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Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.

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Cover of Molecular Cell Biology

Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition.

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Table 15-1Typical Ion Concentrations in Invertebrates and Vertebrates

K+400 20
Na+ 50440
Cl40 – 150560
Ca2+ 0.0003 10
X−†300 – 4005 – 10
K+139 4
Na+ 12145
Cl 4116
HCO3 12 29
X138 9
Mg2+ 0.8 1.5
Ca2+<0.0002 1.8

The large nerve axon of the squid, an invertebrate cell, has been widely used in studies of the mechanism of conduction of electric impulses.

X represents proteins, which have a net negative charge at the neutral pH of blood and cells.


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