Figure 2. Candidate autocrine growth factors for NPC cells.

Figure 2

Candidate autocrine growth factors for NPC cells. In a fraction of NPC tumors, there is co-expression of SCF (stem cell factor) and its receptor c-kit with a potential growth-promoting effect.62,63 CCL20 is a chemokine abundantly produced by NPC cells which is suspected to enhance their migration and invasion (the involvement of the CCR6 receptor has not been yet proven).53 EBERs are small untranslated viral RNAs which are very abundant in the nuclei of NPC cells. A fraction of them is released in the cytoplasm and the extra-cellular medium where they can activate the TLR-3 and RIG-1 receptors.68 EBERs induce IGF-1 production in epithelial cells possibly through RIG1 stimulation whereas IGF-1 enhances malignant cell survival and proliferation.69 A growth promoting effect of the BARF1 protein is also suspected.66,67

From: Cellular Interactions in Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas

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