):465–79. [PubMed: 25047199] [CrossRef]
16.
World Health Organization; United Nations Children's Fund; International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. Recommended iodine levels in salt and guidelines for monitoring their adequacy and effectiveness. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1996. [19 June 2014]. WHO/NUT/96.13; http://whqlibdoc​.who​.int/hq/1996/WHO_NUT_96.13.pdf.
17.
Bürgi H, Kohler M, Morselli B. Thyrotoxicosis incidence in Switzerland and benefit of improved iodine supply. Lancet. 1998;352(9133):1034. [PubMed: 9759751]
18.
Iodine and health. Eliminating iodine deficiency disorders safely through salt iodization: a statement by the World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994. [19 June 2014]. WHO/NUT/94.4; http://whqlibdoc​.who​.int/hq/1994/WHO_NUT_94.4.pdf?ua=1.
19.
Report of a joint WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD consultation, 3–5 November 1992. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1993. [19 June 2014]. Indicators for assessing iodine deficiency disorders and their control programmes. Review version September 1993. WHO/NUT 93.1; http://whqlibdoc​.who​.int/hq/1993/WHO_NUT_93.1.pdf?ua=1.
20.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics. Schooling for millions of children jeopardised by reductions in aid. UIS Fact Sheet. Jun, 2013. [19 June 2014]. UIS/FS/2013/25; http://www​.uis.unesco​.org/Education/Documents​/fs-25-out-of-school-children-en​.pdf.
21.
WHO Secretariat. Andersson M, de Benoist B, Delange F, Zupan J. Prevention and control of iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in children less than 2-years-old: conclusions and recommendations of the technical consultation. Public Health Nutr. 2007;10(12A):1606–11. [PubMed: 18053287] [CrossRef]
22.
Zimmermann M, Hess S, Adou P, Toresanni T, Wegmüller R, Hurrell RF. Thyroid size and goiter prevalence after introduction of iodized salt: a 5-y prospective study in schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(3):663–7. [PubMed: 12600858]
23.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization. Nutrition and development – a global assessment; International Conference on Nutrition; Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992. [19 June 2014]. ICN/92/INF/5; http://www​.fao.org/docrep​/017/z9550e/z9550e.pdf.
24.
United Nations Children's Fund–World Health Organization Joint Committee on Health Policy. World Summit for Children mid-decade goal: iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). UNICEF–WHO Joint Committee on Health Policy Special Session; 27–28 January 1994; Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994. [19 June 2014]. JCHPSS/94/2.7; http://www​.ceecis.org​/iodine/01_global/01_pl​/01_01_1994_summit.pdf.
25.
Resolution WHA58/2005/REC/1. Sustaining the elimination of iodine deficiency disorders; Resolutions and decisions; Fifty-eighth World Health assembly; Geneva. 16–25 May 2005; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. [3 July 2014]. (http://www​.who.int/nutrition​/topics/WHA58.24_idd_en.pdf?ua=1)
26.
Resolution WHA65.11. Nutrition. Maternal, infant and young child nutrition: draft comprehensive implementation plan; Sixth-fifth World Health Assembly; Resolutions and decisions, list of participants; Geneva. 21–26 May 2012; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. [19 June 2014]. pp. 5–23. Report by the Secretariat. A65/11; http://apps​.who.int/gb​/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA65/A65_11-en.pdf.
27.
Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency: progress since the 1990 World Summit for Children. New York: United Nations Children's Fund; 2008. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.childinfo​.org/files/idd_sustainable_elimination​.pdf.
28.
The state of the world's children 2012: children in an urban world. New York: United Nations Children's Fund; 2012. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.unicef.org​/sowc2012/pdfs/SOWC​%202012-Main%20Report_EN_13Mar2012.pdf.
29.
Salt as a vehicle for fortification; Report of a WHO expert consultation on salt as a vehicle for fortification; Luxembourg. 21–22 March 2007; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/nutrition​/publications​/micronutrients/978924159678/en/
30.
World Health Organization and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders Global Network. Salt reduction and iodine fortification strategies in public health; Report of a joint technical meeting convened by World Health Organization (WHO) and The George Institute for Global Health in collaboration with the International Council for the Control of Iodine deficiency Disorders Global Network; Sydney, Australia. March 2013; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/nutrition​/events/2013​_technicalconsultation​_salt_iodine_strategies_25to27Mar2013​/en/
31.
Strategies to monitor and evaluate population sodium consumption and sources of sodium in the diet: report of a joint technical meeting convened by WHO and the Government of Canada, November 2010. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. [19 June 2014]. http://whqlibdoc​.who​.int/publications/2011​/9789241501699_eng.pdf.
32.
Elliott P, Brown I. Background document prepared for the Forum and Technical meeting on Reducing Salt Intake in Populations (Paris 5–7th October 2006). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. [19 June 2014]. Sodium intakes around the world. http://www​.who.int/dietphysicalactivity​/Elliot-brown-2007​.pdf.
33.
Guideline: Sodium intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/nutrition​/publications​/guidelines/sodium_intake_printversion​.pdf.
34.
Guideline: Potassium intake for adults and children. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. [15 August 2014]. http://apps​.who.int/iris​/bitstream/10665​/77986/1/9789241504829_eng.pdf?ua=1.
35.
WHO Forum on Reducing Salt Intake in Populations; Reducing salt intake in populations: report of a WHO forum and technical meeting; 5–7 October 2006; Paris, France. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/dietphysicalactivity​/Salt​_Report_VC_april07.pdf.
36.
Prevention of cardiovascular disease: guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular risk. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. [19 June 2014]. http://whqlibdoc​.who​.int/publications/2007​/9789241547178_eng.pdf.
37.
Resolution WHA57.17. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health; Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly; Resolutions and decisions, annexes; Geneva. 17–22 May 2004; Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004. [18 June 2014]. pp. 38–55. http://apps​.who.int/gb​/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA57/A57_R17-en.pdf.
38.
Ohlhorst S, Slavin M, Bhide J, Bugusu B. Use of iodized salt in processed foods in select countries around the world and the role of food processors. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2012;11:233–84.
39.
De Jong JM. Review of use of iodized salt in processed foods. Ottawa: The Network for the Sustained Elimination of Iodine deficiency. 2007. [20 June 2014]. http://www​.iccidd.org​/cm_data/Salt_in_processed_foods.pdf.
40.
West C, Merx R. Effect of iodized salt on the colour and taste of food. New York: United Nations Children's Fund; 1995. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.micronutrient​.org/resources/Salt_CD/4​.0_useful/4.1_fulltext/pdfs/4​.1.4.pdf.
41.
Kojima N, Brown H. The effects of iodized salt in processed fruits and vegetables. Food Technology. 1955;9:103–7.
42.
Kuhajek E, Fiedelman H. Nutritional iodine in processed foods. Food Technology. 1973;27:52–3.
43.
Wang G, Zhou R, Wang Z, Shi L, Sun M. Effect of storage and cooking on the iodine content in iodized salt and study on monitoring iodine content in iodized salt. Biomed Environ Sci. 1999;12:1–9. [PubMed: 10442215]
44.
Diosady L, Alberti J, Mannar VM, Fitzgerald S. Stability of iodine in iodized salt used for correction of iodine-deficiency disorders. Food Nutr Bull. 1998;19(3):240–50.
45.
Goindi G, Karmarkar M, Kapil U, Jagannathan J. Estimation of losses of iodine during different cooking procedures. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 1995;4:225–7. [PubMed: 24394330]
46.
Maramag C, Tengco L, Rayco-Solon P, Solon J, Maglalang H, Solon F. Stability of iodine in iodized fresh and aged salt exposed to simulated market conditions. Food Nutr Bull. 2007;28(4):412–18. [PubMed: 18274168]
47.
Shawel D, Hagos S, Lachat C, Kimanya M, Kolsteren P. Post-production losses in iodine concentration of salt hamper the control of iodine deficiency disorders: a case study in Northern Ethiopia. J Health Popul Nutr. 2010;28(3):238–44. [PMC free article: PMC2980888] [PubMed: 20635634]
48.
Winger R, Koenig J, Lee S, Wham C, House D. Final report for New Zealand Food Safety Authority. Ministry for Primary Industries. Wellington: May, 2005. [19 June 2014]. Technological issues with iodine fortification of foods. http://www​.foodsafety​.govt.nz/elibrary/industry​/Technological​_Issues-Science_Research.pdf.
49.
Higgins PT, Green S, editors. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. [18 June 2014]. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011] http://handbook​.cochrane.org/
50.
Aburto NJ, Abudou M, Candeias V, Wu T. Effects and safety of salt iodisation to prevent iodine deficiency disorders: a systematic review with meta-analyses. 2014. (in press)
51.
Haas JD, Rahn M, Venkatramanan S, Marquis GS, Wenger MJ, Murray-Kolb LE, et al. Double-fortified salt is efficacious in improving indicators of iron deficiency in female Indian tea pickers. J Nutr. 2014;144(6):957–64. [PMC free article: PMC4018955] [PubMed: 24744318] [CrossRef]
52.
GRADE Working Group. [18 June 2014]. http://www​.gradeworkinggroup.org/
53.
The Salt Institute. Iodized salt. [10 September 2014]. http://www​.saltinstitute​.org/news-articles/iodized-salt/
54.
WHO/UNICEF. Acceptable medical reasons for use of breast-milk substitutes. WHO/NMH/NHD/09.01. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. [15 August 2014]. http://whqlibdoc​.who​.int/hq/2009/WHO_FCH_CAH_09​.01_eng.pdf?ua=1.
55.
World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund. Reaching optimal iodine nutrition in pregnant and lactating women and young children. Joint statement by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/nutrition​/publications​/WHOStatement__IDD_pregnancy.pdf.
56.
Angermayr L, Clar C. Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2009. CD003819. [PubMed: 15106221]
57.
World Health Organization. Nutrition. [18 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/nutrition/en/
58.
United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition. [18 June 2014]. http://www​.unscn.org/
59.
World Health Organization. e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA). [18 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/elena/en/
60.
World Health Organization, World Food Programme, United Nations Children's Fund. Preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies in populations affected by an emergency Joint statement by the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme and the United Nations Children's Fund. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007. [10 September 2014]. http://www​.who.int/nutrition​/publications​/WHO_WFP_UNICEFstatement.pdf.
61.
World Food Programme. WFP's food basket. [10 September 2014]. http://www​.wfp.org/nutrition​/wfp-foodbasket.
62.
World Health Organization. Evidence-Informed Policy Network. [18 June 2014]. http://global​.evipnet.org/
63.
Speeckaert M, Speeckaert R, Wierckx K, Delanghe JR, Kaufman JM. Value and pitfalls in iodine fortification and supplementation in the 21st century. Br J Nutr. 2011;106(7):964–73. [PubMed: 21733298] [CrossRef]
64.
Rapid assessment of the iodine content in table salt in Port-au-Prince. Port-au-Prince: United Nations Children's Fund; 2011. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.nutritionenhaiti​.org/sites/default​/files/faits/files​/unicefhaiti_table-salt-paup.pdf.
65.
Ngnie-Teta I, Ayoya MA, Favre R, Mamadoultaibou A, Saint-Fleur JE, Pierre JM, et al. Iodine content in imported table salt in Haiti on the eve of a mandatory salt iodization bill. IDD Newsletter. Nov, 2012. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.iccidd.org​/newsletter/idd_nov12_haiti.pdf.
66.
Kalra S, Kalra B, Sawhney K. Usage of non-iodized salt in North West India. Thyroid Res Pract. 2013;10:12–14.
67.
Jooste PL, Weight MJ, Locatelli-Rossi L, Lombard CJ. Impact after 1 year of compulsory iodisation on the iodine content of table salt at retailer level in South Africa. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1999;50(1):7–12. [PubMed: 10435116]
68.
United Nations Children's Fund, Flour Fortification Initiative, International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) Global Network, Alive&Thrive. Iodising salt and fortifying flour: the best investment for Viet Nam's National Economic Development. Ha Noi: United Nations Children's Fund; 2013. [19 June 2014]. http://www​.unicef.org​/vietnam/UNICEF_Food​_fortification_Salt_Flour.pdf.
69.
Ipsos-Eureka Social Research Institute Consumer awareness, attitudes and behaviours to fortified foods. Ipsos Eureka Project 09-003975-01. Report prepared for Food Standards Australia New Zealand Melbourne: \ Food Standards Australia New Zealand; 2010http://www​.foodstandards​.gov.au/publications​/Documents/fortification​%20report%20-%20qualitative.pdf10 September 2014.
70.
Logic model for micronutrient interventions in public health. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011. [19 June 2014]. WHO/NMH/NHD/MNM/11.5; http://www​.who.int/vmnis​/toolkit/WHO-CDC_Logic_Model_en.pdf.
71.
World Health Organization. eCatalogue of indicators for micronutrient programmes. [10 September 2014]. https://extranet​.who.int/indcat/
72.
Ghassabian A, Steenweg-de Graaff J, Peeters RP, Ross HA, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, White T, Tiemeier H. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area. BMJ Open. 2014;4(6):e005520. [PMC free article: PMC4067856] [PubMed: 24928597]
73.
World Health Organization. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System (VMNIS). Micronutrients database. [18 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/vmnis/database/en/
74.
UNICEF data: monitoring the situation of children and women. [18 June 2014]. http://data​.unicef.org​/nutrition/malnutrition.
75.
World Health Organization. Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA). [18 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/
76.
WHO handbook for guideline development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012. [19 June 2014]. http://apps​.who.int/iris​/bitstream/10665​/75146/1/9789241548441_eng.pdf.
77.
Expert advisory panels and committees. Geneva: World health Organization; 2010. [18 June 2014]. http://www​.who.int/rpc​/expert_panels/Factsheet_EAP2010.pdf.
78.
National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Critically appraising practice guidelines: the AGREE II instrument. Hamilton, Ontario: McMaster University; 2011. [19 June 2014]. (updated 2013) http://www​.nccmt.ca/registry​/view/eng/100.html.
79.
Guyatt G, Oxman A, Vist G, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, et al. Rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ. 2008;336:924–6. [PMC free article: PMC2335261] [PubMed: 18436948] [CrossRef]
80.
Basic documents. 47th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009. [18 June 2014]. http://apps​.who.int/gb/bd/
81.
Guidelines for declaration of interests (WHO experts). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
Copyright © World Health Organization 2014.

All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site (www.who.int) or can be purchased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: tni.ohw@sredrokoob).

Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications –whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution– should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site (www.who.int/about/licensing/copyright_form/en/index.html).

Bookshelf ID: NBK254239

Views

Related information

  • PMC
    PubMed Central citations
  • PubMed
    Links to PubMed

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...