NCBI Bookshelf. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

  • By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.
Cover of Modern Genetic Analysis

Modern Genetic Analysis

, , , and .

Author Information
New York: W. H. Freeman; .
ISBN-10: 0-7167-3118-5

Excerpt

Modern Genetic Analysis was written for instructors and students who need a textbook that supports the “DNA first” approach. This departure from the traditional historical unfolding of genetics has had some significant side effects—chief among them, a more streamlined presentation in which genetic principles stand in bolder relief.

Regardless of whether the presentation is traditional or modern, it is essential that students learn to think like geneticists. Thus, as in An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, the focus is on teaching students to analyze data and draw conclusions.

Contents

  • Preface
  • Supplements
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1. Genetics and the Organism
    • Introduction
    • Genetics and Human Affairs
      • Modern Society Depends on Genetics
      • Genetics Is a Crucial Component of Medicine
      • Genetics Affects One’s World View
    • Genetics and Biology
    • Genetics begins with Variation
    • Experimental Genetics
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • General Questions
  • Chapter 2. The Structure of Genes and Genomes
    • Introduction
    • The Nature of DNA
      • The Three Roles of DNA
      • The Building Blocks of DNA
      • DNA Is a Double Helix
      • DNA Structure Reflects Its Function
    • The Nature of Genes
      • The Main Regions of a Gene
      • Genes Are Surrounded by Other DNA
    • The Nature of Genomes
      • Genome Size
      • Plasmid Genomes
      • Organellar DNA
      • Viral Genomes
      • Prokaryotic Genomes
      • Eukaryotic Nuclear Genomes
    • The Nature of Eukaryotic Nuclear Chromosomes
      • Visible Chromosomal Landmarks
      • Three-Dimensional Structure of Nuclear Chromosomes
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 3. Gene Function
    • Introduction
    • Genes and RNA
      • Properties of RNA
      • Classes of RNA
    • Making Functional Transcripts
      • Transcription Uses One DNA Strand as Template
      • RNA Polymerases
      • Initiation
      • Elongation
      • Termination
      • RNA Processing in Eukaryotes
    • Protein Structure
    • Translation
      • A Codon Is Translated into an Amino Acid by a tRNA with Complementary Sequence
      • Ribosomes Are Protein Factories
    • Protein Function and Malfunction in Cells
      • Enzyme Function
      • Malfunctioning Alleles
    • Defective Proteins and Dominance And Recessiveness
    • Functional Division of Labor in the Gene Set
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 4. The Inheritance of Genes
    • DNA Replication
      • Semiconservative Replication
      • The Polymerization Process
      • Origins of Replication
    • Cell Division
      • Asexual Cell Division
      • Sexual Cell Division
    • Inheritance Patterns of Individual Genes
      • Crosses
      • Autosomal and Sex-Linked Genes
    • Human Pedigree Analysis
      • Autosomal Recessive Disorders
      • Autosomal Dominant Disorders
      • X-Linked Recessive Disorders
      • X-Linked Dominant Disorders
      • Calculating Risks in Pedigree Analysis
    • Inheritance of Organelle Genes
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
      • Pattern Recognition Problems
  • Chapter 5. Recombination of Genes
    • Introduction
    • Independent Assortment
      • Testcross of a Dihybrid
      • Self of a Dihybrid
      • Calculating Phenotypic and Genotypic Ratios for Independently Assorting Genes
    • Crossing-Over
    • Linkage Maps
      • Mapping Using a Trihybrid Testcross
      • Interference
      • Examples of Linkage Maps
      • The χ2 Test
    • Mitotic Crossing-Over
    • The Mechanism of Crossing-Over
    • Recombination within a Gene
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
      • Pattern Recognition Problems
  • Chapter 6. Gene Interaction
    • From Genes to Phenotypes
    • A Diagnostic Test for Alleles
    • Interactions Between the Alleles of One Gene
      • Incomplete Dominance
      • Codominance
      • Lethal Alleles
    • Gene Interaction Leads to Modified Dihybrid Ratios
      • Interacting Genes in Different Pathways
      • Interacting Genes in the Same Pathway
      • Suppressors
      • Coat Color in a Mammalian Model, the Mouse
    • Penetrance and Expressivity
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
      • Pattern Recognition Problems
  • Chapter 7. Gene Mutations
    • Introduction
    • The Molecular Basis of Mutation
      • Changes at the DNA Level
      • Mechanisms of Mutation Induction
      • Mechanisms of Spontaneous Mutation
      • Biological Repair Mechanisms
    • Mutational Analysis
      • Somatic versus Germinal Mutation
      • Forward and Reverse Mutation
      • Mutant Phenotypes
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 8. Chromosome Mutations
    • Introduction
    • Changes in Chromosome Number
      • Aberrant Euploidy
      • Aneuploidy
    • Chromosomal Rearrangements
      • Inversions
      • Reciprocal Translocations
      • Applications of Inversions and Translocations
      • Deletions
      • Duplications
    • The Overall Incidence of Human Chromosome Mutations
    • Evolution of the Genome
      • Chromosomal Polymorphism
      • Chromosomal Changes and Speciation
      • Chromosomal Synteny
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 9. The Genetics of Bacteria and Phages
    • Introduction
    • Working with Microorganisms
      • Phenotypes
      • Selective Systems
    • Bacterial Conjugation
      • The Remarkable Properties of the F Plasmid
      • Recombination between Donor and Recipient DNA
      • Mapping by Interrupted Conjugation
      • High-Resolution Mapping by Recombinant Frequency
      • F Factors Carrying Bacterial Genes
    • Bacterial Transformation
    • Bacteriophage Genetics
      • Infection of Bacteria by Phages
      • The Phage Cross
      • Lysogeny
      • Phage Integration
    • Transduction
      • Determining Linkage from Transduction
    • Bacterial Gene Transfer in Review
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
      • Pattern Recognition Problem
  • Chapter 10. Recombinant DNA Technology
    • Introduction
    • Making Recombinant DNA
      • Isolating DNA
      • Cutting DNA
      • Joining DNA
      • Amplifying Recombinant DNA
    • Cloning a Specific Gene
      • Choosing a Cloning Vector
      • Making a DNA Library
      • Finding Specific Clones by Using Probes
      • Finding Specific Clones by Functional Complementation
      • Positional Cloning
      • Cloning a Gene by Tagging
    • Using Cloned DNA
      • Cloned DNA Used as a Probe
      • Probing to Find a Specific Nucleic Acid in a Mixture
      • DNA Sequence Determination
      • Detecting and Amplifying Sequences by the Polymerase Chain Reaction
      • Locating Genes on Restriction Maps
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
      • cDNA Map
      • Genomic DNA Map
      • Autoradiogram of
      • Southern Blots of Complete Digest
      • Child 1
      • Child 2
  • Chapter 11. Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology
    • Introduction
    • In Vitro Mutagenesis
    • RFLP Mapping
    • Reverse Genetics
    • Expressing Eukaryotic Genes in Bacteria
    • Recombinant DNA Technology in Eukaryotes
      • Transgenic Eukaryotes
      • Genetic Engineering in Baker’s Yeast
      • Genetic Engineering in Plants
      • Genetic Engineering in Animals
    • Gene Therapy
      • Human Gene Therapy
    • Using Recombinant DNA to Detect Disease Alleles Directly
      • Alteration of Restriction Site by Mutation
      • Probing for Altered Sequences
      • PCR Tests
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 12. Genomics
    • Introduction
    • Structural Genomics
      • Sequence Organization
      • Assigning Loci to Specific Chromosomes
      • High-Resolution Chromosome Maps
      • Physical Mapping of Genomes
      • Genome Sequencing
      • Using Genome Maps in Genetic Analysis
    • Functional Genomics
      • Characterization of the Proteome by Open Reading Frame Analysis
      • Gene Disruption: Knockouts
      • The Study of Gene Interactions by Suppressor Analysis
      • The Study of Gene Interactions by the Yeast Two-Hybrid System
      • The Study of Developmental Regulation by Using DNA Chips
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 13. Transposable Genetic Elements
    • Introduction
    • Insertion Sequences
      • Physical Demonstration of DNA Insertion
      • Direct Visualization of Inserted DNA
      • Identification of Discrete IS Elements
      • Orientation of IS Elements
    • Transposons
      • Physical Structure of Transposons
      • Movement of Transposons
    • Mechanism of Transposition
      • Replicative Transposition
      • Conservative Transposition
      • Molecular Consequences of Transposition
    • Rearrangements Mediated by Transposable Elements
    • Review of Transposable Elements in Prokaryotes
    • Ty Elements in Yeast
    • Transposable Elements in Drosophila
      • Copia-like Elements
      • FB Elements
      • P Elements
    • Retroviruses
    • Transposition through an RNA Intermediate
    • Controlling Elements in Maize
      • McClintock’s Experiments: The Ds Element
      • The wx (waxy) Locus
      • General Characteristics of Controlling Elements
    • Review of Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 14. Regulation of Gene Transcription
    • Introduction
    • The Logic of Prokaryotic Gene Regulation
    • The Basics of Prokaryotic Transcriptional Regulation
    • Regulation of the Lactose System
      • A First Look at the lac Regulatory Circuit
      • The lac Structural Genes
      • Regulatory Components of the Lac System
      • The lac Operon: Assaying the Presence or Absence of Lactose through the Lac Repressor
      • Catabolite Repression of the lac Operon: Choosing the Best Sugar to Metabolize
      • Genetic Aspects of the lac Operon Model
      • Techniques for Mutational Analysis
      • Results of Genetic Analysis
      • Genetic Evidence for Allostery
      • Genetic Analysis of the lac Promoter
      • The Structures of Target DNA Sites
      • A Summary of the lac Operon
    • Dual Positive And Negative Control: the Arabinose Operon
    • Metabolic Pathways
    • Transcription: Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes— an Overview
      • Cis-Acting Sequences in Transcriptional Regulation
      • The Core Promoter and Promoter-Proximal Elements
      • Distance-Independent Cis-Acting Elements
      • Mechanisms for Action at a Distance
      • Trans Control of Transcription
      • Tissue-Specific Regulation of Transcription
      • Properties of Tissue-Specific Enhancers
      • Dissecting Eukaryotic Regulatory Elements
      • Using Reporter Genes to Find Enhancers
      • Regulatory Elements and Dominant Mutations
    • Regulation of Transcription Factors
      • Steroid Hormones: Linking Enhancers to the Physiology of the Organism
      • Structure of Regulatory Proteins
    • Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Paramutation
      • Parental Imprinting
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problems
    • Problems
  • Chapter 15. Regulation of Cell Number: Normal and Cancer Cells
    • Introduction
    • Cancer and the Control of Cell Number: an Overview
      • The machinery of cell proliferation
      • The machinery of cell death
      • Linking cell proliferation and death to the environment
    • The Cell Proliferation Machinery
      • The Cell Cycle
      • Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinases
      • CDK Targets
    • The Machinery or Programmed Cell Death
      • The Apoptosis Pathway
      • Caspases
    • Controlling the Cell Proliferation and Death Machinery
      • Intracellular Signals
      • Extracellular Signals
      • An Integrated View of the Control of Cell Numbers
    • Cancer: the Genetics of Aberrant Cell Control
      • How Cancer Cells Differ from Normal Cells
      • Evidence for the Genetic Origin of Cancers
      • Mutations in Cancer Cells
      • Classes of Oncogenes
      • Types of Oncogene Mutations
      • Classes of Tumor-Suppressor Genes
      • Inheritance of the Tumor Phenotype
      • The p53 Tumor-Suppressor Gene: A Link between the Cell Cycle and Apoptosis
      • The Complexities of Cancer
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 16. The Genetic Basis of Development
    • Introduction
    • Central Themes of Developmental Genetics
      • The Logic of Building the Body Plan
      • The Major Decisions in Building the Embryo
      • Applying Regulatory Mechanisms to Developmental Decisions
    • Binary Fate Decisions: Pathways of Sex Determination
    • Drosophila Sex Determination: Every Cell for Itself
      • Phenotypic Consequences of Different X Chromosome to Autosome Ratios
      • The Basics of the Regulatory Pathway
      • The Regulatory Switch
    • Sex Determination in Mammals: Coordinated Control by the Endocrine System
      • Mammalian Reproductive Development and Endocrine Organ Control
      • Setting the Switch in the On or Off Position
    • Binary Fate Decisions: the Germ Line Versus the Soma
      • The Cytoskeleton of the Cell
      • The Intrinsic Asymmetry of Cytoskeletal Filaments
      • Localizing Determinants through Cytoskeletal Asymmetries: The Germ Line
    • Forming Complex Pattern: Establishing Positional Information
      • Cytoskeletal Asymmetries and the Drosophila Anterior– Posterior Axis
      • Cell–Cell Signaling and the Drosophila Dorsal–Ventral Axis
      • The Two Classes of Positional Information
    • Forming Complex Pattern: Utilizing Positional Information to Establish Cell Fates
      • The Initial Interpretation of Positional Information
      • Refining Fate Assignments through Transcription Factor Interactions
      • A Cascade of Regulatory Events
    • Additional Aspects of Pattern Formation
      • Memory Systems for Remembering Cell Fate
      • Ensuring That All Fates Are Allocated: Decisions by Committee
      • Developmental Pathways Are Composed of Plug and Play Modules
    • The Many Parallels in Vertebrate and Insect Pattern Formation
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 17. Population and Evolutionary Genetics
    • Darwin’s Revolution
    • Variation and its Modulation
      • Observations of Variation
      • DNA Sequence Polymorphism
      • Variation within and between Populations
      • Quantitative Variation
    • The Effect of Sexual Reproduction on Variation
    • The Sources of Variation
      • Variation from Mutations
      • Variation from Recombination
      • Variation from Migration
      • The Origin of New Functions
      • Inbreeding and Assortative Mating
      • The Balance between Inbreeding and New Variation
    • Selection
      • Fitness and the Struggle for Existence
      • Two Forms of the Struggle for Existence
      • Measuring Fitness Differences
      • How Selection Works
      • The Rate of Change of Gene Frequency
    • Balanced Polymorphism
    • Multiple Adaptive Peaks
    • Artificial Selection
    • Random Events
    • A Synthesis of Forces
      • Variation and Divergence of Populations
      • The Exploration of Adaptive Peaks
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Chapter 18. Quantitative Genetics
    • Introduction
    • Some Basic Statistical Notions
      • Distributions
      • Statistical Measures
    • Genotypes and Phenotypic Distribution
    • Norm of Reaction and Phenotypic Distribution
    • Determining Norms of Reaction
    • The Heritability of a Trait
      • Familiality and Heritability
      • Phenotypic Similarity between Relatives
    • Quantifying Heritability
      • Methods of Estimating H2
      • The Meaning of H2
    • Locating the Genes
      • Marker Gene Segregation
      • Linkage Analysis
    • More on Analyzing Variance
      • Additive and Dominance Variance
      • Estimating Genetic Variance Components
      • The Use of h2 in Breeding
    • Summary
    • Concept Map
    • Statistical Appendix to Chapter 18
    • Measures of Central Tendency
      • The mode
      • The mean
    • Measures of Dispersion: The Variance
    • Measures of Relationship
    • Covariance and correlation
      • Correlation and equality
      • Regression
      • Samples and populations
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Solved Problem
    • Problems
  • Glossary
  • Further Readings

By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.

Copyright © 1999, W. H. Freeman and Company.
Bookshelf ID: NBK21248

Views

Related information

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...