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Cover of Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons

Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons

HFC-134a and HCFC-123

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Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); .

As part of the effort to phase out the use of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Halon gases, the U.S. Navy is planning to substitute hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-134a for the refrigerant CFC-12, and the Air Force is planning to substitute hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)-123 for the fire suppressant Halon 1211. The Navy asked the National Research Council (NRC) to review the toxicity data on HFC-134a and to recommend 1-hr and 24-hr emergency exposure guidance levels (EEGLs) and 90-day continuous exposure guidance levels (CEGLs). The Air Force requested the NRC to review the adequacy of the 1-min EEGL proposed by the Air Force for HCFC-123. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requested the NRC to review the suitability of current methods for detecting and quantifying the risk of cardiac sensitization from exposure to CFCs and their substitutes. The NRC assigned these tasks to its Committee on Toxicology, which established the Subcommittee to Review Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons. The subcommittee reviewed the toxicity data on the two CFC substitutes and the assessment protocol for cardiac sensitization. This report is intended to aid the Navy, the Air Force, and EPA in using CFC substitutes safely.

Contents

The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and administered by the U.S. Army under Contract No. DAMD 17-89-C-9086.

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Bookshelf ID: NBK231524PMID: 25101393DOI: 10.17226/9268

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