U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Enhancing Environmental Health Content in Nursing Practice; Pope AM, Snyder MA, Mood LH, editors. Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1995.

Cover of Nursing Health, & Environment

Nursing Health, & Environment: Strengthening the Relationship to Improve the Public's Health.

Show details

DEnvironmental Health Resources: Agencies, Organizations, Services, General References, and Tables of Environmental Health Hazards


For those interested in learning more about environmental health and the resources available that are related to environmental health, Appendix D presents names, addresses, and phone numbers of relevant government agencies and professional associations and organizations, as well as information about computerized information services, and a listing of general references. Agencies, associations, and organizations related to nursing and/or the environment are specifically highlighted. Finally, three tables are presented (pp. 214–240) that describe (1) selected environmental agents and their associated sources and potential exposures, (2) selected work-related diseases, disorders, and conditions associated with various agents, and (3) selected job categories, exposures, and associated work-related diseases and conditions for use in actual nursing practice.

The information presented in this appendix is not intended to be comprehensive or exhaustive, but rather supplemental and complementary.

Government Agencies

Throughout our history, numerous federal and state agencies have been created to address the issues related to safety and health in the workplace, as well as the surrounding environment. Federal and state agencies have become increasingly involved in examining and monitoring the impact of the environment on the health of the public. The following list highlights several of the federal and state agencies currently involved in monitoring, evaluating, and protecting the environment and its relation to public health. Each agency is an invaluable source of information and can readily provide additional resources upon one's request. The agencies are listed in alphabetical order with federal organizations first, followed by state agencies.

Federal Agencies

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by Superfund legislation in 1980 as a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ATSDR's mission is to prevent or mitigate adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. In order to carry out its mission and to serve the needs of the American people, ATSDR conducts activities in public health assessments, health investigations, exposure and disease registry, emergency response, toxicological profiles, health education, and applied research.

ATSDR's Division of Health Education is mandated to assemble, develop, and distribute to the states, medical colleges, physicians, and other health professionals, educational materials on medical surveillance, screening, and methods of diagnosis and treatment of injury or disease related to exposure to hazardous substances. The Division also provides training and education for primary care physicians to diagnose and treat illness caused by hazardous substances and supports curriculum development and applied research in the area of environmental health.

The Division has developed a self-study series called Case Studies in Environmental Medicine which uses case studies to guide physicians through the diagnosis and treatment of illnesses related to hazardous substances exposure.

Several projects have also been developed and implemented to advance these goals. Some of the programs are described below:

  • State Cooperative Agreements offer funding and assistance to state health departments for developing educational materials and activities in environmental medicine for health care professionals;
  • National Association of County Health Officials Environmental Health Project is a cooperative agreement with ATSDR to conduct instructional sessions and develop supporting materials for local health officials and the medical community concerning the communication of health risks from exposure to hazardous substances;
  • Project EPOCH-Envi is co-sponsored by ATSDR and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Through the cooperative agreement, a consortium of medical schools works towards introducing curricula in occupational and environmental medicine in primary care residency programs;

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

1600 Clifton Road, N.E.

Mail Stop E-28

Atlanta, GA 30333

(404) 639-0501

Emergencies (404) 639-0615

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is charged with protecting the public health of the nation by providing leadership and direction in the prevention and control of diseases and other preventable conditions and responding to public health emergencies.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

1600 Clifton Road, N.E.

Atlanta, GA 30333

(404) 639-3286

Consumer Product Safety Commission

The Consumer Products Safety Commission provides information on health and safety effects related to consumer products. It has direct jurisdiction over chronic and chemical hazards in consumer products; assists consumers in evaluating the comparative safety of consumer products; develops uniform safety standards for consumer products and minimizes conflicting state and local regulations; and promotes research and investigation into the causes and prevention of product-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries.

Consumer Product Safety Commission

East West Towers

4340 East West Highway

Bethesda, MD 20814

(301) 504-0580

(800) 638-2772

Department of Energy

The Department of Energy (DOE) provides the framework for a comprehensive and balanced national energy plan through the coordination and administration of the energy functions of the federal government. The Department is responsible for long-term, high-risk research and development of energy technology; the marketing of federal power; energy conservation; the nuclear weapons program; energy regulatory programs; and a central energy data collection and analysis program.

The Environment, Safety and Health Office of the DOE provides independent oversight of departmental execution of environmental, occupational safety and health, and nuclear/nonnuclear safety and security laws, regulations, and policies; ensures that departmental programs are in compliance with environmental, health, and nuclear/nonnuclear safety protection plans, regulations, and procedures; provides an independent overview and assessment of Department-controlled activities to ensure that safety-impacted programs receive management review; and carries out legal functions of the nuclear safety civil penalty and criminal referral activities mandated by the Price-Anderson Amendments Act.

Department of Energy

1000 Independence Avenue, S.W.

Washington, DC 20585

(202) 586-5000

Department of Health and Human Services

The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) is the Cabinet-level department of the federal executive branch most concerned with people and most involved with the nation's human concerns. In one way or another—whether it is mailing out social security checks or making health services more widely available—DHHS touches the lives of more Americans than any other federal agency. It is literally a department of people saving people, from newborn infants to our most elderly citizens.

Department of Health and Human Services

200 Independence Avenue, S.W.

Washington, DC 20201

(202) 679-0257

Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970 in order to permit coordinated and effective governmental action on behalf of the environment. It endeavors to abate and control pollution systematically, by proper integration of a variety of research, monitoring, standard setting, and enforcement activities. As a complement to its other activities, the Agency coordinates and supports research and antipollution activities by state and local governments, private and public groups, individuals, and educational institutions. It also reinforces efforts among other federal agencies with respect to the impact of their operations on the environment, and it is specifically charged with publishing its determinations when those hold that a proposal is unsatisfactory from the standpoint of public health or welfare or environmental quality. In all, the EPA is designed to serve as the public's advocate for a livable environment.

Environmental Protection Agency

401 M Street, S.W.

Washington, DC 20460

(202) 260-2090

Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inspects manufacturing plants and warehouses, collects and analyzes samples of foods, drugs, cosmetics, and therapeutic devices for adulteration and misbranding. Responsibilities also extend to sanitary preparation and handling of foods, waste disposal on interstate carriers, and enforcement of the Radiation Control Act as related to consumer products. Epidemiological and other investigations are conducted to determine causative factors or possible health hazards involved in adverse reactions or hazardous materials accidents. Investigators are located in resident posts in major cities throughout the country.

Food and Drug Administration

National Headquarters

200 C Street, S.W.

Washington, DC 20204

(301) 443-2410

Health Resources and Services Administration

Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is responsible for general health services and resource issues relating to issues of access, equity, quality, and cost of care. In order to accomplish this goal, the Administration supports states and communities in their efforts to deliver health care to underserved segments of the population; participates in the federal campaign against AIDS; provides leadership in improving the education, distribution, quality, and use of the health professionals needed to staff the nation's health care system; tracks the supply of and requirements for health professionals and addresses their competence through the development of a health practitioner data bank; and strengthens the public health system by working with state and local public health agencies.

Health Resources and Services Administration

5600 Fishers Lane

Rockville, MD 20857

(301) 443-2086

National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) conducts and funds research on the causes, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control, and biology of cancer and the rehabilitation of people with cancer. NCI also funds projects for innovative and effective approaches to preventing and controlling cancer, establishes multidisciplinary cancer care and clinical research activities in community hospitals, and supports cancer research training, clinical training, continuing education, and career development.

National Cancer Institute

National Institutes of Health

9000 Rockville Pike

Bethesda, MD 20892

(301) 496-5615

(800) 422-6237/ (800) 4-CANCER

National Center for Environmental Health

The mission of the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) is to promote health and quality of life by preventing or controlling disease, injury, and disability related to the interactions between people and their environment outside the workplace. To achieve these goals, NCEH directs programs both to prevent the adverse health effects of exposure to toxic substances and to combat the societal and environmental factors that increase the likelihood of exposure and disease. NCEH also works to prevent injuries and diseases resulting from natural or technologic disasters and to prevent birth defects and development disabilities resulting from nutritional deficiencies or exposure to environmental toxins in utero or during early childhood.

National Center for Environmental Health

Mailstop F29

4770 Buford Highway, N.E.

Atlanta, GA 30341-3724

(404) 488-7003

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 to conduct research on occupational diseases and injuries, respond to requests for assistance by investigating problems of health and safety in the workplace, recommend standards to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and train professionals in occupational safety and health.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

200 Independence Avenue, S.W.

Washington, DC 20201

(800) 356-4674

The NIOSH Technical Information Branch provides a toll-free technical information service (1-800-35-NIOSH) that provides convenient public access to NIOSH and its information resources. Callers may request information about NIOSH activities or about any aspect of occupational safety and health.

NIOSH Technical Information Branch

Robert A. Taft Laboratory

Mail Stop C-19

4676 Columbia Parkway Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998

(800) 35-NIOSH

Project EPOCH-Envi. In conjunction with ATSDR, NIOSH established Project EPOCH-Envi to provide support and training to medical schools from around the country who wish to implement curricula in occupational and environmental medicine in primary care residency programs. Through this cooperative agreement, Project EPOCH-Envi conducts workshops and training programs for interested medical school faculty. The sessions focus on instructing faculty members how to develop curricula in occupational and environmental medicine.

Project EPOCH-Envi

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Division of Training and Manpower Development

Curriculum Development Branch

Robert A. Taft Laboratories

4676 Columbia Parkway

Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998

(800) 356-4674

NIOSH Educational Resource Centers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) funds Educational Resource Centers (ERCs) which conduct research and administer graduate training programs in occupational medicine, occupational health nursing, and industrial hygiene and safety. They also provide continuing education programs for safety and health professionals and outreach programs for the community.

University of Alabama in Birmingham
School of Nursing
University of Starion
Birmingham, AL 35294-1210
Kathleen Brown, RN, Ph.D.
Director, Occupational Health Nursing
Degree: MSN, DNS
(205) 934-6858
The Johns Hopkins University
School of Hygiene and Public Health
615 N. Wolfe Street
Baltimore, MD 21205
Jacqueline Agnew, RN, Ph.D.
Director, Occupational Health Nursing Program
Degree: MPH, DrPH, Ph.D.
(410) 955-4082
UCLA School of Nursing
10833 LeConte Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1702
Linda Glazner, DrPH, RN
Program Director, Occupational Health Nursing
Degree: MSN
(310) 206-3838
Harvard University
Harvard School of Public Health
Department of Environmental Science and Physiology
665 Huntington Avenue
Boston, MA 02115
Carol Love, Ph.D.
Director, Occupational Health Nursing (Simmons)
Degree: MS
(617) 738-2255
University of California, San Francisco
School of Nursing
Department of Mental Health and Community Nursing N505Y
San Francisco, CA 94143
Julia Faucett, RN, Ph.D.
Program Director, Occupational Health Nursing
Degree: MS, DNS
(415) 476-5312
University of Michigan
School of Nursing
Department of Community Health Nursing
400 N. Ingalls, Room 3340
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Sally Lusk, RN, Ph.D.
Director, Occupational Health Nursing Program
Degree: MS
(313) 747-0347
University of Illinois at Chicago
College of Nursing
845 South Damen Street
Chicago, IL 60612
Karen Conrad, Ph.D., RN
Director, Occupational Health Nursing Program
Degree: MS, Ph.D.
(312) 996-7974
University of Minnesota
School of Public Health
420 Delaware Street, SE, Box 197
Minneapolis, MN 55455
Patricia McGovern, RN, MPH
Program Director, Occupational Health Nursing
Degree: Ph.D., MS, MS/MPH
(612) 625-7429
University of Cincinnati
College of Nursing and Health
200 Proctor Hall
3110 Vine
Cincinnati, OH 45219-0038
Sue Davis, Ph.D.
Acting Program Director, Occupational Health Nursing
Degree: MSN, Ph.D.
(513) 558-5280
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
School of Nursing
30 Bergen Street
ADMC 119
Newark, NJ 07107-3000
Gail Buckler, RN, MPH, COHN
Program Director, OHN Program
Degree: MSN
(908) 445-0123
University of Texas
The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
School of Public Health
P.O. Box 20186
Houston, TX 77225
Mary Kay Garcia, RN, DrPH
Director, Occupational Health for Nurses Program
Degree: MPH
(713) 792-7456
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
School of Public Health
Rosenau Hall
Chapel Hill, NC 27514
Bonnie Rogers, RN, DrPH
Program Director, Occupational Health Nursing
Degree: MPH, MS
(919) 996-1030
University of Utah
RMCOEH, Building 512
Salt Lake City, UT 84119
Darlene Meservy, RN, MPH, DrPH
Director, Occupational Health Nursing
Degree: MSPH, Ph.D., MPH
(801) 581-8214
University of Washington
Community Health Care Systems, SM-24
Seattle, WA 98195
Mary Salazar, Ph.D.
Director, Occupational Health Nursing Program
Degree: MN, Ph.D., MN/MPH
(206) 685-0857
Training Project Grants
University of Pennsylvania
School of Nursing
420 Service Drive
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Winifred Hayes, RN, Ph.D.
Director, Occupational Health Nursing Program
Degree: MSN
(215) 898-1794
University of South Florida
College of Nursing
Health Science Center
Box 22
12901 Bruce B. Downs Boulevard
Tampa, FL 33612-4799
Dr. Candace Burns
Director, Occupational Health Nursing Program
(813) 974-9160

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is the principal federal agency for biomedical research on the effects of chemical, physical, and biological environmental agents on human health and well-being. The Institute supports research and training focused on the identification, assessment, and mechanism of action of potentially harmful agents in the environment. Research results form the basis for preventive programs for environmentally-related diseases and for action by regulatory agencies.

The NIEHS currently sponsors several programs available to the medical school community, individual researchers, and other organizations or centers interested in studying the effects of the environment on health and how to better educate medical school students, employees, and the general public about environmental health risks and hazards. Some of the awards are described below:

  • The Environmental/Occupational Medicine Academic Award Program was established by the NIEHS to address the need for increased awareness by physicians of the impact of environmental and occupational conditions on illness, injury, and death. The award serves to assist in improving the quality of environmental/occupational medicine curricula and of fostering research careers in occupational medicine.

Environmental/Occupational Medicine Academic Awards

Chief, Environmental Health Resources Branch

Division of Extramural Research and Training

National Institute of Environmental Health Services

P.O. Box 12233

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

(919) 541-7825

  • Environmental Health Sciences Center Awards provide core support to universities for multidisplinary research in environmental health. Each center serves as national resources for environmental health research and manpower development. Areas of particular interest include: air, water, and food pollution; toxic mechanisms and body defense mechanisms; and the environmental aspects of cancer, birth defects, behavioral anomalies, respiratory and cardiovascular disease and diseases of other organs.
  • Superfund Hazardous Substances-Basic Research and Education Program supports research to expand the base of scientific knowledge needed for adequate assessment of exposure and health risks from the release of hazardous substances, reduction in the amount and toxicity of hazardous substances, and ultimately, to prevent adverse human health effects.
  • Hazardous Waste Worker Health and Safety Training provides grant support for the development and administration of health and safety training programs for workers and supervisors engaged in activities related to hazardous waste removal, containment, and transportation, or emergency response. In 1991, this program was expanded to include workers involved in generating and transporting hazardous materials and wastes, oil spill cleanup workers, and workers involved in the cleanup of nuclear workshops facilities.
  • Clinical Investigator Award provides for the development of clinical investigators in the field of environmental health/human toxicology. The award of up to $35,000 per year supports the research development of physicians to work with research teams on problems arising from the exposures of human populations to environmental chemicals.

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

P.O. Box 12233

104 T.W. Alexander Drive

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709

(919) 541-3212

National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the principal biomedical research agency of the federal government. Its mission is to pursue knowledge to improve human health. To accomplish this goal, the Institute seeks to expand fundamental knowledge about the nature and behavior of living systems, to apply that knowledge to extend the health of human lives, and to reduce the burdens resulting from disease and disability. In the quest of this mission, NIH supports biomedical and behavioral research around the world, trains promising young researchers, and promotes the acquisition and distribution of medical knowledge. Research activities conducted by NIH will determine much of the quality of health care for the future and reinforce the quality of health care currently available.

National Institutes of Health

9000 Rockville Pike

Bethesda, MD 20892

National Institute of Nursing Research

The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) provides leadership for nursing research, supports and conducts research and training, and disseminates information to build a scientific base for nursing practice and patient care, and to promote health and improve the effects of illness on the general public. NINR also provides grants and awards for nursing research and research training. Programs include research in health promotion and disease prevention, acute and chronic illness, and delivery of nursing care.

National Institute of Nursing Research

9000 Rockville Pike

Building 31 #5803

Bethesda, MD 20892

(301) 496-0207

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licenses and regulates civilian use of nuclear energy to protect health and safety and the environment. This is achieved by licensing persons and companies to build and operate nuclear reactors and other facilities and to own and use nuclear materials. The Commission makes rules and sets standards for these types of licenses. It also carefully inspects the activities of the persons and companies licensed to ensure that they do not violate the safety rules of the Commission.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Washington, DC 20555

(301) 492-7000

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was created within the Department of Labor under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 to enforce national occupational health and safety standards. OSHA encourages employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards, implements new or improved safety and health programs, provides research in occupational safety and health, requires a reporting and recording system to monitor job-related illnesses and injuries, training, develops mandatory job safety and health standards and enforces them effectively, and provides for the development, analysis, evaluation, and approval of state occupational safety and health programs.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Office of Administrative Services

200 Constitution Avenue, N.W.

Room N-310

Washington, DC 20210

(202) 219-4667

State Agencies

State Health Departments and Radon Contacts

Alabama Department of Public Health
434 Monroe Street
Montgomery, AL 36130
(205) 242-5052
Radon: Montgomery
(800) 582-1866
(205) 242-5315
California Department of Health Services
714 P Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 657-1425
Radon: Sacramento
(916) 324-2208
Alaska Division of Public Health
Department of Health and Social Services
P.O. Box H
Juneau, AK 99811
(907) 465-3090
Radon: Juneau
(800) 478-4845
(907) 465-3019
Colorado Department of Health
4210 E. 11th Avenue
Denver, CO 80220
(303) 331-4600
Radon: Denver
(800) 846-3986
(303) 692-3057
Arizona Department of Health Services
1740 W. Adams Street
Phoenix, AZ 85007
(602) 542-1024
Radon: Phoenix
(602) 255-4845
Connecticut Department of Health Services
150 Washington Street
Hartford, CT 06106
(203) 566-2038
Radon: Hartford
(203) 566-3122
Arkansas Department of Health
4815 W. Markham Street
Little Rock, AR 72205
(501) 661-2111
Radon: Little Rock
(501) 661-2301
Delaware Division of Public Health
Department of Health and Social Services
P.O. Box 637
Dover, DE 19903
(302) 739-4701
Radon: Dover
(302) 739-3787
(800) 554-4636 (In-state)
District of Columbia Department of Human Services
Commission of Public Health
1660 L Street, N.W., 12th Floor
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 673-7700
Radon: Washington, DC
(202) 727-7221
Idaho Division of Health
Department of Health and Welfare
450 W. State Street
Boise, ID 83720
(208) 334-5945
Radon: Boise
(800) 445-8647
(208) 334-6584
Florida Health Office
Department of Health and Rehabilitation Services
1323 Winewood Blvd.
Building 1
Tallahassee, FL 32301
(904) 487-2705
Radon: Orlando
(904) 488-1525
(800) 543-8279
Illinois Department of Public Health
535 W. Jefferson Street
Springfield, IL 62761
(217) 782-4977
Radon: Springfield
(800) 325-1245
(217) 786-6384
Georgia Division of Public Health
878 Peachtree Street
Atlanta, GA 30309
(404) 894-7505
Radon: Atlanta
(404) 894-6644
Indiana Board of Health
P.O. Box 1964
1330 W. Michigan Street
Indianapolis, IN 46206
(317) 633-8400
Radon: Indianapolis
(317) 633-0150
(800) 272-9723 (In-state)
Guam Public Health and Social Services
P.O. Box 2816
Agana, Guam 96910
(671) 734-2083
Hawaii Department of Health
1250 Punchbowl Street
P.O. Box 3378
Honolulu, HI 96801
(808) 586-4410
Radon: Honolulu
(808) 543-4383
Iowa Department of Public Health
Robert Lucas State Office Building
East 12th and Walnut Streets
Des Moines, IA 50319
(515) 281-5605
Radon: Des Moines
(515) 281-7781
(800) 383-5992 (In-state)
Kansas Department of Health and Environment
900 SW Jackson
Topeka, KS 66612
(913) 296-1522
Radon: Topeka
(913) 296-1560
Massachusetts Department of Public Health
150 Tremont Street
Boston, MA 02111
(617) 727-2700
Radon: North Hampton
(413) 586-7525
Kentucky Department for Health Services
Cabinet for Human Resources
275 E. Main Street
Frankfort, KY 40621
(502) 564-3970
Radon: Frankfort
(502) 564-3700
Michigan Department of Public Health
3423 N. Logan Street
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 335-8024
Radon: Lansing
(517) 335-8190
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals
P.O. Box 629
Baton Rouge, LA 70821
(504) 342-9500
Radon: Baton Rouge
(800) 256-2494
(504) 925-7042
Minnesota Department of Health
717 Delaware Street, S.E.
P.O. Box 9441
Minneapolis, MN 55440
(612) 623-5460
Radon: Minneapolis
(612) 627-5012
(800) 798-9050
Maine Bureau of Health
Department of Human Services
State House Station 11
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 289-2736
Radon: Augusta
(800) 232-0842
(207) 789-5689
Mississippi Department of Health
P.O. Box 1700
2423 N. State Street
Jackson, MS 39215
(601) 960-7634
Radon: Jackson
(800) 626-7739
(601) 354-6657
Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
201 W. Preston Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
(301) 225-6500
Radon: Baltimore
(800) 872-3666
(301) 631-3300
Missouri Department of Health
P.O. Box 570
Jefferson City, MO 65102
(314) 751-60001
Radon: Jefferson City
(314) 751-6083
(800) 669-7236 (In-state)
Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences
Cogswell Building
Helena, MT 59620
(406) 444-2544
Radon: Helena
(406) 444-3671
New Mexico Health and Environmental Department
1190 South Francis Drive
Santa Fe, NM 87503
(505) 827-2613
Radon: Santa Fe
(505) 827-4300
Nebraska Department of Health
301 Centennial Mall S.
P.O. Box 95007
Lincoln, NE 68509
(402) 471-4047
Radon: Lincoln
(402) 471-2168
(800) 334-9491 (In-state)
New York Department of Health
Tower Building
Empire State Plaza
Albany, NY 12237
(518) 474-2011
Radon: Albany
(518) 458-6451
Nevada Health Division
505 E. King Street
Carson City, NV 89710
(702) 687-4740
Radon: Carson City
(702) 687-5394
North Carolina Department of Environment
Health and Natural Resources
Division of Health Services
P.O. Box 27687
Raleigh, NC 27611
(919) 733-4984
Radon: Raleigh
(919) 571-4141
New Hampshire Division of Public Health Services
Health and Welfare Building
Hazen Drive
Concord, NH 03301
(603) 271-4500
Radon: Concord
(603) 271-4674
North Dakota Department of Health and Consolidated Labs
State Capitol Judicial Wing
600 E. Boulevard Avenue
Bismarck, ND 58505
(701) 224-2372
Radon: Bismarck
(701) 224-2348
New Jersey Department of Health
CN 360
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 292-7837
Radon: Trenton
(609) 987-6396
(800) 648-0394
Ohio Department of Health
246 N. High Street
Columbus, OH 43266
(614) 466-2253
Radon: Columbus
(614) 644-2727
(800) 523-4439 (In-state)
Oklahoma Department of Health
1000 NE 10th Street
P.O. Box 53551
Oklahoma City, OK 73152
(405) 271-4200
Radon: Oklahoma City
(405) 271-5221
South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control
2600 Bull Street
Columbia, SC 29201
(803) 735-4880
Radon: Columbia
(800) 768-0362
(803) 734-4700
Oregon State Health Division
1400 SW 5th Avenue
Portland, OR 97201
(503) 229-4032
Radon: Portland
(503) 731-4014
South Dakota Department of Health
445 E. Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 773-3361
Radon: Pierre
(605) 773-3351
Pennsylvania Department of Health
P.O. Box 90
Harrisburg, PA 17108
(717) 787-6436
Radon: Harrisburg
(717) 787-2480
(800) 23-RADON (In-state)
Tennessee Department of Health and Environment
344 Cordell Hull Building
Nashville, TN 37247-0101
(615) 741-3111
Radon: Nashville
(800) 232-1139
(615) 741-3651
Puerto Rico Department of Health
Building A, Call Box 70184
San Juan, PR 00936
(809) 766-1616
Radon: Rio Piedras
(809) 767-3563
Texas Department of Health
1100 W. 49th Street
Austin, TX 78756
(512) 458-7111
Radon: Austin
(512) 834-6688
Rhode Island Department of Health
Cannon Health Building
3 Capitol Hill
Providence, RI 02908
(401) 277-2231
Radon: Providence
(401) 277-2438
Utah Department of Health
288 N. 1460 W.
P.O. Box 16700
Salt Lake City, UT 84116
(801) 538-6111
Radon: Salt Lake City
(801) 538-6734
Vermont Department of Health
P.O. Box 70
60 Main Street
Burlington, VT 05402
(802) 863-7280
Radon: Montpelier
(800) 640-0601
(802) 828-2886
West Virginia Department of Public Health
Building 3, State Capital Complex
Charleston, WV 25305
(304) 348-2971
Radon: South Charleston
(304) 558-3526
(800) 922-1255 (In-state)
Virgin Island Department of Health
L18 Sugar Estate
St. Thomas, VI 00802
(809) 774-4888
Wisconsin Division of Health
Department of Health and Social Services
P.O. Box 309
Madison, WI 53707
(608) 266-1511
Radon: Madison
(608) 267-4795
Virginia Department of Health
P.O. Box 2448
Richmond, VA 23218
(804) 786-3561
Radon: Richmond
(800) 468-0138
(804) 786-5932
Wyoming Health and Medical Services
Hathaway Building
Cheyenne, WY 82002
(307) 777-6464
Radon: Cheyenne
(800) 458-5847
(307) 777-6015
Washington Department of Health
1112 S.E. Quince Street
Olympia, WA 98504-7890
(206) 753-5871
Radon: Olympia
(800) 323-9727
(206) 753-4518

Environmental Council of States (ECOS Member States Directory)

John Smith
Alabama Department of Environmental Management
1751 Congressman W.L. Dickinson Drive
P.O. Box 371463
Montgomery, AL 36130-1463
(334) 271-7761
Gene Burden
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation
410 Willoughby Avenue, Suite 105
Juneau, AK 99801-1795
(907) 465-5066
Edward Z. Fox
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
3033 N. Central Avenue
Phoenix, AZ 85012
(602) 207-2203
Sidney Holbrook
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
165 Capitol Avenue, Room 161
Hartford, CT 06106
(203) 424-3001
Randall Mathis
Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology
8001 National Drive
P.O. Box 8913
Little Rock, AR 72219-8913
(501) 570-2130
Christophe A.G. Tulou
Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control
P.O. Box 1401
Dover, DE 19903
(302) 739-4403
James M. Strock
California Environmental Protection Agency
555 Capitol Mall, Suite 235
Sacramento, CA 95814
(916) 445-3846
Ferial Bishop
District of Columbia Environmental Regulation Administration
2100 Martin Luther King, Jr. Avenue
Suite 203
Washington, DC 20020
(202) 645-6617
Tom Looby
Director, Office of Environment
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
4300 Cherry Creek Drive, South
Denver, CO 80222
(303) 692-3001
Virginia B. Wetherell
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
3900 Commonwealth Boulevard
Tallahassee, FL 32399
(904) 488-4805
Harold F. Reheis
Director, Environmental Protection Division
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
205 Butler Street, SE, Suite 1152
Atlanta, GA 30334
(404) 656-4713
Kathy Prosser
Indiana Department of Environmental Management
100 North Senate Avenue
P.O. Box 6015
Indianapolis, IN 46206-6015
(317) 232-8162
Bruce Anderson
Director for Environmental Health
P.O. Box 3378
Honolulu, HI 96801
(808) 586-4424
Ron Hammerschmidt
Director, Division of Environment
Kansas Department of Health and Environment
740 Forbes Field
Topeka, KS 66620
(913) 296-1535
Wallace Cory
Idaho Division of Environmental Quality
450 W. State Street
Boise, ID 83720
(208) 334-5840
Phillip J. Shepherd
Kentucky Natural Resources and Environment Protection Cabinet
Capital Plaza Tower, 5th Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601
(502) 564-3350
Mary Gade
Illinois Environmental Protection Agency
2200 Churchill Road
Springfield, IL 62706
(217) 782-9540
William Kurcharski
Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 82263
Baton Rouge, LA 70884-2263
(504) 765-0639
Edward Sullivan
Maine Department of Environmental Protection
State House Station 17
Augusta, ME 04333
(207) 287-2812
Russell Harding
Deputy Director
Michigan Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 30028
Lansing, MI 48909
(517) 373-7917
Jane T. Nishida
Maryland Department of the Environment
2500 Broening Highway
Baltimore, MD 21224
(410) 631-3084
Charles Williams
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
520 Lafayette Road North
St. Paul, MN 55155-4194
(612) 296-7301
John Chlada Director
Strategic Planning and Enforcement
Maryland Department of the Environment
2500 Broening Highway
Baltimore, MD 21224
(410) 631-3114
J.I. Palmer
Executive Director
Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 20305
2380 Highway 80 West
Jackson, MS 39289-1305
(601) 961-5000
David B. Strubs
Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection
1 Winter Street
Boston, MA 02108
(617) 292-5856
David A. Shorr
Missouri Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 176
Jefferson City, MO 65102
(314) 751-4732
Randolph Wood
Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 98922
Lincoln, NE 68509
(402) 471-4231
Michael Zagata
New York Department of Environmental Conservation
50 Wolf Road
Albany, NY 12233-1010
(518) 457-1162
Robert W. Varney
New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services
6 Hazen Drive
P.O. Box 95
Concord, NH 03301
(603) 271-3503
Jonathon Howes
North Carolina Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources
P.O. Box 27687
Raleigh, NC 27611-7687
(919) 733-4984
Robert Shinn
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
401 E. State Street, CN 402
Trenton, NJ 08625
(609) 292-2885
Francis Schwindt
North Dakota Environmental Health Section
1200 Missouri Avenue
P.O. Box 5520
Bismarck, ND 58502-5520
(701) 328-5150
Mark Weidler
New Mexico Environment Department
P.O. Box 26110
Santa Fe, NM 87502
(505) 827-2855
Donald R. Schregardus
Ohio Environmental Protection Agency 1800 Watermark Drive
Columbus, OH 43266
(614) 644-2782
Mark Coleman
Executive Director
Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality
1000 NE 10th Street, Suite 1212
Oklahoma City, OK 73119-1212
(405) 271-8056
Timothy R.E. Keeney
Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management
9 Hayes Street
Providence, RI 02908
(401) 277-2234
Langdon Marsh
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality
811 SW 6th Avenue
Portland, OR 97204
(503) 229-5696
R. Lewis Shaw
Deputy Commissioner
South Carolina Environmental Quality Control Division
2600 Bull Street
Columbia, SC 29201
(803) 734-5360
James Seif
Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources
P.O. Box 2063
Harrisburg, PA 17105-2063
(717) 772-2724
Nettie H. Meyers
South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Joe Foss Building
523 E. Capitol Avenue
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 773-5559
Hector Russe Martinez
Puerto Rico Environmental Quality Board
P.O. Box 11488
San Juan, PR 00910
(809) 767-8056
J.W. Luna
Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation
21st Floor, L & C Tower
401 Church Street
Nashville, TN 37243-0435
(615) 532-0109
Peggy Garner
Texas National Resource and Conservation Commission
P.O. Box 13087
Austin, TX 78711-3087
(512) 239-5515
Mary Riveland
Washington Department of Ecology
P.O. Box 47600
Olympia, WA 98504-7600
(206) 407-7001
Brent C. Bradford
Deputy Director
Utah Department of Environmental Quality
P.O. Box 144810
Salt Lake City, UT 84114-4810
(801) 536-4405
George E. Meyer
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
P.O. Box 7921
Madison, WI 53707
(608) 266-2121
Bill Brierley
Acting Commissioner
Vermont Agency of Natural Resources
103 S. Main Street, Building 1, South
Waterbury, VT 05671
(802) 241-3800
Dennis Hemmer
Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality
122 W. 25th Street
Cheyenne, WY 82002
(307) 777-7938


American Academy of Nurse Practitioners

The American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) was established to promote high standards of health care delivered by nurse practitioners. AANP acts as a forum to enhance the identity and continuity of nurse practitioners while also addressing national and state legislative issues that affect its members.

American Academy of Nurse Practitioners

OBJ Building

P.O. Box 12846, Capital Station

Austin, TX 78711

(512) 442-4262

American Academy of Nursing

The American Academy of Nursing (ANA) was established in order to help facilitate the advance of new concepts in nursing and health care. ANA attempts to identify and explore issues in health, the professions, and society that concern nursing, while also examining the interrelationships among the segments within nursing and the interaction among nurses as they affect the development of the nursing profession.

American Academy of Nursing

600 Maryland Avenue, S.W.

Suite 100 W

Washington, DC 20024-2571

(202) 554-4444

American Assembly for Men in Nursing

The American Assembly for Men in Nursing (AAMN) was originally established to help eliminate prejudice in nursing for men. Today, the AAMN provides a forum for discussion of common problems, provides incentives for continuing education and professional growth, while also furthering the need for all health professionals to be sensitive to various social needs in the pursuit of positive health care.

American Assembly for Men in Nursing

P.O. Box 31753

Independence, OH 44131

(216) 524-3504

American Association of Colleges of Nursing

The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) encompasses all institutions offering baccalaureate and/or graduate degrees in nursing. AACN seeks to advance the practice of professional nursing by improving the quality of educational programs offered, promoting research and developing academic leaders. AACN also works with other professional nursing organizations and organizations in the health professions to evaluate and improve health care.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing

1 Dupont Circle, N.W.

Washington, DC 20036

(202) 463-6930

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) is an organization of registered professional nurses employed by business and industrial firms; nurse educators, nurse editors, nurse writers; and others interested in occupational health nursing.

American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

50 Lenox Pointe

Atlanta, GA 30324

(800) 241-8014

(404) 262-1162

American Association of Poison Control Centers

The American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) aids in the procurement of information on the ingredients and potential acute toxicity of substances that may cause accidental poisonings and on the proper management of such poisonings. The AAPCC has established standards for the poison information and control centers, offering immediate information through hotlines around the country. The AAPCC also conducts educational programs and prepares visual aids on prevention of accidental poisonings; maintains a national poisoning database; and operates a nationwide speakers' bureau.

American Association of Poison Control Centers

3800 Reservoir Road, N.W.

Washington, DC 20007

(202) 784-4666/362-7217

(202) 784-2530 FAX

Regional Poison Control Center
The Children's Hospital of Alabama
Emergency (205) 939-9201
(800) 292-6678 (In-state)
(205) 933-4050
Samaritan Regional Poison Center
(602) 253-3334
Arizona Poison and Drug Information Center
Emergency (800) 362-0101 (In-state)
(602) 626-6016
Fresno Regional Poison Control Center
Valley Children's Hospital
Emergency (800) 346-5922 (In-state)
(202) 445-1222
University of California, Davis
Medical Center Regional Poison Control Center
Emergency (916) 734-3692
(800) 342-9293 (In-state)
San Diego
San Diego Regional Poison Control Center
University of California, San Diego Medical Center
Emergency (619) 543-6000
(800) 876-4766 (In-state)
San Francisco
San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center
San Francisco General Hospital
Emergency (800) 523-2222
San Jose
Santa Clara Valley Medical Center Regional Poison Center
Emergency (408) 299-5112
(800) 342-9293 (In-state)
Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center
Emergency (303) 629-1123
National Capital Poison Control Center
Georgetown University Hospital
Emergency (202) 625-3333
(202) 784-4660 (TTY)
The Florida Poison
Information Center and Toxicology Resource Center
Tampa General Hospital
Emergency (813) 253-444
(800) 282-3171 (In-state)
Georgia Poison Center
Grady Memorial Hospital
Emergency (800) 282-5846 (In-state)
(404) 616-9000
Indiana Poison Center
Methodist Hospital of Indiana
Emergency (800) 382-9097 (In-state)
(317) 929-2323
Maryland Poison Center
(410) 528-7701 Emergency
(800) 492-2414 (In-state)
Massachusetts Poison Control System
Emergency (617) 232-2120
(800) 682-9211
Poison Control Center
Emergency (313) 745-5711
Hennepin Regional Poison Center
Hennepin County Medical Center
Emergency (612) 347-3141
(612) 337-7474 (TTY)
St. Louis
Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital
Regional Poison Center
Emergency (314) 772-5200
(800) 366-8888 (In-state)
Denver (Colorado)
Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center
Emergency (303) 629-1123
The Poison Center
Emergency (402) 390-5555
(800) 955-9119 (In-state)
New Jersey Poison Information and Education System
Emergency (800) 962-1253 (In-state)
New Mexico Poison and Drug Information Center
Emergency (505) 843-2551
(800) 432-6866 (In-state)
Long Island Regional Poison Control Center
Winthrop University Hospital
Emergency (516) 542-2323
New York
New York City Poison Control Center
New York City Department of Health
Emergency (212) 340-4494
(212) P-O-I-S-O-N-S
(212) 689-9014 (TDD)
Hudson Valley Poison Center
Nyack Hospital
Emergency (800) 366-6997
(914) 353-1000
Central Ohio Poison Center
Emergency (614) 228-1323
(800) 682-7625
(614) 228-2272 (TTY)
Cincinnati Drug and Poison
Information Center and Regional Poison Control System
Emergency (513) 558-5111
(800) 872-5111
Oregon Poison Center
Oregon Health Sciences University
Emergency (503) 494-8968
(800) 452-7165 (In-state)
The Poison Control Center
One Children's Center
Emergency (215) 386-2100
Pittsburgh Poison Center
Emergency (412) 681-6669
Central Pennsylvania Poison Center
Milton S. Hershey Medical Center
Emergency (800) 521-6110
Rhode Island Poison Center
Emergency (401) 277-5727
(401) 277-8062 (TDD)
North Texas Poison Center
Emergency (214) 590-5000
(800) 441-0040 (In-state)
Texas State Poison Center
The University of Texas Medical Branch
Emergency (409) 765-1420
(713) 654-1701 (Houston)
(512) 478-4490 (Austin)
Salt Lake City
Utah Poison Control Center
Emergency (801) 581-2151
(800) 456-7707 (In-state)
Blue Ridge Poison Center
Emergency (804) 924-5543
(800) 451-1428
Northern Virginia
National Capital Poison Center
Georgetown University Hospital
Emergency (202) 625-3333
(202) 784-4660 (TTY)
West Virginia Poison Center
Emergency (800) 642-3625 (In-state)
(304) 348-4211
Omaha (Nebraska)
The Poison Center
Emergency (402) 390-5555
(800) 955-9199 (NE and WY only)

American Board for Occupational Health Nurses

The American Board for Occupational Health Nurses (ABOHN) establishes standards and confers initial and ongoing certification in occupational health nurses. Besides conducting annual certification examinations, the ABOHN awards occupational health nurses for excellence in the field and in research. The ABOHN has also created a database with information and directories relevant to occupational health and nursing.

American Board for Occupational Health Nurses

10503 N. Cedarburg Road

Mequon, WI 53092-4403

(414) 242-0704

American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is comprised of volunteers who support education and research in cancer prevention, diagnosis, detection, and treatment. ACS provides special services to cancer patients while also establishing educational programs for health professionals and communities.

American Cancer Society

1599 Clifton Road, N.E.

Atlanta, GA 30329

(800) ACS-2345

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) is dedicated to the advancement of women's health through education, advocacy, practice, and research. ACOG works to serve as a strong advocate for quality health care for women, maintain the highest standards of clinical practice and continuing education for its members, promote patient education and stimulate patient understanding of, and involvement in, medical care, and increase awareness among its members and the public of the changing issues facing women's health care.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

409 12th Street, S.W.

Washington, DC 20024

(202) 638-5577

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) is an association of approximately 6,500 physicians attempting to educate members and other physicians, employers, other organizations, and the public-at-large about occupational and environmental health. The ACOEM has developed a continuing education course entitled Core Curriculum in Environmental Medicine in order to enhance physicians' critical thinking on environmental issues, improve their problem-solving skills, and make them more effective at decision-making about environmental concerns. Once the Curriculum has been fully developed, ACOEM will make the teaching materials available to other organizations, including medical schools. The ultimate goal of this project has been to enable health professionals to serve as environmental educators to all of the communities in which they are involved.

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

55 West Seegers Road

Arlington Heights, IL 60005

(708) 228-6850

American Lung Association

The American Lung Association (ALA) is a federation of state and local associations of physicians, nurses, and laymen interested in the prevention and control of lung disease. The Association works with other organizations in planning and conducting programs in community services, public, professional, and patient education, and research. The ALA also makes recommendations regarding medical care of respiratory disease, occupational health, hazards of smoking, and air conservation.

American Lung Association

1740 Broadway

New York, NY 10019-4374

(212) 315-8700

American Nurses Association

The American Nurses Association (ANA) is comprised of registered nurses from around the country. ANA seeks to promote the nursing profession through its sponsorship of the American Nurses Foundation (for research), American Academy of Nursing, Center for Ethics and Human Rights, International Nursing Center, Ethnic/Racial Minority Fellowship Programs, and the American Nurses Credentialing Center.

American Nurses Association

600 Maryland Avenue, S.W.

Suite 100 W

Washington, DC 20024-2571

(202) 554-4444

American Nurses Foundation

The American Nurses Foundation (ANF) was established by the American Nurses Association to conduct health policy research as it relates to nursing and the health care of the general public.

American Nurses Foundation

600 Maryland Avenue, S.W.

Suite 100 W

Washington, DC 20024-2571

(202) 554-4444

American Public Health Association

The American Public Health Association (APHA) was founded in 1872 as a professional organization of physicians, nurses, educators, academicians, environmentalists, epidemiologists, new professionals, social workers, health administrators, optometrists, podiatrists, pharmacists, dentists, nutritionists, health planners, other community and mental health specialists, and any interested consumer. The APHA seeks to protect and promote personal, mental, and environmental health through the promulgation of health standards, establishment of uniform practices and procedures, development of etiology of communicable diseases, research in public health, exploration of medical care programs and their relationships to public health.

American Public Health Association

1015 15th Street, N.W.

Washington, DC 20005

(202) 789-5600

Association of Black Nursing Faculty

The Association of Black Nursing Faculty (ABNF) is made up of black nursing faculty teaching in nursing programs accredited by the National League for Nursing. ABNF works to promote health-related issues and educational concerns of interest to the black community by providing forums for communication and the exchange of information among members, develops strategies to address the concerns of the community, and promotes health-related issues of legislation, government programs, and community activities.

Association of Black Nursing Faculty

5823 Queens Cove

Lisle, IL 60532

(708) 969-3809

Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics

The Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics is dedicated to higher standards of patient-centered, multi-disciplinary care emphasizing prevention and total health through information sharing, quality service and collaborative research. As a national network of clinical facilities, the clinics vary greatly in orientation, physical facilities, and staff capabilities. However, every clinic does offer an on-site staff physician with either board-certification or demonstrated expertise in occupational medicine. Clinics must also have industrial hygienists and other professionals with expertise in occupational and / or environmental health such as nurses, social workers, and health educators either on staff or available through a pre-arranged referral network.

Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics

1010 Vermont Avenue, #513

Washington, DC 20005

(202) 347-4976

Occupational and Environmental Medicine Clinic
University of Alabama at Birmingham
Contact: Timothy J. Key, MD, MPH
Brian G. Forrester, MD, MPH
(205) 934-7303
Occupational and Environmental Health Clinic
University of California at Davis
Contact: Stephen McCurdy, MD, MPH
Marc Schenker, MD, MPH
(916) 752-3317
Occupational and Environmental Clinic
University of California at Irvine
Contact: Dean Baker, MD, MPH
(714) 824-8641
San Francisco
Occupational and Environmental Medicine Clinic
University of California at San Francisco
Contact: Patricia Quinlan, MPH
Diane Liu, MD, MPH
Jordan Rinker, MD, MPH
(415) 885-7770
Occupational and Environmental Medicine Division
National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine
Contact: Peggy Mroz, MSPH
Kathleen Kreiss, MD
Cecile Rose, MD, MPH
(303) 398-1520
University of Connecticut
Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program
Contact: Eileen Storey, MD,
(203) 679-2893
New Haven
Yale University Occupational/Environmental Medicine Program
Yale School of Medicine
Contact: Mark Cullen, MD, MPH
(203) 785-5885
Waterbury Occupational Health
Contact: Gregory McCarthy, MD, MPH
(203) 573-8114
Washington, DC
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
George Washington University School of Medicine
Contact: Laura Welch, MD, MOH
Rosemary Sokas, MD
(202) 994-1734
Environmental and Occupational Program
The Emory Clinic at Perimeter
Contact: Howard Frumkin, MD, DrPH
Edward Galaid, MD, MPH
(404) 727-3697
(404) 248-5478
Managed Care Occupational Health Program
Mount Sinai Hospital Medical Center
Contact: Gene Miller, Director
Edward Mogabgab, MD
(312) 257-6480
Occupational Medicine Clinic
Cook County Hospital
Contact: Stephen Hessl, MD, MPH
(312) 633-5310
University of Illinois Occupational Medicine Program
Contact: Linda Forst, MD, MS, MPH
Stephen Hessl, MD, MPH
(312) 996-1063
Iowa City
University of Iowa Occupational Medicine Clinic
Department of Internal Medicine College of Medicine
Contact: David Schwartz, MD, DrPH
Emma Rosenau, MPH
(319) 356-8269
University of Kentucky Occupational Medicine Program
Contact: Terence R. Collins, MD, MPH
Chaim Cohen, MD, MPH
(606) 257-5166
New Orleans
Ochsner Center for Occupational Health
Contact: Peter G. Casten, MD, MPH
Douglas A. Swift, MD, MSPH
(504) 838-3955
Center for Health Promotion
Contact: Stephen Shannon, DO, MPH
Sue Upshaw, MD, MPH
(207) 774-7751
Johns Hopkins University
Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
Contact: Edward J. Bernacki, MD, MPH
(410) 550-2322
Occupational Health Project School of Medicine
Division of General Internal Medicine University of Maryland
Contact: James Keogh, MD
Julie Gordon, ScM
(410) 706-7464
Pulmonary Associates (Occupational Medicine)
Contact: L. Christine Oliver, MD, MPH
Elisha Atkins, MD
Dean Hashimoto, MD, JD
David Christiani, MD, MPH
(617) 726-3741
Occupational and Environmental Health Center
Cambridge Hospital
Contact: Rose Goldman, MD, MPH
Susan Rosenwasser, MEd
(617) 498-1580
South Braintree
Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Massachusetts Respiratory Hospital
Contact: Diane Plantamura, MSW
(617) 848-2600
Occupational Health Program
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Massachusetts
Contact: Glenn Pransky, MD, Occ. H.
Thomas Hicks, MD, MPH
(508) 856-3093
Ann Arbor
Occupational Health Program
School of Public Health
University of Michigan
Contact: David Garabrant, MD, MPH
Tom Robins, MD, MPH
Alfred Franzblau, MD, MPH
(313) 764-2594
Division of Occupational Health
Wayne State University
Department of Family Medicine
Contact: Raymond Demers, MD, MPH
Mark Upfal, MD, MPH
James Blessman, MD, MPH
Maryjean Schenk, MD, MPH
Robert Morris, MD, MPH
Sushil Mankani, MD, MPH
(313) 577-1420
East Lansing
Michigan State University
Department of Medicine
Contact: Kenneth Rosenman, MD, MPH
(517) 353-1846
Occupational Health Service
St. Lawrence Hospital and Health Institute
Contact: R. Michael Kelly, MD, MPH
(517) 377-0309
Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Contact: Margaret Green, MD, MPH
Michael Harbut, MD, MPH
(313) 559-6663
Columbia Park Medical Group
Occupational Medicine Department
Contact: Donald Johnson, MD, MPH
Dorothy Quick, RN, COHN
(612) 572-5710
St. Paul
Ramsey Clinic Occupational and Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine
Residency Training
Contact: Paula Geiger, Admin. Secretary
William H. Lohman, MD
(612) 221-3771
Environmental and Occupational Health Clinical Center
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute
UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
Contact: Howard Kipen, MD, MPH
Gail Buckler, RN, MPH, COHN
(908) 445-0123
Eastern NY Occupational Health Program
Contact: Anne Tencza, RN, COHN
Eckhardt Johanning, MD, MSc
(518) 783-1518
New York
Bellevue Occupational and Environmental Health Clinic
Bellevue Hospital
Contact: George Friedman-Jimenez, MD
Rafael de la Hoz, MD, MPH
(212) 561-4572
Mount Sinai
J. Selikoff Occupational Health Clinical Center
Contact: Stephen Mooser, MPH
Stephen Levin, MD
Robin Herbert, MD
(212) 241-6173
Finger Lakes Occupational Health Services
Contact: Julie R. Cataldo, Administrator
(716) 275-1335
Stony Brook
Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine
State University of NY School of Medicine
Contact: Wajdy Hailoo, MD, MPH
(516) 444-2167
Central New York Occupational Health Clinical Center
Contact: Michael B. Lax, MD, MPH
(315) 432-8899
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Duke University Medical Center
Contact: Dennis Darcey, MD, MPSH
Gary Greenberg, MD, MPH
(919) 286-3232
Center for Occupational Health
Holmes Hospital
Contact: James Donovan, MD, MS
Douglas Linz, MD, MS
Susan Pinney, PhD
(513) 558-1234
Greater Cincinnati Occupational Health Center
Jewish Hospital at Evendale
Contact: Harriet Applegate, Director
Margaret Atterbury, MD, MPH
(513) 769-0561
Occupational/Environmental Health Clinic
Department of Family Medicine
MetroHealth Medical Center
Contact: Kathleen Fagan, MD, MPH
(216) 778-8087
Oklahoma City
University Occupational Health Sciences
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Contact: David Paul, MD, MPH
Lynn Mitchell, MD, MPH
(405) 271-6177
WorkMed, Inc.
Contact: James W. Small, MD, MPH
Steve Snyder, MD
Tiari A. Harris, MD, MPH
Lloyd Anderson, MD
(918) 627-4646
Occupational Health Service
Department of Community and Preventive Medicine
Medical College of Pennsylvania
Contact: Eddy Bresnitz, MD, MS
Harriet Rubenstein, JD, MPH
(215) 842-6540
Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program
University of Pittsburgh
Contact David Tollerud, MD, MPH
(412) 624-3155
Willow Grove
Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
Abington Memorial Hospital
Contact: Jessica Herzstein, MD, MPH
(215) 881-5904
Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island Occupational Health Service
Brown University
Contact: David G. Kern, MD, MPH
(401) 729-2859
Texas Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
Contact: Jeffrey Levin, MD, MSPH
(903) 877-7262
Salt Lake City
Rocky Mountain Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
Contact: Anthony Suruda, MD, MPH
Royce Moser, MD, MPH
(801) 581-5056
Occupational Medicine Program
University of Washington
Harborview Medical Center
Contact: Scott Barnhart, MD, MPH
Drew Brodkin, MD, MPH
Matt Keifer, MD, MPH
(206) 223-3005
Division of Occupational and Environmental Health
Department of Family and Community Medicine
Marshall University School of Medicine
Contact: Chris McGuffin, MS
James Becker, MD
(304) 696-7045
Edmonton, Alberta
Occupational Medicine Consultation Clinic
University of Alberta
Contact: Linda Cocchiarella, MD, MPH
Tee Guidotti, MD, MPH
(403) 492-7849
Winnipeg, Manitoba
MFL Occupational Health Centre, Inc.
Contact: Judy Cook, Executive Director
(204) 949-0811

American Organization of Nurse Executives

The American Organization of Nurses Executives (AONE) was established to provide leadership and assistance in the professional development of nursing leaders. AONE seeks to advance the practice of nursing and patient care through advocacy and research while also playing a vital role in shaping health care public policy at the state and federal levels. AONE also provides educational opportunities for the enhancement of management, leadership, educational, and professional development of nurses as leaders.

American Organization of Nurse Executives

840 N. Lake Shore Drive

Chicago, IL 60611

(312) 280-5213

Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine

The Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine (ATPM) is a national organization for medical educators, practitioners, and students committed to advancing the teaching of all aspects of preventive medicine. The scope of knowledge and competence distinctive to preventive medicine includes biostatistics, epidemiology, administration, environmental and occupational health, the application of social and behavioral factors in health and disease, and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention measures within clinical medicine. ATPM was founded in 1942 with three basic objectives: (1) advancing medical education; (2) developing instruction, scientific skills and knowledge in preventive medicine; and (3) exchanging experience and ideas among its members.

Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine

1015 15th Street, N.W. Suite 405

Washington, DC 20005

(202) 682-1698

Association of University Environmental Health/Sciences Centers

The Association of University Environmental Health/Sciences Centers (AUEHSC) provides a forum for all of the university-based environmental health science centers supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health. The AUEHSC enables members to exchange information, work in collaboration on projects, and promote cooperation among centers.

Association of University Environmental Health/Science Centers

Mount Sinai School of Medicine

One Gustave L. Levey Place New York, NY 10029

(212) 241-6173

Center for Safety in the Arts

The Center for Safety in the Arts (CSA) seeks to gather and disseminate

information about health hazards encountered by artists, craftsmen, teachers, children, and others working with art materials. The Center provides on-site assessments of the health and safety features of facilities used by artists, craftsmen, and students; responds to inquiries concerning art-related health hazards; and conducts consultation programs. CSA now offers extensive information through a gopher. To tap into gopher to tmn.com, choose the Arts Wire option, followed by the Center for Safety in the Arts options.

Center for Safety in the Arts

5 Beekman Street

New York, NY 10038

(212) 227-6220

Committees on Occupational Safety and Health

The Committees on Occupational Safety and Health are non-profit coalitions of local unions and individual workers, physicians, lawyers, and other health safety activists dedicated to the right of each worker to a safe and healthy job. Committees throughout the states provide health and safety training, technical assistance, consultations and on-site evaluations, and contract language assistance.

Committees on Occupational Safety and Health

275 Seventh Avenue

New York, NY 10001

(212) 627-3900

International Commission on Occupational Health

The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) was founded in 1906 to study new facts in the field of occupational health, to draw the attention of all responsible to the results of study and investigation in occupational health, and to organize meetings on national and international problems in this field. The ICOH has established 26 different scientific committees including a Scientific Committee on Nursing that focus on specific occupational health problems and issues.

International Commission on Occupational Health

Department of Community, Occupational, and Family Medicine

National University Hospital

Lower Kent Ridge Road

0511 Singapore

International Council of Nurses

The International Council of Nurses (ICN) was founded in 1899 as an multinational nurses' association. The ICN provides a medium through which members can work together in promoting the health of people and the care of the sick across countries. The objectives of ICN are to improve the standards and status of nursing, promote the development of strong national nurses' associations, and serve as the authoritative voice for nurses and the nursing profession worldwide.

International Council of Nurses

1 place Jean-Marteau

CH-12101 Geneva, Switzerland

(22) 731-2960

MotherRisk Program

The MotherRisk Program will counsel callers about the safety of an exposure to drugs, chemicals, or radiation during pregnancy or breastfeeding. The team of physicians and information specialists gives advice on whether medications, X-rays, or chemicals in the work environment will harm the developing fetus or breast-fed baby.

MotherRisk Program

Hospital for Sick Children

555 University Avenue

Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G1X8

(416) 813-6780

National Association of Hispanic Nurses

The National Association of Hispanic Nurses (NAHN) was founded in 1976 for nurses on all educational levels from all Hispanic subgroups and non-Hispanic nurses concerned about the health delivery needs of the Hispanic community and nursing students. NAHN seeks to serve the nursing and health care delivery needs of the Hispanic community and the professional needs of Hispanic nurses. The association also provides forums for Hispanic nurses to analyze, research, and evaluate the health care needs of Hispanic communities and then disseminates findings of that research to local, state, and federal agencies in order to affect policy-making and resource allocation.

National Association of Hispanic Nurses

1501 16th Street, N.W.

Washington, DC 20036

(202) 387-2477

National Association of School Nurses

The National Association of School Nurses (NASN) is made up of school nurses throughout the country who conduct comprehensive school health programs in public and private schools. The objectives of the NASN are to provide national leadership in the promotion of health services for schoolchildren; to promote school health interests to the nursing and health community and the public; and to monitor legislation pertaining to school nursing. The NASN also provides continuing education programs at the national level and assistance to states for program implementation. NASN also operates the National Board for Certification of School Nurses and certifies school nurses. Besides establishing several workshops and grants for studying children, drug abuse, the female body, and skin care, NASN bestows the annual School Nurse of the Year and Lillian Wald Research Awards.

National Association of School Nurses

Lamplighter Lane

P.O. Box 1300

Scarborough, ME 04070

(207) 883-2117

National Black Nurses Association

The National Black Nurses Association (NBNA) functions as a professional support group and as an advocacy group for the black community and their health care. NBNA recruits and assists blacks interested in pursing nursing as a career and presents scholarships to student nurses who have excelled in the field.

National Black Nurses Association

1012 10th Street N.W.

Washington, DC 20001-4492

(202) 393-6870

National Council of State Boards of Nursing

The National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) was founded in 1978 as the national council for all state boards of nursing. The NCSBN seeks to assist member boards in administrating the National Council Licensure Examinations for Registered Nurses and Practical Nurses and works to insure relevancy of the exams to current nursing practice. The council also aids individual boards in the collection and analysis of information pertaining to the licensure and discipline of nurses. The NCSBN also provides consultative services, conducts research, and sponsors educational programs.

National Council of State Boards of Nursing

676 N. St. Clair, Suite 550

Chicago, IL 60611

(312) 787-6555

National Environmental Health Association

The National Environmental Health Association (NEHA) is a professional society of persons engaged in environmental health and protection for governmental agencies, public health and environmental protection agencies, industry, colleges, and universities. NEHA also conducts national professional registration programs and offers continuing education opportunities for interested professionals.

National Environmental Health Association

720 S. Colorado Blvd.

Suite 970, S. Tower

Denver, CO 80222

(301) 756-9090

National League for Nursing

The National League for Nursing (NLN) was established in 1952 for individuals and leaders in nursing and other health professions interested in solving health care problems. The NLN works to assess nursing needs, improve organized nursing services and nursing education, foster collaboration between nursing and other health and community services, provide tests used in the selection of applicants to schools of nursing, and prepare tests used in evaluating nursing student progress and nursing service test. On a national level, the NLN accredits nursing education programs and community health agencies while collecting and disseminating data on nursing services and education.

National League for Nursing

350 Hudson Street

New York, NY 10014

(800) 669-1656

National Student Nurses' Association

The National Student Nurses' Association (NSNA) comprises students currently enrolled in state-approved nursing schools for the preparation of becoming registered nurses. NSNA seeks to aid in the development of the individual nursing student and urges students, as future health professionals, to be aware of and to contribute to improving the health care of all people. NSNA also encourages programs and activities in state groups concerning nursing, health, and the community.

National Student Nurses' Association

555 W. 57th Street

Suite 1327

New York, NY 10019

(212) 581-2211

Nurses Educational Funds

The Nurses Educational Funds (NEF) seeks to establish, maintain, and administer funds to provide financial assistance to registered nurses studying for advanced degrees. The NEF also helps formulate policies for the administration of such funds while collecting and managing all funds contributed to it.

Nurses Educational Funds

555 W. 57th Street, 13th Floor

New York, NY 10019

(212) 582-8820

Pesticide Education Center

Founded in 1933 to educate the public about the hazards and health effects of pesticides, the Pesticide Education Center works with community groups, workers, individuals, and others harmed by or concerned about risks to their health from exposure to pesticides used in agriculture, the home and garden, and other environmental and industrial uses. Its goal is to provide critical information about pesticides so that the public can make more informed decisions and choices. The PEC provides information, curricular materials, and help with seminars and workshops on a nationwide basis.

Pesticide Education Center

P.O. Box 420870

San Francisco, CA 94142-0870

(415) 391-8511

Sigma Theta Tau International

Sigma Theta Tau International (STTI) was founded in 1822 as a honorary society for nurses. STTI provides members with the opportunity to access information through their libraries, references, and databases, while also recognizing excellence in the field of nursing with awards and grants for research. STTI seeks to promote the profession of nursing as leaders, advocates, and pertinent players in the care of the individual and community's health.

Sigma Theta Tau International

550 W. North Street

Indianapolis, IN 46202

(317) 634-8171

Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

The Society for Occupational and Environmental Health (SOEH) includes scientists, academicians, and industry and labor representatives who seek to improve the quality of both working and living places by operating as a neutral forum for conferences involving all aspects of occupational and environmental health. SOEH's activities include studying specific categories of hazards, as well as developing methods for assessment of health effects and diseases associated with particular jobs.

Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

6728 Old McLean Village Drive

McLean, VA 22101

(703) 556-9222

Teratogen Exposure Registry and Surveillance

The Teratogen Exposure Registry and Surveillance (TERAS) is a network of geneticists and pathologists studying human embryos and fetuses exposed to teratogens. TERAS maintains information networks for consultation and evaluations.

Teratogen Exposure Registry and Surveillance

Department of Pathology

Brigham and Women's Hospital

75 Francis Street

Boston, MA

(617) 732-6507

World Watch Institute

The WorldWatch Institute is a research organization that aims to encourage a reflective and deliberate approach to global problem-solving. The Institute seeks to anticipate global problems and social trends and to focus attention on emerging global issues, including population growth, family planning, environmental degradation, and renewable energy options.

WorldWatch Institute

1776 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.

Washington, DC 20036

(202) 452-1999

Selected Topical Resources

American Lung Association
(212) 315-8700
EPA Clean Air Act
(202) 382-7548
Center for Safety in the Arts
(212) 277-6220
EPA Asbestos Programs
(800) 368-5888
National Cancer Institute
(800) 4-CANCER
EPA Carcinogen Assessment Group
(202) 382-5898
Chemical Spills Emergency Hotline
(800) 535-0202
EPA Hazardous Waste Hotline
(800) 535-0202
ATSDR Emergency Hotline
(404) 639-6300
Consumer Product Safety Commission
(800) 638-2772
EPA Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Hotline
(800) 535-0202
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
(202) 475-6743
IRIS User Support
(513) 569-7254
Superfund Records of Decision
(703) 920-9810
State Health Departments
National Center for Environmental Health (CDC)
(404) 488-4880
National Lead Information Center
(800) LEAD-FYI
Child and Maternal Health Clearinghouse
(202) 625-8410
American Lung Association
(212) 315-8700
LUNGLINE/National Jewish Hospital
(800) 222-5864
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(800) 356-4674
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(202) 219-8151
EPA National Pesticides Hotline
(800) 535-PEST
National Pesticide Telecommunications Network
(800) 858-7378
Poison Control Centers
MotherRisk Program
(416) 813-7378
EPA Office of Radon Programs
(202) 475-9605
National Radon Hotline
State Health Departments
American Lung Association
(212) 315-8700
American Chemical Society's
Chemical Referral Center
(202) 887-1315
ATSDR Emergency Response
(404) 639-6300
ATSDR Toxicological Profiles
(404) 639-6000
EPA Toxic Substances Control Act(TSCA)
Information Line
(202) 554-1404
EPA Toxic Chemical Release Inventory System
(800) 535-0202
EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline
(800) 426-4791

Computerized Information Services

Computerized information services have become a valuable link in providing users with up-to-date information, resources, and opportunities for interaction with others interested in similar topics. The following list is by no means comprehensive, but merely provides points of access to relevant information and communication list-servers.


Department of Energy's Environment, Safety, and Health Technical Information Service

In 1993, DOE released its new computer-based information service, called the Environment, Safety, and Health Technical Information Service (TIS). TIS is designed to provide the DOE community with technical information that is reliable, current, and easy to use. Eventually, TIS will replace the current Safety Performance Measurement System (SPMS). For more information, please address any questions to the TIS Helpline at (202) 526-8955 or send e-mail to vog.leni.sit@troppus.

Electronic Green Journal

The ELECTRONIC GREEN JOURNAL is a professional refereed publication from the University of Idaho devoted to disseminating information concerning sources of international environmental topics including: assessment, conversation, development, disposal, education, hazards, pollution, resources, technology, and treatment. The journal serves communities as an educational environmental resource, and includes both practical and scholarly articles, bibliographies, reviews, editorial comments, and announcements. The journal is currently available via gopher, worldwide web, or ftp. Subscriptions are being planned for the future. To tap into the journal through gopher, type gopher.uidaho.edu and choose University of Idaho Electronic Publications; to tap in through World-Wide Web (WWW) type http://gopher.uidaho.edu/1/UI_gopher/library/egj/; or to tap in through ftp, type ftp.uidaho.edu.

EnviroLink Network

The Envirolink Network is a non-profit organization that is dedicated to facilitating communication on environmental issues. The network is composed of over 400,000 people in 93 countries. The Network has recently created a new network entitled EnviroFreenet. EnviroFreenet offers e-mail accounts, environmental billboards, chat conferences, the EnviroGopher, the EnviroWeb, and access to almost every other Internet Service available. The network can be accessed using either telnet or gopher. EnviroFreenet can be reached through telnet with the address envirolink.org. Directions then follow. If you have access to gopher, go to the main gopher list and choose international organizations and then choose ''EnviroGopher," followed by "Connect to EnviroFreenet" or gopher to: envirolink.org port 70.


The HazDat system is a scientific and administrative database developed by ATSDR to provide rapid access to information on the release of hazardous substances from Superfund sites or from emergency events and on the effects of these substances on the health of human populations. The source documents used for the initial development of HazDat include environmental and health data contained in Agency products and in other non-Agency site characterization documents as appropriate. ATSDR's products include health assessments and supporting documentation for over 1,200 sites, toxicological profiles for over 150 substances, and more than 2,000 health consultations. ATSDR staff enter data into HazDat on a continuing basis. HazDat is available to the public over the Internet through a World-Wide Web (WWW) server. Access can be gained through: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/atsdrhome.html.

Medical List—A Guide to On Line Medical Resources

The Medical List provides a complete listing of Internet resources connected with health, disease, therapy, and clinical medicine. This resource list is offered in text form as The Medical List and as Medical Matrix—a hypertest database accessible using World Wide Web browsers like Mosaic. The Medical List is the text of Healthmatrix—a Windows Help, icon drive, hypertext presentation of the database. For more information, call (209) 466-6878.

Gopher access to The Medical List is available at the URL:(Uniform Resource Locator)gopher://una.hh.lib.umich.edu:70/11/inetdirs/sciences/medclin:malet. Gopher allows key word searching and e-mail of this document to any Internet address. Access can also be gained through ftp—frp2.cc.ukans.edupub/hmatrix/ and get file medlst94.txt or medlst94.zip.

Medical Matrix is a project of the Internet Working Group of the American Medical Informatics Association. Medical Matrix uses icons and keyword searches to locate on line medical resources. Access can be gained through: http://kuhttp.cc.ukans.edu/cwis/units/medcntr/Lee/HOMEPAHE.HTML.


Nightingale is a gopher server dedicated to providing the nursing community with easy access to information which is unique or pertinent to the nursing profession. Resources and information is available on topics such as research, practice, education, professional nursing communications, publications, and other nursing resources. Access can be gained through: http://nightingale.con.utk.edu./00/homepage.html.

Nursing Institutes on Internet

Arizona Health Sciences Center—College of Nursing (http://www.medlib.arizona.edu)

Brigham Young University—College of Nursing (http://nurse.byu.edu)

Duke University Nursing Services (http://nursing-www.mc.duke.edu/nursing/nshomepg.htm)

East Tennessee State University—College of Nursing (http://www.east-tenn-st.edu/&223C;etsucon)

European Summerschool of Nursing Informatics (http://care4all.nursing.nl.8080/sumsch/sumhome.html)

Ohio State University—College of Nursing (http://www.con.ohio-state.edu/index.htm)

University of California at San Francisco—School of Nursing (http://nurseweb.ucsf.edu/www/ucsfson.htm)

University of Central Florida—School of Nursing (http://pegasus.cc.usf.edu/&223C;wink/nursing.department.html)

University of Delaware—College of Nursing (http://www.udel.edu./brentt/UD_Nursing.html)

University of New Hampshire (http://pubpages.unh.edu/~tpcox/nsg.html)

University of Iowa—College of Nursing (http://coninfor.nursing.uiowa.edu/index.htm)

University of Louisville, Kentucky (http://www.louisville.edu)

University of Maryland—College of Nursing (http://www.nursing.ab.umd.edu)

University of Missouri, Columbia (http://www.missouri.edu/~nurswalk/nmwhome.html)

University of Pennsylvania—School of Nursing (http://dolphin.upenn.edu/~nursing)

University of Tennessee, Knoxville—Nursing Gopher (http://nightingale.con.utk.edu:70/01homepage.html)

University of Washington—School of Nursing (http://www.son.hs.washington.edu)

West Virginia University—School of Nursing (http://www.hsc.wvu.edu/son/index.htm)

Nursing Internet Resources

The Nursing Internet Resources provides a guide and link to nursing resources on-line. Access can be gained through: http://www.csv.warwick.ac.uk:8000/nurse-resources.html or gopher-p1papers/nurse.csv.warwick.ac.uk

Nursing Network Forum

The Nursing Network Forum is operated and managed by Mid-Atlantic Network Associates, Inc. as a resource and discussion forum for nurses around the country. Services on the Nursing Network Forum include (1) a message base for discussion of various aspects of nursing, career opportunities, and nursing school experiences; (2) a conferencing area where users talk "live" with other nurses; (3) a library area filled with resources and on-line continuing education programs provided through the University of Maryland and accredited by ANCCCA (these programs can be completed in the home while earning accredited contact hours toward continuing education units); and (4) a direct nursing gopher and usernet discussion group access. Although the forum is not free, trial periods are provided.

For additional information, please contact the Nursing Network Forum at (800) 695-4002 or through internet at moc.ihpled@esrun or ten.kralc@esrun.

WHO Global Environmental Epidemiology Network, GEENET

The Network was established in 1987 as a means for the World Health Organization to strengthen education, training, and research in institutions involved in epidemiological teaching and research on the health effects of environmental hazards, and other epidemiological applications in environmental and occupational health.

The Network aims at improved communication and collaboration between institutions in this field in developed and developing countries. A series of documents with information of value for training and research development is prepared for the Network and lists of Network members are distributed on a regular basis. Training and research promotion workshops are organized in collaboration with national and international agencies.

For more information, write: WHO GEENET, Environmental Epidemiology, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

List Servers

Air Pollution and Biology

The address is ku.ca.esabliam@esabliam; and you can join by sending the message join air pollution-biology Firstname Lastname and your address.

EHS-L Environmental Health Systems

The address is 2HDYNBLA@vrestsil; and you can join by sending the message subscribe EHS-L Firstname Lastname and your address.

ENVBEH-L Environment and Human Behavior

The address is MVYLOP@vrestsil; and you can join by sending the message subscribe ENVBEH-L Firstname Lastname and your address.


The address is mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk; and you can join by sending the message join enviroethics Firstname Lastname and your address.


NURSENET provides discussion about pertinent nursing issues facing the profession. To subscribe send your Firstname Lastname to ac.otnorotu.cctu.mv@vrestsil sub nursenet.

NURSERES Nurses Research List

NURSERES allows discussion of research being conducted in the field of nursing. To join send your Firstname Lastname to ude.tnek.mvtnek@vrestsil with a message of SUB NURSERES.

NRSINGED Nursing Educators List

NRSINGED is a discussion group of nursing educators concerning the various issues and aspects of nursing education. To join send your Firstname Lastname with the message SUB NRSINGED to ude.ellivsiuol.mvyklu@vrestsil.

Occup-Env Med List (Occupational and Environmental Medicine Listing on Internet)

Occupational and environmental medicine represents a growing clinical and public health discipline, seeking to evaluate and prevent the diseases and health effects that may be related to exposures at work and from other environments. The Occup-Env Med Mail-list provides a moderated forum for announcements, dissemination of text files and academic discussion. The forum is designed to allow presentation of clinical vignettes, synopses of new regulatory issues and reports of interesting items from publication elsewhere (both the medical and the non-medical journals).

To subscribe, send a message of: subscribe occ-env-med-l "first name last name" to ude.ekud.cm@l-dem-vne-cco.

To post a message send the message to: ude.ekud@l-dem-vne-cco


SNURSE-L is a list server for undergraduate nursing students. To join send mail to ude.olaffub.cc.mvbu@vrestsil with the message SUB SNURSE-L Firstname Lastname.

Other Gophers/Internet Relevant to Environmental Health and Nursing

Division of Environmental Health and Safety


National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency


Computer-Based Databases(*)

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the world's largest research library in a single scientific or professional field. The library collects materials in all major areas of the health sciences, as well as in such areas as chemistry, physics, botany, and zoology.

The Library's computer-based Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) and toxicology (TOXLINE) databases provide on-line bibliographic access to the Library's store of biomedical information. For information about access to MEDLARS and TOXLINE services, contact: MEDLARS Management Section, National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, (301) 496-1131, (800) 638-8480 (outside Maryland).

Primary biomedical data bases included on the MEDLARS system are:

MEDLINE indexes articles from over 3200 biomedical journals published in the United States and abroad. MEDLINE is indexed using NLM's controlled vocabulary, MESH (Medical Subject Headings), and contains all citations indexed in INDEX MEDICUS. Produced by the National Library of Medicine.

TOXLINE is designed to offer comprehensive bibliographic coverage of toxicological information. It covers the pharmacological, biochemical, physiological, environmental, and toxicological effects of chemicals and drugs. Produced by Specialized Information Services of the National Library of Medicine.

TOXNET (Toxicology Data Network) is a computerized system of toxicological data banks operated by the National Library of Medicine, and is part of the broader MEDLARS system.

The TOXNET software consists of modules to build, edit, and review the records of constituent data banks.

CCRIS (Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System) is a factual data bank sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. It contains data derived from both short- and long-term bioassays on approximately 1200 chemicals.

ETICBACK (Environmental Teratology Information Center Backfile) is a bibliographic data base covering teratology and development toxicology.

TRI (Toxic Chemical Release Inventory) contains information on the annual estimated releases of toxic chemicals to the environment in the United States. These data include the names and addresses of the facilities and the amounts of certain toxic chemicals they release to the air, water, or land or transfer to waste sites.

HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank) is a comprehensive data base containing records for over 4100 toxic or potentially toxic chemicals. It contains information in such areas as toxicity, environmental fate, human exposure, chemical safety, waste disposal, emergency handling, and regulatory requirements.

IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System) is an on-line data base built by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains EPA carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health risk and regulatory information on about 400 chemicals. For more information, call (513) 569-7254.

RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances) contains toxic effects data for approximately 100,000 chemicals. It is built and maintained by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Acute and chronic effects are covered in such areas as skin/eye irritation, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and reproductive consequences. Contact: (800) 35-NIOSH

DIRLINE (NLM's Directory of Information Resources on-line) is an online database containing information on approximately 15,000 organizations that provide information and services directly to requesters. DIRLINE is available on-line through the MEDLARS system and can also be searched with GRATEFUL MED software. Contact: (301) 496-1131

Various software packages are available for access to MEDLARS, including:

GRATEFUL MED, a microcomputer software interface that assists users in performing on-line searches of NLM's databases. GRATEFUL MED can be bought from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

CHEMLEARN (NTIS), an interactive, microcomputer-based training package for CHEMLINE. Produced by Specialized Information Services of the National Library of Medicine, it runs on IBM-PC / XT / AT / PS / 2 compatibles. CHEMLEARN is available from NTIS, product number PB88-218144. For more information on the contents of the software, call (301) 496-1131.

TOXLEARN is an interactive, microcomputer-based training package for TOXLINE. Its menu-driven structure allows users to make choices in learning about basic aspects of TOXLINE. It contains approximately four hours of interactive instruction and is produced by the Specialized Information Services of the National Library of Medicine. TOXLEARN runs on IBM-PC compatibles and is available from NTIS, product number PB88-155766. For more information on the contents of the software, call (301) 496-1131.

General References

  • Aldrich, T., and Griffith, J. 1993. Environmental Epidemiology and Risk Assessment. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • Anderson, E.T., and McFarlane, J.M. 1995. Community as Partner: Theory and Practice of Nursing. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
  • Bullough, B., and Bullough, V. 1990. Nursing in the Community . St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.
  • Burgess, W.A. 1981. Recognition of Health Hazards in Industry: A Review of Materials and Processes. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • California Public Health Foundation. 1992. Kids and the Environment: Toxic Hazards. Berkeley: California Public Health Foundation.
  • Chivian, E., editor; , McCally, M., editor; , Hu, H., editor; , and Haines, A., editor. , eds. 1993. Critical Condition: Human Health and the Environment. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Clemen-Stone, S., Eigsti, D.G., and McGuire, S.L. 1995. Comprehensive Family and Community Health Nursing. 4th ed. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.
  • Davis, A.J., and Aroskar, M.A. 1991. Ethical Dilemnas in Nursing Practice. 3rd ed., editor. Norwalk, CT: Appleton and Lange.
  • Gary, F., and Kavanagh, C.T. 1991. Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
  • Girdando, D.A. 1986. Occupational Health Promotion: A Practical Guide to Program Development. New York: MacMillian Publishing Co.
  • Gorall, A.H., May, L.A., and Mulley, A.G. 1995. Primary Care Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
  • Green, L.W. 1990. Community Health. 6th ed. St. Louis: Times Mirror/Mosby.
  • Guidotti, T.L. 1989. Occupational Health Services: A Practical Approach. Chicago: American Medical Association.
  • Hansen, D.F., editor; , ed. 1991. The Work Environment. Chelsea, MI: Lews Publishers, Inc.
  • Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K. 1993. Management of Organizational Behavioral: Utilizing Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Institute of Medicine (IOM). 1993. Indoor Allergens: Assessing and Controlling Adverse Health Effects. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [PubMed: 25144066]
  • IOM. 1995. Environmental Medicine: Integrating a Missing Element into Medical Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [PubMed: 25121193]
  • International Labour Office (ILO). 1983. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 3rd ed., 2 volumes. Geneva: ILO.
  • Kornberg, J.P. 1992. The Workplace Walkthrough(Vol. 1). Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.
  • LaDou, J. 1990. Occupational Medicine. Norwalk, CT: Appleton and Lange.
  • Last, J.M., editor; , and Wallace, R.B., editor. , eds. 1992. Public Health and Human Ecology. Norwalk: Appleton and Lange.
  • Levy, B., and Wegman, D. 1995. Occupational Health: Recognizing and Preventing Work-related Disease. 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Lindberg, J.B., Hunter, M.L., and Kruszewski, A.Z. 1994. Introduction to Nursing: Concepts, Issues and Opportunities. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
  • Lybarger, J.A., Spengler, R.F., and DeRosa, C.T. 1993. Priority Health Conditions. Washington, DC: ATSDR.
  • Marquis, B.L., and Huston, C.J. 1992. Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
  • Mason, D.J., Talbott, S.W., and Leavitt, J.K. 1993. Policy and Politics for Nurses: Action and Change in the Workplace, Government, Organizations, and Community. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
  • McCunney, R.J., editor. , ed. 1994. A Practical Approach to Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Boston: Little, Brown.
  • McLaughlin, F.E., and Marasuilo, L.A. 1990. Advanced Nursing and Health Care Research . Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
  • Murdock, B.S. 1991. Environmental Issues in Primary Care . Minneapolis: Freshwater Foundation's Health and the Environment Digest.
  • Murray, R.B., and Zentner, J.P. 1989. Nursing Assessment and Health Promotion: Strategies Through the Life Span . 4th ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.
  • National Library of Medicine. 1989. Improving Health Professionals' Access to Information: Challenges and Opportunities for the National Library of Medicine . Washington, DC: National Library of Medicine.
  • National Research Council (NRC). 1989. Improving Risk Communication . Washington, DC: National Academy Press. [PubMed: 25032320]
  • NRC. 1991. Environmental Epidemiology . Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • Paul, M., editor. , ed. 1993. Occupational and Environmental Reproductive Hazards: A Guide for Clinicians . Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
  • Polit, D.F., and Hungler, B.P. 1995. Nursing Research: Principles and Methods . 5th ed. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
  • Rogers, B. 1994. Occupational Health Nursing: Concepts and Practice . Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
  • Rogers, B., Mastroianni, K., and Randolph, S.A. 1992. Occupational Health Nursing Guidelines: Primary Clinical Conditions . Boston: OEM Press.
  • Rom, W, ed. 1992. Environmental and Occupational Medicine , Second Edition. Boston: Little, Brown.
  • Rosenstock, L., and Cullen, M. 1986. Clinical Occupational Medicine . Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
  • Rosenstock, L., and Cullen, M. 1994. Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine . Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
  • Sandman, P., Chess, C., and Hance, B.J. 1991. Improving Dialogue with Communities: A Risk Communication Manual for Government . New Brunswick: Rutgers University and New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy.
  • Saucier, K.A. 1991. Perspectives on Family and Community Health . St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.
  • Silbergeld, E.K. 1993. Investing in Prevention: Opportunities to Reduce Disease and Health Care Costs Through Identifying and Reducing Environmental Contributions to Preventable Disease . Washington, DC: Environmental Defense Fund.
  • Smith, C.M., and Maure, F.A. 1995. Community Health Nursing: Theory and Practice . Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
  • Stanhope, M., and Lancaster, J. 1992. Community Health Nursing: Process and Practice for Promoting Health . 3rd ed. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.
  • Stritter, F.T. 1992. Faculty Evaluation and Development. Handbook of Health Professionals Education 13:294-318.
  • Sullivan, J.B., and Krieger, G.R. 1992. Hazardous Materials Toxicology: Clinical Principles in Environmental Health . Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
  • Tarcher, AB, ed. 1992. Principles and Practice of Environmental Medicine . New York: Plenum Medical Book Co.
  • Upton, A.C., and Graber, E. 1993. Staying Healthy in a Risky Environment: The New York University Medical Center Family Guide . New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. a. Proposed Guidelines for Assessing Female Reproductive Risk . Federal Register 53:24834-24847.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. b. Proposed Guidelines for Assessing Male Reproductive Risk . Federal 53:24850-24869.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment . Federal Register 57:22888-22938.
  • Waltz, C., Strickland, O.L., and Lenz, E. 1991. Measurement in Nursing Research . 2nd ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
  • Weeks, J. 1991. Preventing Occupational Disease and Injury . Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
  • Wilkinson, J.M. 1992. Nursing Process in Action . Redwood City, CA: Addison Wesley.
  • Williams, P.L., and Burson, J.L. 1985. Industrial Toxicology: Safety and Health Applications in the Workplace . New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
  • Wold, S.J. 1990. Community Health Nursing: Issues and Topics . Norwalk, CT: Appleton and Lange.
  • World Health Organization: Our Planet, Our Health. 1992. Report of the WHO Commission on Health and Environment . Geneva: World Health Organization.

Tables of Environmental Agents and Health Effects, Work-Related Diseases and Conditions, and Selected Job Categories and Associated Diseases and Conditions

TABLE D-1Environmental Agents, Their Sources and Potential Exposures, and Adverse Health Effects: Metals and Metallic Compounds, Hydrocarbons, Irritant Gases, Chemical Asphyxiates, and Pesticides

AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
Metals and Metallic Compounds
ArsenicAlloyed with lead and copper for hardness; manufacturing of pigments, glass, pharmaceuticals; byproduct in copper smelting; insecticides; fungicides; rodenticides; tanningInhalation and ingestion of dust and fumesNeuromuscular Gastrointestinal Skin
ArsineAccidental byproduct of reaction of arsenic with acid; used in semi-conductor industryInhalation of gasHematopoietic
BerylliumHardening agent in metal alloys; special use in nuclear energy production; metal refining or recoveryInhalation of fumes or dustPulmonary (and other systems)
CadmiumElectroplating; solder for aluminum; metal alloys, process engraving; nickel-cadmium batteriesInhalation or ingestion of fumes or dustPulmonary Renal
ChromiumIn stainless and heat-resistant steel and alloy steel; metal plating; chemical and pigment manufacturing; photographyPercutaneous absorption, inhalation, ingestionPulmonary Skin
Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Peripheral neuropathy, sensory-motor
Nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, constipation
Dermatitis, finger and toenail striations, skin cancer, nasal septum perforation
Lung cancer
Arsenic in urine
Intravascular hemolysis: hemoglobinuria, jaundice, oliguria or anuriaArsenic in urine
Granulomatosis and fibrosisBeryllium in urine (acute); Beryllium m tissue (chronic); chest x ray; immunologic tests (such as lymphocyte transformation) may also be usefulPulmonary changes virtually indistinguishable from sarcoid on chest x ray
Pulmonary edema (acute); Emphysema (chronic)Also a respiratory tract carcinogen
NephrosisUrinary protein
Lung cancer
Dermatitis, skin ulcers, nasal septum perforation
Urinary chromate (questionable value)
AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
Storage batteries; manufacturing of paint, enamel, ink, glass, rubber ceramics, chemical industryIngestion of dust, inhalation of dust or fumesHematologic Renal Gastrointestinal Neuromuscular CNS Reproductive
Mercury (Elemental)Electronic equipment; paint; metal and textile production; catalyst in chemical manufacturing; pharmaceutical productionInhalation of vapor; slight percutaneous absorptionPulmonary CNS
(Inorganic)Some inhalation and GI and percutaneous absorptionPulmonary Renal CNS
(Organic)Agricultural and industrial poisonsEfficient Gl absorption, percutaneous absorption, and inhalationSkin CNS
Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Abdominal pain (''colic")
Palsy ("wrist drop")
Encephalopathy, behavioral abnormalities Spontaneous abortions
Blood lead
Urinary ALA
Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP); free erythrocyte protophyrin (FEP)
Lead toxicity, unlike that of mercury, is believed to be reversible, with the exception of late renal and some CNS effects.
Acute pneumonitis; Neuropsychiatric changes (erethism); tremor
Acute pneumonitis
Sensorimotor changes, visual field
constriction, tremor
Urinary mercury
Urinary mercury
Blood and urine mecury, but ? sensitivity
Mercury illustrates several principles. The chemical form has a profound effect on its toxicology, as is the case for many metals. Effects of mercury are highly variable. Though inorganic mercury poisoning is primarily renal, elemental and organic poisoning are primarily neurological. The responses are difficult to quantify, so dose-response data are generally unavailable. Classic tetrad of gingivitis, sialorrhea, irritability, and tremor is associated with both elemental and inorganic mercury poisoning; the four signs are not generally seen together. Many effects of mercury toxicity, especially those in CNS, are irreversible.
AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
NickelCorrosion-resistant alloys; electroplating; catalyst production; nickel-cadmium batteriesInhalation of dust or fumes
Zinc oxidebWelding byproduct; rubber manufacturingInhalation of dust or fumes that are freshly generated
BenzeneManufacturing of organic chemicals, detergents, pesticides, solvents, paint removers; used as a solventInhalation of vapor; slight percutaneous absorptionCNS
TolueneOrganic chemical manufacturing; solvent; fuel componentInhalation of vapor, percutaneous absorption of liquidCNS
XyleneA wide variety of uses as a solvent; an ingredient of paints, lacquers, varnishes, inks, dyes, adhesives, cements; an intermediate in chemical manufacturingInhalation of vapor; slight percutaneous absorption of liquidPulmonary
Eyes, nose, throat
Ketones (Acetone) (Methylethyl ketone—MEK) (Methyl n-propyl ketone—MPK) (Methyl n-butyl ketone—MBK) (Methyl iso-butyl ketone—MIBK)A wide variety of uses as solvents and intermediates in chemical manufacturingInhalation of vapor, percutaneous absorption of liquidCNS
Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Sensitization dermatitis ("nickel itch")
Lung and paranasal sinus cancer
"Metal fume fever" (fever, chills, and other symptoms)Urinary zinc (useful as an indicator of with exposure, not for acute diagnosis)A self-limiting syndrome of 24–48 h apparently no sequelae.
Acute CNS depression
Leukemia, aplastic anemia
Urinary phenolNote that benzene, as with toluene and other solvents, can be monitored via its principal metabolite.
Acute CNS depression Chronic CNS problems such as memory lossUrinary hippuric acid
Irritation dermatitis
Irritation, pneumonitis, acute pulmonary edema (at high doses)
Acute CNS depression
Methylhippuric acid in urine, xylene in expired air, xylene in blood
Acute CNS depression
MBK has been linked with peripheral neuropathy
Acetone in blood, urine, expired air (used as an index for exposure, not for diagnosis)The ketone family demonstrates how a pattern of toxic responses (that is, CNS narcosis) may feature exceptions (i.e., MBK peripheral neuropathy).
AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
FormaldehydeWidely used as a germicide and a disinfectant in embalming and histopathology, for example, and in the manufacture of textiles, resins, and other productsInhalationSkin
Trichloroethylene (TCE)Solvent in metal degreasing, dry cleaning, food extraction; ingredient of paints, adhesives, varnishes, inksInhalation, percutaneous absorptionNervous
Carbon tetrachlorideSolvent for oils, fats, lacquers, resins, varnishes, other materials; used as a degreasing and cleaning agentInhalation of vaporHepatic
Carbon disulfideSolvent for lipids, sulfur, halogens, rubber, phosphorus, oils, waxes, and resins; manufacturing of organic chemicals, paints, fuels, explosives, viscose rayonInhalation of vapor, percutaneous absorption of liquid or vaporNervous
Skin Reproductive
Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Irritant and contact dermatitis Eye irritation Respiratory tract irritation, asthmaPatch testing may be helpful for dermatitisRecent animal tests have shown it to be a respiratory carcinogen. Confirmatory epidemiologic studies are in progress.
Acute CNS depression
Peripheral and cranial neuropathy
Irritation, dermatitis
Breath analysis for TCETCE is involved in an important pharmacological interaction. Within hours of ingesting alcoholic beverages, TCE workers experience flushing of the face, neck, shoulders, and back. Alcohol may also potentiate the CNS effects of TCE. The probable mechanism is competition for metabolic enzymes.
Toxic hepatitis
Oliguria or anuria
Acute CNS depression
Expired air and blood levelsCarbon tetrachloride is the prototype for a wide variety of solvents that cause hepatic and renal damage. This solvent, like trichloroethylene, acts synergistically with ethanol.
Parkinsonism, psychosis, suicide
Peripheral neuropathies
Chronic nephritic and nephrotic syndromes Acceleration or worsening of atherosclerosis; hypertension
Irritation; dermatitis
Menorrhagia and metrorrhagia
Iodine-azide reaction with urine (nonspecific since other bivalent sulfur compounds give a positive test); CS2 in expired air, blood, and urineA solvent with unusual multisystem effects, especially noted for its cardiovascular, renal, and nervous system actions.
AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
Stoddard solventDegreasing, paint thinningInhalation of vapor, percutaneous absorption of liquidSkin
Ethylene glycol ethers
(Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate—Cellosolve acetate)
The ethers are used as solvents for resins, paints, lacquers, varnishes, gum, perfume, dyes, and inks; the acetate derivatives are widely used as solvents and ingredients of lacquers, enamels, and adhesives. Exposure occurs in dry cleaning, plastic, ink, and lacquer manufacturing, and textile dying, among other processes.Inhalation of vapor, percutaneous absorption of liquidReproductive, CNS, renal, liver
(Methyl- and butyl-substituted compounds such as ethylene glycol monomethyl ether—Methyl Cellosolve®Hematopoietic
Ethylene oxideUsed in the sterilization of medical equipment, in the fumigation of spices and other foodstuffs, and as a chemical intermediateInhalationSkin
Respiratory tract
Nervous system
DioxaneUsed as solvent sterilization of medical equipment, in the fumigation of spices and other foodstuffs, and as a chemical intermediateInhalation of vapor, percutaneous absorption of liquidCNS
Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Dryness and scaling from defatting; dermatitis
Dizziness, coma, collapse (at high levels)
A mixture of primarily aliphatic hydrocarbons, with some benzene derivatives and naphthenes.
Pancytopenia Fatigue, lethargy, nausea, headaches, anorexia, tremor, stupor (from encephalopathy)Ethylene glycol ethers, as a class of chemicals, have been shown in animals to have adverse reproductive effects, including reduced sperm count and spontaneous abortion, as well as CNS, renal, and liver effects.
Effects primary associated with ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (Methyl Cellosolve ®)
Dermatitis and frostbite
Severe irritation; possibly cataracts with prolonged exposure
Peripheral neuropathy
Recent animal tests have shown it to be carcinogenic and to cause reproductive abnormalities. Epidemiologic studies indicate that it may cause leukemia in exposed workers.
Drowsiness, dizziness, anorexia, headaches, nausea, vomiting, coma
Chemical hepatitis
Dioxane has caused a variety of neoplasms in animals.
AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)Formerly used as a di-electric fluid in electrical equipment and as a fire retardant coating on tiles and other products. New uses were banned in 1976, but much of the electrical equipment currently used still contains PCBsInhalation, ingestion, skin absorptionSkin
Irritant Gases c
AmmoniaRefrigeration; petroleum refining; manufacturing of nitrogen-containing chemicals, synthetic fibers, dyes, and opticsInhalation of gasUpper respiratory tract
Hydrochloric acidChemical manufacturing; electroplating; tanning; metal pickling; petroleum extraction; rubber, photographic, and textile industriesInhalation of gas or mistUpper respiratory tract
Hydrofluoric acidChemical and plastic manufacturing; catalyst m petroleum refining; aqueous solution for frosting, etching, and polishing glassInhalation of gas or mistUpper respiratory tract
Sulfur dioxideManufacturing of sulfur-containing chemicals; food and textile bleach; tanning; metal castingInhalation of gas, direct contact of gas or liquid phase on skin or mucosaMiddle respiratory tract
ChlorinePaper and textile bleaching; water disinfection; chemical manufacturing; metal fluxing; detinning and dezincing ironInhalation of gasMiddle respiratory tract
Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Toxic hepatitis
Serum PCBs levels for chronic exposureAnimal studies have demonstrated that PCBs are carcinogenic. Epidemiologic studies of exposed workers are inconclusive.
Upper respiratory irritationAlso irritant of eyes and moist skin.
Upper respiratory irritationStrong irritant of eyes, mucous membranes, and skin.
Upper respiratory irritationIn solution, causes severe and painful burns of skin and can be fatal.
Bronchospasm (pulmonary edema or chemical pneumonitis in high dose)Chest x ray, pulmonary function testsdStrong irritant of eyes, mucous membranes, and skin.
Tracheobronchitis, pulmonary edema, pneumonitisChest x ray, pulmonary function testsChlorine combines with body moisture to form acids, which irritate tissues from nose to alveoli.
AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
OzoneInert gas-shielded arc welding; food, water, and air purification; food and textile bleaching; emitted around high-voltage electrical equipmentInhalation of gasLower respiratory tract
Nitrogen oxidesManufacturing of acids, nitrogen-containing chemicals, explosives, and more; byproduct of many industrial processesInhalation of gasLower respiratory tract
PhosgeneManufacturing and burning of isocyanates, and manufacturing of dyes and other organic chemicals; in metallurgy for ore separation; burning or heat source near trichloroethyleneInhalation of gasLower respiratory tract
TDI (toluene diisocyanate)
Polyuredhane manufacture; resin-binding systems in foundries; coating materials for wires; used certain types of paintInhalation of vaporPredominantly lower respiratory tract
MDI (methylene diphenyldiisocyanate)
Hexamethylene diisocyanate and others
Asphyxiant gases
Simple asphyxiants: nitrogen hydrogen, methane, and others
Enclosed spaces in a variety of industrial settingsInhalation of gasCNS
Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Delayed pulmonary edema (generally 6–8 h following exposure)Chest x ray, pulmonary function testsOzone has a free radical structure and can produce experimental chromosome aberrations; it may thus have carcinogenic potential.
Pulmonary irritation, bronchiolitis fibrosa obliterans (''silo filler's disease"), mixed obstructive-restrictive changesChest x ray, pulmonary function tests
Delayed pulmonary edema (delay seldom longer than 12 h)Chest x ray, pulmonary function tests
Asthmatic reaction and accelerated loss of pulmonary functionChest x ray, pulmonary function testsIsocyanates are both respiratory tract "sensitizers" and irritants in the conventional sense.
AnoxiaO2 in environmentNo specific toxic effect; acts by displacing O2.
AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
Chemical Asphyxiants
Carbon monoxideIncomplete combustion in foundries, coke ovens, refineries, furnaces, and moreInhalation of gasBlood (hemoglobin)
Hydrogen sulfideUsed in manufacturing of sulfur-containing chemicals; produced in petroleum production; byproduct of petroleum product use; decay of organic matterInhalation of gasCNS Pulmonay
CyanidesMetallurgy, electroplatingInhalation of vapor, percutaneous absorption, ingestionCellular metabolic enzymes (especially cytochrome oxidase)
Organo-phophates: malathion, parathion, and othersInhalation, ingestions, percutaneous absorptionNeuromuscular
Carbamates: carbaryl (Sevin) and othersInhalation, ingestion, percutaneous absorptionNeuromuscular
Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Headache; dizziness, double visionCarboxy-hemoglobin
Respiratory center paralysis, hypoventilationPaO2
Respiratory tract irritation
Enzyme inhibition with metabolic asphyxia and deathSCN¯ in urine
Cholinesterase inhibition, cholinergic symptoms: nausea and vomiting, salivation, diarrhea, headache , seating, meiosis, muscle fasciculations, seizures, unconsciousness, deathRefractoriness to atropine; plasma or red cell cholinesteraseAs with many acute toxins, rapid treatment of organophosphate toxicity is imperative. Thus, diagnosis is often made based on history and a high index of suspicion rather than on biochemical tests. Tre atment is atropine to block cholinergic effects and 2-PAM (2-pyridine-alsoxine methiodide) to reactivate cholinesterase.
Same as organophosphatesPlasma cholinesterase; urinary 1-naphthol (index of exposure)Treatment of carbamate poisoning is the same as that of organophosphate poisoning except that 2-PAM is contraindicated.
AgentExposureRoute of EntrySystems(s) Affected
Chlorinated hydrocarbons: chlordane, DDT, heptachlor, chlor-decone (Kepone), aldrin, dieldrin, uridineIngestion, inhalation, percutaneous absorptionCNS
Bipyridyls: paraquat, diquatInhalation, ingestion, percutaneous absorptionPulmonary

Occupational and medical histories are in most instances, the most important aids in diagnosis.


Zinc oxide is a prototype of agents that cause metal fume fever.


The less water-soluble the gas, the deeper and more delayed its irritant effect.

Primary ManifestationsAids in DiagnosisaRemarks
Stimulation or depressionUrinary organic chlorine, or p-chloro-phenol acetic acidThe chlorinated hydro-carbons may accumulate in body lipid stores in large amounts.
Rapid massive fibrosis, only following paraquat ingestionAn interesting toxin in that the major toxicity, pulmonary fibrosis, apparently occurs only after in gestion.

Pulmonary function tests are useful aids in diagnosis of irritant effects if the patient is subacutely or chronically ill.

SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Principles and Practice of Environmental Health, A.B. Tarcher, ed. Copyright 1992 by Plenum Publishing Co.

TABLE D-2Selected Work-Related Diseases, Disorders, and Conditions Associated with Various Agents, Industries, or Occupations: Infections, Malignant Neoplasms, and Hematological, Cardiovascular, Pulmonary, Neurological, and Miscellaneous Disorders

Diseases, Disorders, and ConditionsIndustry or OccupationAgent
AnthraxShepherds, farmers, butchers, handlers of imported hides or fibers, veterinarians, veterinarian pathologists, weaversBacillus anthraces
BrucellosisFarmers, shepherds, vets, lab and slaughterhouse workersBrucella abortus, suis
PlagueShepherds, farmers, ranchers, hunters, field geologistsYersinia pestis
Hepatitis ADay-care center, orphanage, and mental retardation institution staff, medical personnelHepatitis A virus
Hepatitis BNurses and aides, anesthesiologists, orphanage and mental institution staffs, medical lab workers, general dentists, oral surgeons, physiciansHepatitis B virus
Hepatitis C (formerly included in non-A, non-B)Same as hepatitis A and BHepatitis C virus
OrnithosisPsittacine bird breeders, pet shop and zoo workers, poultry producers, vetsChlamydia psittaci
RabiesVeterinarians, game wardens, lab workers, farmers, ranchers, trappersRabies virus
RubellaMedical personnelRubella virus
TetanusFarmers, ranchersClostridium tetani
Tuberculosis PulmonaryPhysicians, medical personnel, medical lab workersMycobacterium tuberculosis
Tuberculosis SilicotuberculosisQuarrymen, sandblasters, silica processors, miners, foundry workers, ceramic industrySilicon dioxide (silica), M. tuberculosis
TularemiaHunters, fur handlers, sheep industry, cooks, veterinarians, ranchers, veterinarian pathologistsFrancisella tularensis
Malignant Neoplasms
BladderRubber and dye workersBenzidine, 1- and 2-naphthylamine, auramine, magenta, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4-nitrophenyl
BoneDial painters, radium chemists and processorsRadium
Kidney and other urinary organsCoke oven workersCoke oven emissions
LiverVinyl chloride polymerization industryVinyl chloride monomer
Liver hemangiosarcomaVintnersArsenical pesticides
Lung, bronchial, trachealAsbestos industry, users Topside coke oven workers
Uranium and fluorspar miners Chromium producers, processors, users Smelters Mustard gas formulators Ion-exchange resin makers, chemists
Asbestos Coke oven emissions
Radon daughters Chromates
Mustard gas
Bis(chloromethyl)-ether, chloromethyl methyl ether
Nasal cavityWoodworkers, furniture makers
Boot and shoe industry
Radium chemists and processors, dial painters
Chromium producers, processors, users Nickel smelting and refining
Hardwood dusts
Peritoneal, pleural mesotheliomaAsbestos industry, usersAsbestos
ScrotalAutomatic lathe operators, metalworkers
Coke oven workers, petroleum refiners, tar distillers
Mineral, cutting oils
Soots and tars, tar distillates
Hematological Disorders
Agranulocytosis or neutropeniaWorkers exposed to benzene
Explosives, pesticide industries
Pesticide, pigment, pharmaceutical industries
Inorganic arsenic
Explosives manufacturing
Worker exposed to benzene
Radiologists, radium chemists, dial painters
Ionizing radiation
Anemia Hemolytic, nonautoimmuneWhitewashing and leather industry
Electrolytic processes, arsenical ore smelting
Plastics industry
Plastics industry
Dye, celluloid, resin industries
Copper sulfate
Trimellitic anhydride
Acute lymphoid
Rubber industry
Ionizing radiation
Acute myeloid
Workers exposed to benzene
Workers exposed to benzeneBenzene
MethemoglobinemiaExplosives, dye industriesAromatic amino and nitro compounds (e.g., aniline, TNT, nitroglycerin)
Cardiovascular Disorders
AnginaAuto mechanics, foundry workers, wood finishers, traffic control, driving in heavy trafficCarbon monoxide
ArrhythmiasMetal cleaning, solvent use, refrigerator maintenanceSolvents, fluorocarbons
Raynaud's phenomenon (secondary)Lumberjacks, chain sawyers, grinders, chippers
Vinyl chloride polymerization
Whole-body or segmental vibration
Vinyl chloride monomer
Pulmonary Disorders
Alveolitis (extrinsic, allergic)Farmer's lung bagassosis, bird-breeder's lung, suberosis, maltworker's lung, mushroom worker's lung, maple bark disease, cheese-washer's lung, coffee-worker's lung, fish-meal-worker's lung, furrier's lung, sequoiosis, woodworker's lung, miller's lungVarious agents
AsbestosisAsbestos workers, usersAsbestos
Asthma (extrinsic)Jewelry, alloy, catalyst makers
Polyurethane, adhesive, paint workers
Alloy, catalyst, refinery workers
Plastic, dye, insecticide makers
Foam workers, latex makers, biologists
Printing industry
Nickel platers
Plastics industry
Woodworkers, furniture makers
Detergent formulators
Animal handlers
Chromium, cobalt
Aluminum soldering flux
Phthalic anhydride
Gum arabic
Nickel sulfate
Trimellitic anhydride
Red cedar, wood dusts
Bacillus-derived exoenzymes
Animal dander
Beryllium disease (chronic)Beryllium alloy, ceramic, cathode-ray tube, nuclear reactor workersBeryllium
Bronchitis, pneumonitis, pulmonary edema (acute)Refrigeration, fertilizer, oil-refining industries
Alkali, beach industries
Silo fillers, arc welders, nitric acid workers
Paper, refrigeration, oil-refining industries
Cadmium smelters, processors
Plastics industry
Nitrogen oxides
Sulfur dioxide
Trimellitic anhydride
ByssinosisCotton industryCotton, flax, hemp, cotton-synthetic dusts
PneumoconiosisCoal miners, bauxite workersCoal dust, bauxite fumes
SilicosisMining, metal, and ceramic industries, quarrymen, sand blasters, silica processorsSilica
TalcosisTalc processorsTalc
Neurological Disorders
Cerebellar ataxiaChemical industry
Electrolytic chlorine production, battery manufacturing, fungicide formulators
Organic mercury
Encephalitis (toxic)Battery, smelter, foundry workers
Electrolytic chlorine production, battery manufacturing, fungicide formulators
Organic, inorganic mercury
Neuropathy (toxic and inflammatory)Pesticide, pigment, pharmaceutical industries
Furniture refinishers, degreasers
Plastic-coated fabric workers
Explosives industry
Rayon manufacturing
Plastics, hyrdraulics, coke industries
Arsenic, arsenic compounds
Methyl butyl ketone
Carbon disulfide
Tri-o-cresyl phosphate
Neuropathy (toxic and inflammatory)Battery, smelter, foundry workers
Dentists, chloralkali workers
Chloralkali, fungicide, battery workers
Plastics, paper manufacture
Inorganic lead
Inorganic mercury
Organic mercury
Parkinson's disease (secondary)Manganese processors, battery manufacturing, welders
Internal combustion engine industries
Carbon monoxide
Abdominal painBattery manufacturing, enamelers, smelter, painters, ceramics workers, plumbers, weldersLead
CataractMicrowave, radar technicians
Explosive industry
Blacksmiths, glass blowers, bakers
Moth repellant formulators, fumigators
Explosives, dye, herbicide, pesticide industries
Ionizing radiation
Infrared radiation
Dinitrophenol, dinitro-o-cresol
Dermatitis (contact, allergic)Adhesives, sealants, and plastics industries, leather tanning, poultry dressing, fish packing, boat building and repair, electroplating, metal cleaning, machining, housekeepingIrritants (cutting oils, solvents, phenol, acids, alkalies, detergents, fibrous glass), allergens (nickel, epoxy resins, chromates, formaldehyde, dyes, rubber products)
HeadacheFirefighters, foundry workers, wood finishers, dry cleaners, traffic control, driving in heavy trafficCarbon monoxide, solvents
Hepatitis (toxic)Solvent users, dry cleaners, plastics industryCarbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethane trichloroethylene
Hepatitis (toxic)Explosives and dye industries
Fire and waterproofing additive formulators
Plastics formulators
Fumigators, gasoline and fire-extinguisher formulators
Disinfectant, fumigant, synthetic resin formulators
Phosphorus, TNT
Ethylene dibromide
Inner ear damageVariousExcessive noise
Infertility (male)Formulators
Producers, formulators, applicators
1, 2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
Psychosis (acute)Gasoline, seed, and fungicide workers, wood preservation, rayon manufacturingLead (especially organic), mercury, carbon disulfide
Renal failure (acute, chronic)Battery manufacturing, plumbers, solderers
Electrolytic processes, arsenical ore smelting
Battery manufacturing, jewelers, dentists
Fluorocarbon, fire-extinguisher formulators
Antifreeze manufacturing
Inorganic lead
Inorganic mercury
Carbon tetrachloride
Ethylene glycol

SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Principles and Practice of Environmental Medicine, Tarcher, AB, ed. Copyright 1992 by Plenum Publishing Co.

TABLE D-3Selected Job Categories, Exposures, and Associated Work-Related Diseases and Conditions

Job CategoriesExposuresWork-Related Diseases and Conditions
Agricultural workersPesticides, infectious agents, gases, sunlightPesticide poisoning, ''farmer's lung," skin cancer
AnesthetistsAnesthetic gasesReproductive effects, cancer
Animal handlersInfectious agents, allergensAsthma
Automobile workersAsbestos, plastics, lead, solventsAsbestosis, dermatitis
Battery makersLead, arsenicLead poisoning, cancer
ButchersVinyl plastic fumes"Meat wrappers' asthma"
Caisson workersPressurized work environments"Caisson disease," "the bends"
CarpentersWood dust, wood preservatives, adhesivesNasopharyngeal cancer, dermatitis
Cement workersCement dust, metalsDermatitis, bronchitis
Ceramic workersTalc, claysPneumoconiosis
Demolition workersAsbestos, wood dustAsbestosis
Drug manufacturersHormones, nitroglycerin, etc.Reproductive effects
Dry cleanersSolventsLiver disease, dermatitis
Dye workersDyestuffs, metals, solventsBladder cancer, dermatitis
EmbalmersFormaldehyde, infectious agentsDermatitis
Felt makersMercury, polycyclic hydrocarbonsMercuralism
Foundry workersSilica, molten metalsSilicosis
Glass workersHeat, solvents, metal powdersCataracts
Hospital workersInfectious agents, cleansers, radiationInfections, accidents
InsulatorsAsbestos, fibrous glassAsbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma
Jack hammer operatorsVibrationRaynaud phenomenon
Lathe operatorsMetal dusts, cutting oilsLung disease, cancer
Laundry workersBleaches, soaps, alkaliesDermatitis
Lead burnersLeadLead poisoning
Miners (coal, hard rock, metals, etc.)Talc, radiation, metals, coal dust, silicaPneumoconiosis, lung cancer
Natural gas workersPolycyclic hydrocarbonsLung cancer
Nuclear workersRadiation, plutoniumMetal poisoning, cancer
Office workersPoor lighting, poorly designed equipmentJoint problems, eye problems
PaintersPaints, solvents, spackling compoundsNeurologic problems
Paper makersAcids, alkalies, solvents, metalsLung disorders, dermatitis
Petroleum workersPolycyclic hydrocarbons, catalysts, zeolitesCancer, pneumoconiosis
PlumbersLead, solvents, asbestosLead poisoning
Railroad workersCreosote, sunlight, oils, solventsCancer, dermatitis
SeamenSunlight, asbestosCancer, accidents
Smelter workersMetals, heat, sulfur dioxide, arsenicCancer
Steel workersHeat, metals, silicaCataracts, heat stroke
Stone cuttersSilicaSilicosis
Textile workersCotton dust, fabrics, finishers, dyes, carbon disulfideByssinosis, dermatitis, psychosis
Varnish makersSolvents, waxesDermatitis
Vineyard workersArsenic, pesticidesCancer, dermatitis
WeldersFumes, nonionizing radiationLead poisoning, cataracts

SOURCE: Reprinted, with permission, from Principles and Practice of Environmental Medicine, A.B. Tarcher, ed. Copyright 1992 by Plenum Publishing Co.



Adapted from Murdock, BS, ed. 1991. Environmental Issues in Primary Care. Minnesota: Minnesota Department of Health.

Copyright 1995 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Bookshelf ID: NBK232383


  • PubReader
  • Print View
  • Cite this Page
  • PDF version of this title (4.0M)

Related information

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...