Table 70Hypertension and elevated blood pressure among persons 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and Hispanic origin, and poverty level: United States, 1988–1994 and 2001–2004
[Data are based on interviews and physical examinations of a sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population]
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Hypertension 2,3 Elevated blood pressure 2
Sex, age, race and Hispanic origin1, and poverty level 1988–1994 2001–2004 1988–1994 2001–2004
20–74 years, age-adjusted4Percent of population
Both sexes521.726.715.415.9
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White only, male22.626.017.314.9
 White only, female18.424.111.214.1
 Black or African American only, male34.337.827.925.1
 Black or African American only, female35.040.323.524.0
Mexican male23.422.119.114.9
Mexican female21.025.116.516.8
Percent of poverty level:6
 Below 100%27.530.819.019.5
 100%–less than 200%22.630.115.818.7
 200% or more20.425.414.614.8
20 years and over, age-adjusted4
Both sexes525.530.918.519.0
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White only, male25.629.319.717.1
 White only, female23.
 Black or African American only, male37.541.530.327.8
 Black or African American only, female38.344.326.426.9
Mexican male26.926.122.217.8
Mexican female25.029.720.420.5
Percent of poverty level:6
 Below 100%31.735.522.523.1
 100%–less than 200%26.634.019.321.5
 200% or more23.929.417.517.7
20 years and over, crude
Both sexes524.130.817.618.7
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White only, male24.329.918.717.4
 White only, female24.632.916.420.2
 Black or African American only, male31.136.725.524.7
 Black or African American only, female32.541.622.224.4
Mexican male16.415.813.911.4
Mexican female15.919.012.712.8
Percent of poverty level:6
 Below 100%25.728.318.718.3
 100%–less than 200%26.734.619.821.6
 200% or more22.229.916.217.8
20–34 years7.
35–44 years17.
45–54 years29.235.921.923.0
55–64 years40.647.528.425.7
65–74 years54.461.739.930.2
75 years and over60.467.149.745.0
20–34 years2.9*2.7*2.4*
35–44 years11.
45–54 years23.935.213.722.3
55–64 years42.654.427.029.6
65–74 years56.272.938.248.3
75 years and over73.682.059.958.5

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Data preceded by an asterisk have a relative standard error of 20%–30%. Data not shown have an RSE greater than 30%.


Persons of Mexican origin may be of any race. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are tabulated according to the 1997 Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity and are not strictly comparable with estimates for earlier years. The two non-Hispanic race categories shown in the table conform to the 1997 Standards. Starting with 1999 data, race-specific estimates are for persons who reported only one racial group. Prior to data year 1999, estimates were tabulated according to the 1977 Standards. Estimates for single-race categories prior to 1999 included persons who reported one race or, if they reported more than one race, identified one race as best representing their race. See Appendix II, Hispanic origin; Race.


Hypertension is defined as having elevated blood pressure and/or taking antihypertensive medication. Elevated blood pressure is defined as having systolic pressure of at least 140 mmHg or diastolic pressure of at least 90 mmHg. Those with elevated blood pressure may be taking prescribed medicine for high blood pressure. See Appendix II, Blood pressure, elevated.


Respondents were asked, "Are you now taking prescribed medicine for your high blood pressure?"


Age-adjusted to the 2000 standard population using five age groups: 20–34 years, 35–44 years, 45–54 years, 55–64 years, and 65 years and over (65–74 years for estimates for 20–74 years). Age-adjusted estimates may differ from other age-adjusted estimates based on the same data and presented elsewhere if different age groups are used in the adjustment procedure. See Appendix II, Age adjustment.


Includes persons of all races and Hispanic origins, not just those shown separately.


Poverty level is based on family income and family size. Persons with unknown poverty level are excluded. See Appendix II, Family income; Poverty.

NOTES: Percents are based on the average of blood pressure measurements taken. In 2001–2004, 77% of participants had three blood pressure readings. See Health, United States, 2003, Table 66 for a longer trend based on a single blood pressure measurement, which provides comparable data across five time periods (1960–1962 through 1999–2000). Excludes pregnant women. Estimates for persons 20 years and over are used for setting and tracking Healthy People 2010 objectives. Numbers have been revised and differ from the previous edition of Health, United States. Standard errors are available in the spreadsheet version of this table. Available from: www​ Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2007
Health, United States, 2007: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2007 Nov.

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