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Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.

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Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition.

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Figure 11-33. Proposed mechanism for the transport of “cargo” proteins containing a leucine-rich nuclear-export signal (NES) from the nucleus to the cytosol.

Figure 11-33Proposed mechanism for the transport of “cargo” proteins containing a leucine-rich nuclear-export signal (NES) from the nucleus to the cytosol

In the nucleoplasm, the protein exportin 1 binds cooperatively to the NES of the cargo protein to be transported and to Ran · GTP. After the resulting cargo complex passes through a nuclear pore complex (NPC), RanGAP, localized to the cytoplasm, stimulates conversion of Ran · GTP to Ran · GDP. The accompanying conformational change in Ran leads to dissociation of the complex. The NES-containing cargo protein is left free in the cytosol, while exportin 1 and Ran · GDP are transported back into the nucleus through NPCs. RCC1, localized to the nucleus, stimulates conversion of Ran · GDP to Ran  · GTP. Repetition of this cycle leads to export of multiple molecules of the cargo protein. [Adapted from M. Ohno et al., 1998, Cell 92:327.]

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