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National Research Council (US) Committee for Monitoring the Nation's Changing Needs for Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Personnel. Advancing the Nation's Health Needs: NIH Research Training Programs. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2005.

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Appendix ECharacteristics of Doctorates

TABLE E-1Characteristics of Doctorates in the Biomedical Sciences, 1973–2003

19701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983198419851986
Total Doctorates2,8823,1323,1163,1353,0133,0853,1503,0503,1183,2123,3963,3563,4443,3383,3993,3133,369
Males2,4202,5722,5302,4742,3402,3472,4242,3512,3112,3512,4402,3832,4172,2242,3152,1922,197
Females4625605866616737387266998078619569731,0271,1141,0841,1211,172
Citizens2,3852,5912,5732,5822,3812,5562,6102,5282,6282,7382,9052,8982,9272,8542,8682,7272,751
Permanent residents160198215231209194165169147133147125114108109113118
Temporary residents312266256253283256277261259253273248294291308364343
Unknown257772691407998928488718510985114109157
Minorities2138084868078108798391948699104119
Postdoctoral training
Postdoctoral fellowship1,0081,0169651,0008631,1021,1761,2121,3131,3141,3621,3641,3851,3131,4461,4091,415
Postdoctoral research317389402435505536503528535500626616625668625634699
Postdoctoral traineeship648483463954566975100103707870686658
Other training7889148160173199202157163213225255275247238200196
Total postdoctorates1,4671,5781,5981,6411,5801,8911,9371,9662,0862,1272,3162,3052,3632,2982,3772,3092,368
Percent planning52.8%54.0%55.1%55.9%57.5%65.0%65.9%68.5%71.5%70.4%71.6%72.3%72.6%72.1%74.2%73.8%74.9%
Employment1,2461,2751,2461,2361,113968962880809877891865860851791790759
Other6370596154494225241729203137342836
Ph.D. with plans2,7762,9232,9032,9382,7472,9082,9412,8712,9193,0213,2363,1903,2543,1863,2023,1273,163
Time to degree5.92666.176.1766.176.256.336.416.56.56.6777.097.177.25
Registered time to degree5.415.425.675.755.675.595.755.755.915.916666.176.336.426.41
Age at time of degree28.922929.4229.5829.4229.2529.2529.3429.3829.4129.2529.3329.5929.8330.2530.4230.59
19871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003
Total Doctorates3,4653,7693,7933,9924,2944,4424,7944,8635,0795,3665,4595,4655,3405,5475,3975,3755,412
Males2,2142,3772,3482,4772,6552,7402,8642,8872,9553,1023,1103,1133,0743,0602,9843,0152,960
Females1,2511,3921,4451,5151,6391,7021,9301,9762,1242,2642,3492,3522,2662,4782,4032,3582,439
Citizens2,6702,8582,8502,8993,0503,0723,2643,2033,2783,2913,4513,4923,4383,6203,6233,5633,534
Permanent residents153176173183210240296641831801562533477364341315266
Temporary residents4555155708149871,0781,1659809181,1731,2331,2131,2241,3361,2021,2221,341
Unknown187220200966266985773121243241218227231275366
Minorities128123135135159162190223243246261277308315364367358
Postdoctoral training
Postdoctoral fellowship1,4701,6501,6521,7661,9002,0112,2432,2342,3582,3802,2932,3122,2232,3402,1702,2692,343
Postdoctoral research6577046798118798949409689941,0319791,027977931882884932
Postdoctoral traineeship75816576878199111107115876975148102109172
Other training217216260233294307332313346406193250476362387273311
Total postdoctorates2,4192,6512,6562,8863,1603,2933,6143,6263,8053,9323,5523,6583,7513,7813,5413,5353,758
Percent planning74.9%75.8%75.1%77.0%77.0%77.2%78.6%78.1%7.9%77.7%71.1%73.0%75.8%73.6%71.0%71.3%75.0%
Employment7768158568209029369399749631,0771,2881,2571,1521,2761,3731,3681,193
Other36322743403545404852156934383765860
Ph.D. with plans3,2313,4983,5393,7494,1024,2644,5984,6404,8165,0614,9965,0084,9465,1404,9904,9615,011
Time to degree7.337.427.427.587.57.597.677.757.837.677.927.837.597.757.837.597.59
Registered time to degree6.56.586.56.596.586.756.756.756.836.836.926.926.756.846.926.756.67
Age at time of degree30.530.8330.9231.1731.0831.1731.1731.1731.2531.253130.9230.8330.9130.8330.6730.58

TABLE E-2Employment Characteristics of Biomedical Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001

197319751977197919811983198519871989199119931995199719992001
Total employed in S&E34,36739,66143,41148,59153,35756,48161,81065,80070,59371,96276,44979,07788,48195,780100,224
100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%
Minority7971,0661,1491,2591,5661,5161,8191,9062,2172,7272,8403,1503,7584,3855,345
2.3%2.7%2.6%2.6%2.9%2.7%2.9%2.9%3.1%3.8%3.7%4.0%4.2%4.6%5.3%
Citizens and permanent residents32,61037,95841,42146,13152,49255,89861,12865,12069,70970,83475,02377,82687,10593,10097,126
94.9%95.7%95.4%94.9%98.4%99.0%98.9%99.0%98.7%98.4%98.1%98.4%98.4%97.2%96.9%
Temporary residents7937771,0551,6455033314735818849451,4101,2511,3762,6803,098
2.3%2.0%2.4%3.4%0.9%0.6%0.8%0.9%1.3%1.3%1.8%1.6%1.6%2.8%3.1%
Total academics23,42327,21929,88933,18836,16536,79739,30741,02743,57240,58145,25848,62253,02655,68257,227
68.2%68.6%68.9%68.3%67.8%65.1%63.6%62.4%61.7%56.4%59.2%61.5%59.9%58.1%57.1%
Faculty with rank appointments20,13822,23023,51526,06427,86828,51030,45431,28031,86228,67232,18033,49636,12236,98738,299
58.6%56.1%54.2%53.6%52.2%50.5%49.3%47.5%45.1%39.8%42.1%42.4%40.8%38.6%38.2%
Tenured faculty4,56713,37614,34515,63617,83618,88420,11419,15719,75517,10619,07019,51620,32621,53521,695
13.3%33.7%33.0%32.2%33.4%33.4%32.5%29.1%28.0%23.8%24.9%24.7%23.0%22.5%21.6%
Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)15,5718,8549,1705,9526,4465,6736,6446,1495,8727,5567,7228,2598,9748,9098,784
45.3%22.3%21.1%12.2%12.1%10.0%10.7%9.3%8.3%10.5%10.1%10.4%10.1%9.3%8.8%
Academic postdoctorates1,7132,6153,5074,3584,7224,4054,4504,7845,9934,8196,4317,7019,62010,1459,692
5.0%6.6%8.1%9.0%8.8%7.8%7.2%7.3%8.5%6.7%8.4%9.7%10.9%10.6%9.7%
Other academic appointments1,5721,7061,8103,0923,5753,8824,4034,9635,7177,0906,6477,4367,2968,5509,236
4.6%4.3%4.2%6.4%6.7%6.9%7.1%7.5%8.1%9.9%8.7%9.4%8.2%8.9%9.2%
Industry (nonpostdoctorate)4,4705,2735,5436,2867,8819,58911,84113,36615,37618,30919,53818,94921,64326,21628,935
1.3%13.3%12.8%12.9%14.8%17.0%19.2%20.3%21.8%25.4%25.6%24.0%24.5%27.4%28.9%
Industrial postdoctorates275340277046126222206204376531561591293
0.1%0.1%0.1%0.1%0.1%0.1%0.2%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.5%0.7%0.6%0.6%0.3%
Government (nonpostdoctorate)3,6753,7853,9144,4494,5454,8435,0265,7255,7766,1576,1436,0747,2127,2407,886
10.7%9.5%9.0%9.2%8.5%8.6%8.1%8.7%8.2%8.6%8.0%7.7%8.2%7.6%7.9%
Government postdoctorates15624533632728644437352951443210571111143711801050
0.5%0.6%0.8%0.7%0.5%0.8%0.6%0.8%0.7%0.6%1.4%1.4%1.6%1.2%1.1%
Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)2,3032,6243,0293,5513,7783,9094,0824,1994,3635,3033,3563,0283,7284,0054,213
6.7%6.6%7.0%7.3%7.1%6.9%6.6%6.4%6.2%7.4%4.4%3.8%4.2%4.2%4.2%
Other-sector postdoctorates236431407552525748961648671681721762874866620
0.7%1.1%0.9%1.1%1.0%1.3%1.6%1.0%1.0%0.9%0.9%1.0%1.0%0.9%0.6%
Doctorates with federal research support19,84122,15223,88426,18326,64029,43927,37738,17140,65538,49029,26131,51334,67841,70742,012
57.7%55.9%55.0%53.9%49.9%52.1%44.3%58.0%57.6%53.5%38.3%39.9%39.2%43.5%41.9%

TABLE E-3Characteristics of Doctorates in the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 1973–2003

19701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983198419851986
Total doctorates2,6833,0943,2203,4333,6613,8354,0474,0984,0824,1204,0154,3394,0234,2634,1413,9643,979
Males2,0792,3522,3912,4522,5492,6112,7332,6342,5542,4452,3152,4612,2402,2652,0871,9931,962
Females6047428299811,1121,2241,3141,4641,5281,6751,7001,8781,7831,9982,0541,9712,017
Citizens2,4582,8122,9283,1283,2313,4613,7223,7243,6763,7283,6303,9353,6003,7993,6623,4873,426
Permanent residents78889689859285929592988582907591108
Temporary residents121150140157165214183167152161152173151182190179185
Unknown264456591806857115159139135146190192214207260
Minorities031184115172202234235266244256269271272261278
Postdoctoral training
Postdoctoral fellowship194188189196193227298322349336380389339403396427438
Postdoctoral research5967678484106100114120127118146134132135133139
Postdoctoral traineeship22433635495851759878911049510410997101
Other training2140375264618574726361765669594963
Total postdoctorates296338329367390452534585639604650715624708699706741
Percent planning11%11%10%11%11%12%13%14%16%15%16%17%16%17%17%18%19%
Employment2,2422,5262,5902,8092,8823,0953,2093,1473,0143,1793,0683,3113,0633,1913,0962,9102,837
Other4970876880688366755355656060425554
Ph.D. with plans2,5872,9343,0063,2443,3523,6153,8263,7983,7283,8363,7734,0913,7473,9593,8373,6713,632
Time to degree6666.176.256.256.336.596.8377.257.57.9288.178.58.59
Registered time to degree5.595.55.585.675.675.755.925.9666.256.426.596.9177.167.257.25
Age at time of degree29.6629.5829.7530.0830.0830.2530.2530.5830.5931.1631.3331.9232.0832.532.7533.0833.58
19871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003
Total doctorates3,9883,8443,9754,0644,0874,0804,2894,1854,1624,2244,3714,4814,4664,5074,2304,0644,139
Males1,9121,7491,7961,7451,6241,7451,7201,6711,6061,5551,5651,5951,5961,5951,4751,4111,411
Females2,0762,0952,1792,3192,4632,3352,5692,5142,5562,6692,8062,8862,8702,9082,7512,6492,724
Citizens3,3523,2323,2213,4973,5603,4903,7023,6233,5873,6443,6083,7573,7973,8213,5483,4003,426
Permanent residents1111079510712413214615517717015114211913511411397
Temporary residents180194244267296334329311303307292315265310276265323
Unknown345312415193112133123104101111360285301241292286293
Minorities255266267320339321349340394419428494534545537544553
Postdoctoral training
Postdoctoral fellowship413414432480568585684676725700713860912919903895942
Postdoctoral research174173124149155150170187195193192211197203234199228
Postdoctoral traineeship65758810475927787918661745681717170
Other training6453595151537558558422309757615372
Total postdoctorates7167157037848498801,0061,0081,0661,0639881,1751,2621,2601,2691,2181,312
Percent planning18%19%18%19%21%22%24%24%26%25%23%26%28%28%30%30%37%
Employment2,7852,6882,7202,8422,8342,7842,8882,7802,6462,6752,5642,4882,5112,6322,4082,3342,212
Other5450556549626962778311211475115938071
Ph.D. with plans3,5553,4533,4783,6913,7323,7263,9633,8503,7893,8213,6643,7773,8484,0073,7703,6323,595
Time to degree8.678.929.009.009.009.099.008.918.928.758.968.928.918.758.919.009.00
Registered time to degree7.337.587.597.757.677.597.507.507.507.507.507.507.417.507.597.597.59
Age at time of degree33.7534.3334.3334.4234.6634.6734.5834.1734.2533.8333.4233.243332.8432.7532.7532.82

TABLE E-4Employment Characteristics of Behavioral and Social Sciences Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001

197319751977197919811983198519871989199119931995199719992001
Total employed in S&E74,57034,36039,23745,53251,74358,45864,6166885274,57075,42081,12684,40891,66295,90999,154
100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%
Minority5208421,0661,5172,0592,5462,89731663,7134,5424,9435,6096,4827,0458,534
0.7%2.5%2.7%3.3%4.0%4.4%4.5%4.6%5.0%6.0%6.1%6.6%7.1%7.3%8.6%
Citizens and permanent residents26,99833,97838,91244,86351,49058,12964,4006876174,34875,17880,89484,20091,33395,53198,725
36.2%98.9%99.2%98.5%99.5%99.4%99.7%99.9%99.7%99.7%99.7%99.8%99.6%99.6%99.6%
Temporary residents10717212236916824715659194164190195329378429
0.1%0.5%0.3%0.8%0.3%0.4%0.2%0.1%0.3%0.2%0.2%0.2%0.4%0.4%0.4%
Total academics181782233324287269722999532267349853491136961332803761739905437364540247206
24.4%65.0%61.9%59.2%58.0%55.2%54.1%50.7%49.6%44.1%46.4%47.3%47.7%47.3%47.6%
Faculty with rank appointments17,09519,91721,38323,88825,36427,44229,0792867830,23926,85229,40230,78732,94133,83734,491
22.9%58.0%54.5%52.5%49.0%46.9%4.5%41.7%40.6%35.6%36.2%36.5%35.9%35.3%34.8%
Tenured faculty3,56011,60613,13914,81216,98219,30219,8331876120,04118,20119,85820,72022,26622,03222,196
4.8%33.8%33.5%32.5%32.8%33.0%30.7%27.2%26.9%24.1%24.5%24.5%24.3%23.0%22.4%
Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)13,5358,3118,2445,3365,2044,9635,62349895,3795,4005,9565,9916,0326,3646,510
18.2%24.2%21.0%11.7%10.1%8.5%8.7%7.2%7.2%7.2%7.3%7.1%6.6%6.6%6.6%
Academic postdoctorates2054815948367757989016649934165341,3291,6411,4581,543
0.3%1.4%1.5%1.8%1.5%1.4%1.4%1.0%1.3%0.6%0.7%1.6%1.8%1.5%1.6%
Other academic appointments8789151,0703,1413,8564,0275,00555695,7296,0127,6817,7899,15410,13611,194
1.2%2.7%2.7%6.9%7.5%6.9%7.7%8.1%7.7%8.0%9.5%9.2%10.0%10.6%11.3%
Industry (nonpostdoctorate)2,6823,6664,8836,6959,35712,89115,4691762119,99823,99527,23627,34828,73531,31832,561
3.6%10.7%12.4%14.7%18.1%22.1%23.9%25.6%26.8%31.8%33.6%32.4%31.3%32.7%32.8%
Industrial postdoctorates004004801452050151462211201
0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.1%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.1%0.2%0.5%0.2%0.2%
Government (nonpostdoctorate)2,6802,6033,2163,7183,9384,6274,63253905,5575,5658,8679,3109,6929,6969,877
3.6%7.6%8.2%8.2%7.6%7.9%7.2%7.8%7.5%7.4%10.9%11.0%10.6%10.1%10.0%
Government postdoctorates22155349888522511184147176267210165
0.0%0.0%0.1%0.1%0.2%0.1%0.0%0.1%0.0%0.1%0.2%0.2%0.3%0.2%0.2%
Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)3,6475,6096,4317,6008,1348,2999,2051056111,69711,8657,1297,4238,5578,8048,960
4.9%16.3%16.4%16.7%15.7%14.2%14.2%15.3%15.7%15.7%8.8%8.8%9.3%9.2%9.0%
Other-sector postdoctorates11391151180125201177158166668095213268184
0.2%0.3%0.4%0.4%0.2%0.3%0.3%0.2%0.2%0.1%0.1%0.1%0.2%0.3%0.2%
Doctorates with federal research support10,88112,96513,79015,21315,68916,64813,6512186423,83120,90212,68615,38516,30820,48722,549
14.6%37.7%35.1%33.4%30.3%28.5%21.1%31.8%32.0%27.7%15.6%18.2%17.8%21.4%22.7%

TABLE E-5Characteristics of Doctorates in the Clinical Sciences, 1973–2003

19701971197219731974197519761977197819791980198119821983198419851986
Total doctorates273329306323339340357385387432464524575526621619677
Males218271245249252233248266256271273303319249262244259
Females5558617487107109119131161191221256277359375418
Citizens210263219250239258273296305339370429457401492458489
Permanent residents1920403437353241263932333330363230
Temporary residents3730293133354042383753486470668593
Unknown716188301212618179142125274465
Minorities030811121422152214193023343132
Postdoctoral training
Postdoctoral fellowship2221372716293944315058455437645548
Postdoctoral research77171926131624212427302921222938
Postdoctoral traineeship233.1123334563627
Other training75912767771416197812316
Total postdoctoral3836665850496478629110599966910489109
Percent planning14%11%22%18%15%14%18%20%16%21%23%19%17%13%17%14%16%
Employment201247200225224255264269285297332388435398465461478
Other698101078741261014151069
Ph.D. with plans245292274293284311336354351400443497545482579556596
Time to degree6.596.216.426.346.7576.636.57.096.927.177.677.57.928.178.838.91
Registered time to degree5.255.755.425.595.835.925.755.866.0866.296.176.596.756.877.00
Age at time of degree31.2129.9630.3330.5930.6731.8331.5830.7531.6731.753232.3732.8734.0834.3335.5835.92
19871988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003
Total doctorates699788881840950102211001208122512371354142513381527155815791574
Males290302313322333363396420456435469474480518566510528
Females409486568518617659704788769802885951858100798110691039
Citizens52757365663070673980389785786591110039251070103610581115
Permanent residents33382934584863911028777858174766360
Temporary residents84108118145161213202214236253256266250275293300299
Unknown556978312930441541411267792108153158100
Minorities385038415649797090838597105116112106137
Postdoctoral training
Postdoctoral fellowship6471608579111107156138136131145137139190201219
Postdoctoral research2739385140445043707075667065857490
Postdoctoral traineeship4961251291111710101814111224
Other training14141217172519161726993826211636
Total postdoctoral109133116165141192185226236239225230263244307303369
Percent planning16%17%13%20%15%19%17%19%19%19%17%16%20%16%20%19%26%
Employment5065616595897257468208408508559109439061095101710241019
Other1614111416121415233030482437264938
Ph.D. with plans63170878676888295010191081110911241165122111931376135013761426
Time to degree9.009.009.089.599.179.929.639.509.919.7510.0910.5010.0010.0010.0010.7510.00
Registered time to degree7.007.007.177.257.257.337.757.427.507.637.928.007.757.927.598.007.92
Age at time of degree35.9236.4236.7537.1737.8337.7538.4237.7938.0838.4638.5838.2537.2438.3336.9238.1737.08

TABLE E-6Employment Characteristics of Clinical Sciences Doctorates from U.S. Institutions, 1973–2001

197319751977197919811983198519871989199119931995199719992001
Total employed in S&E2,6823,4753,7484,4895,3126,0037,1887,6698,7369,50610,74811,99614,06915,26817,180
100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%
Minority951321461831982502733425335747608991,0921,3471,497
3.5%3.8%3.9%4.1%3.7%4.2%3.8%4.5%6.1%6.0%7.1%7.5%7.8%8.8%8.7%
Citizens and permanent residents2,5223,3203,5854,2665,2615,9867,1067,6148,6699,42210,57311,93813,87514,93316,822
94.0%95.5%95.7%95.0%99.0%99.7%98.9%99.3%99.2%99.1%98.4%99.5%98.6%97.8%97.9%
Temporary residents6983861334487955538417558194335358
2.6%2.4%2.3%3.0%0.8%0.1%1.1%0.7%0.6%0.9%1.6%0.5%1.4%2.2%2.1%
Total academics1,4781,8562,0642,5642,9633,2253,9384,1644,6005,0655,8276,6847,6098,8559,730
55.1%53.4%55.1%57.1%55.8%53.7%54.8%54.3%52.7%53.3%54.2%55.7%54.1%58.0%56.6%
Faculty with rank appointments1,3591,6151,7742,2592,6422,9223,4133,6754,0464,4025,0845,7056,3257,3748,124
50.7%46.5%47.3%50.3%49.7%48.7%47.5%47.9%46.3%46.3%47.3%47.6%45.0%48.3%47.3%
Tenured faculty2769311,0311,2711,4241,5161,9681,9601,9252,1562,3412,7703,0813,5073,647
10.3%26.8%27.5%28.3%26.8%25.3%27.4%25.6%22.0%22.7%21.8%23.1%21.9%23.0%21.2%
Tenure-track faculty (not tenured)1,0836847435657809211,0029311,4241,3391,7841,9881,8782,1382,384
40.4%19.7%19.8%12.6%14.7%15.3%13.9%12.1%16.3%14.1%16.6%16.6%13.3%1.4%13.9%
Academic postdoctorates401071081051391001779099169144342416324321
1.5%3.1%2.9%2.3%2.6%1.7%2.5%1.2%1.1%1.8%1.3%2.9%3.0%2.1%1.9%
Other academic appointments79781042311822033483994554945996378681,1571,285
2.9%2.2%2.8%5.1%3.4%3.4%4.8%5.2%5.2%5.2%5.6%5.3%6.2%7.6%7.5%
Industry (nonpostdoctorate)5367397339921,2591,4851,7931,9402,3412,5302,8692,9233,5683,7314,413
20.0%21.3%19.6%22.1%23.7%24.7%24.9%25.3%26.8%26.6%26.7%24.4%25.4%24.4%25.7%
Industrial postdoctorates00000851434417491021
0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.1%0.1%0.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.1%0.3%0.1%0.1%
Government (nonpostdoctorate)3834914624465275856897451,0349461,1441,3091,4671,2501,604
14.3%14.1%12.3%9.9%9.9%9.7%9.6%9.7%11.8%10.0%10.6%10.9%10.4%8.2%9.3%
Government postdoctorates59811353414818067101475030
0.2%0.3%0.2%0.2%0.7%0.6%0.2%0.1%0.2%0.0%0.6%0.8%0.3%0.3%0.2%
Other sectors (nonpostdoctorate)2573584374224895857247477178908169361,3111,3491,339
9.6%10.3%11.7%9.4%9.2%9.7%10.1%9.7%8.2%9.4%7.6%7.8%9.3%8.8%7.8%
Other-sector postdoctorates23221814126025138102126182343
0.9%0.6%0.5%0.3%0.2%1.0%0.3%0.2%0.1%0.1%0.2%0.2%0.1%0.2%0.3%
Doctorates with federal research support1,4161,8041,8362,0412,1792,4162,3073,2723,8964,1253,0163,3233,8495,1725,822
52.8%51.9%49.0%45.5%41.0%40.2%32.1%42.7%44.6%43.4%28.1%27.7%27.4%33.9%33.9%
Copyright © 2005, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK22612

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