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National Research Council (US) Committee on the National Needs for Research in Veterinary Science . Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2005.

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Critical Needs for Research in Veterinary Science.

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Appendix DBioterrorism Agents

Bacterial and Viral Threat Agents Associated with Animals

Category A Diseases and Agents Zoonotic
Foot-and-mouth disease (Picorna aphthovirus) No
Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Yes
Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin) No
Plague (Yersinia pestis) Yes
Smallpox (Variola major) No
Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) Yes
Viral hemorrhagic fevers (Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Machupo viruses) No
Category B Diseases and Agents Zoonotic
Brucellosis (Brucella spp.) Yes
Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens No
Food safety threats (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella) Yes
Glanders (Burkholderia mallei) Yes
Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei) Yes
Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci) Yes
Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) Yes
Ricin toxin No
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B No
Typhus fever (Rikettsia prowazekii) No
Viral encephalitis (VEE, EEE, and WEE viruses) Yes
Water threats (Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium parvum) Yes

SOURCE: NRC 2002a, 2003a.

High-Consequence Livestock Pathogens and Toxins

USDA-Only Agents and ToxinsaUSDA-HHS Overlap Agents and Toxinsb
African horse sickness virusBacillus anthracis
African swine fever virusBotulinum neurotoxin
Akabane virusBotulinum neurotoxin-producing species of Clostridium
Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic)Brucella abortus
Bluetongue virus (exotic)Brucella melitensis
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy agentBrucella suis
Camel pox virusBurkholderia mallei
Classical swine fever virusBurkolderia pseudonallei
Cowdria ruminantium (Heartwater)Clostridium botulinum
Foot-and-mouth disease virusClostridium perfringens epsilon toxin
Goat pox virusCoccidioides immitis
Japanese encephalitis virusCoxiella burnetii
Lumpy skin disease virusEastern equine encephalitis virus
Malignant catarrhal fever virus (exotic)Franscisella tulanrensis
Menangle virusHendra virus
Mycoplasma capricolum/M.38/Nipah virus
M.mycoides capri (contagious caprine—pleuropneumonia)
Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia)Rift Valley fever virus
Newcastle disease virus (VVND)Shigatoxin
Peste des petits ruminants virusStaphylococcus enterotoxins
Rinderpest virusT-2 toxin
Sheep pox virus Venezulan equine encephalitis virus
Swine vesicular disease virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus (exotic)
a

Select agents and toxins that are only the USDA list of high-consequence livestock pathogens and toxins.

b

Select agents and toxins that are on the USDA list of high-consequence livestock pathogens and toxins and on the HHS list of select agents and toxins.

SOURCE: USDA-APHIS

Copyright © 2005, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK22924

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