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Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (US). Improving Cultural Competence. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2014. (Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series, No. 59.)

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Improving Cultural Competence.

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Exhibit 2-1Stages of Racial and Cultural Identity Development

R/CID ModelWRID Model
Conformity: Has a positive attitude toward and preference for dominant cultural values; places considerable value on characteristics that represent dominant cultural groups; may devalue or hold negative views of own race or other racial/ethnic groups.

Dissonance and Appreciating: Begins to question identity; recognizes conflicting messages and observations that challenge beliefs/stereotypes of own cultural groups and value of mainstream cultural groups; develops growing sense of one's own cultural heritage and the existence of racism; moves away from seeing dominant cultural groups as all good.

Resistance and Immersion: Embraces and holds a positive attitude toward and preference for his or her own race and cultural heritage; rejects dominant values of society and culture; focuses on eliminating oppression within own racial/cultural group; likely to possess considerable feelings—including distrust and anger—toward dominant cultural groups and anything that may represent them; places considerable value on characteristics that represent one's own cultural groups without question; develops a growing appreciation for others from racially and culturally diverse groups.

Introspection: Begins to question the psychological cost of projecting strong feelings toward dominant cultural groups; desires to refocus more energy on personal identity while respecting own cultural groups; realigns perspective to note that not all aspects of dominant cultural groups—one's own racial/cultural group or other diverse groups—are good or bad; may struggle with and experience conflicts of loyalty as perspective broadens.

Integrative Awareness: Has developed a secure, confident sense of racial/cultural identity; becomes multicultural; maintains pride in racial identity and cultural heritage; commits to supporting and appreciating all oppressed and diverse groups; tends to recognize racism as a societal illness by which all can be victimized.
Naiveté: Had an early childhood developmental phase of curiosity or minimal awareness of race; may or may not receive overt or covert messages about other racial/cultural groups; possesses an ethnocentric view of culture.

Conformity: Has minimal awareness of self as a racial person; believes strongly in the universality of values and norms; perceives White American cultural groups as more highly developed; may justify disparity of treatment; may be unaware of beliefs that reflect this.

Dissonance: Experiences an opportunity to examine own prejudices and biases; moves toward the realization that dominant society oppresses racially and culturally diverse groups; may feel shame, anger, and depression about the perpetuation of racism by White American cultural groups; and may begin to question previously held beliefs or refortify prior views.

Resistance and Immersion: Increases awareness of one's own racism and how racism is projected in society (e.g., media and language); likely feels angry about messages concerning other racial and cultural groups and guilty for being part of an oppressive system; may counteract feelings by assuming a paternalistic role (knowing what is best for clients without their involvement) or overidentifying with another racial/cultural group.

Introspection: Begins to redefine what it means to be a White American and to be a racial and cultural being; recognizes the inability to fully understand the experience of others from diverse racial and cultural backgrounds; may feel disconnected from the White American group.

Integrative Awareness: Appreciates racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity; is aware of and understands self as a racial and cultural being; is aware of sociopolitical influences of racism; internalizes a nonracist identity.

Commitment to Antiracist Action: Commits to social action to eliminate oppression and disparity (e.g., voicing objection to racist jokes, taking steps to eradicate racism in institutions and public policies); likely to be pressured to suppress efforts and conform rather than build alliances with people of color.

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