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Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.

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Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition.

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Figure 19-34. The stages of mitosis and cytokinesis in an animal cell.

Figure 19-34The stages of mitosis and cytokinesis in an animal cell

(Morphological types of chromosomes are distinguished by color.) (a) Interphase: The G2 stage of inter-phase immediately precedes the beginning of mitosis and follows chromosomal DNA replication during the S phase. The chromosomes, each containing a sister chromatid, are still dispersed and not visible as distinct structures. During interphase, the centrioles also are replicated, forming small daughter centrioles. (b) Early prophase: The centrosomes, each with a daughter centriole, begin moving toward opposite poles of the cell. The chromosomes can be seen as long threads, and the nuclear membrane begins to disaggregate into small vesicles. (c) Middle and late prophase: Chromosome condensation is completed; each visible chromosome structure is composed of two chromatids held together at their centromeres. The microtubular spindle fibers begin to radiate from the regions just adjacent to the centrosomes, which are moving closer to their poles. Some spindle fibers reach from pole to pole; most go to chromatids and attach at kinetochores. (d) Metaphase: The chromosomes move toward the equator of the cell, where they become aligned in the equatorial plane. The sister chromatids have not yet separated. This is the phase in which morphological studies of chromosomes are usually carried out. (e) Anaphase: The two sister chromatids separate into independent chromosomes. Each contains a centromere that is linked by a spindle fiber to one pole, to which it moves. Simultaneously, the cell elongates, as do the pole-to-pole spindles. Cytokinesis begins as the cleavage furrow starts to form. (f) Telophase: New nuclear membranes form around the daughter nuclei; the chromosomes uncoil and become less distinct; and the nucleolus becomes visible again. Cytokinesis is nearly complete, and the spindle disappears as the microtubules and other fibers depolymerize. Throughout mitosis the “daughter” centriole at each pole grows, so that by telophase each of the emerging daughter cells has two full-length centrioles. Upon the completion of cytokinesis, each daughter cell enters the G1 phase of the cell cycle and proceeds again around the cycle.

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