Table 126Sources of payment for health care, by selected population characteristics: United States, selected years 1987–2003
[Data are based on household interviews of a sample of the noninstitutionalized population and a sample of medical providers]
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Source of payment for health care
Out of pocket Private insurance 1
Characteristic All sources 1987 1997 2000 2003 1987 1997 2000 2003
Percent distribution
All ages100.024.819.419.419.636.640.340.341.6
Under 65 years:
 Total100.026.221.120.320.046.653.152.554.0
  Under 6 years100.018.514.210.310.139.549.351.253.2
  6–17 years100.035.729.027.726.247.353.248.847.9
  18–44 years100.027.421.119.918.846.852.951.252.5
  45–64 years100.024.020.120.220.847.853.654.556.3
Sex
 Male100.024.521.318.118.044.650.352.253.6
 Female100.027.521.022.121.848.155.152.754.3
Hispanic origin and race2
 Hispanic or Latino100.022.018.820.517.736.142.345.841.8
 Not Hispanic or Latino:
  White100.028.221.821.722.150.155.855.159.6
  Black or African American100.015.517.111.814.230.042.340.536.8
  Other100.027.221.217.0*12.046.745.251.240.0
Insurance status
 Any private insurance3100.029.021.621.219.760.067.670.269.9
 Public insurance only4100.08.910.69.812.8. . .. . .. . .. . .
 Uninsured all year5100.040.641.340.451.8. . .. . .. . .. . .
65 years and over100.022.016.317.518.815.816.514.915.8
Sex
 Male100.021.714.214.215.217.620.116.817.3
 Female100.022.218.120.221.614.413.213.314.7
Hispanic origin and race2
 Hispanic or Latino100.0*13.513.613.914.9*4.75.98.45.1
 Not Hispanic or Latino:
  White100.023.717.018.319.516.717.915.217.0
  Black or African American100.011.211.413.615.8*11.98.89.310.2
  Other100.0***16.7****16.0
Insurance status
 Medicare only100.029.819.822.223.4. . .. . .. . .. . .
 Medicare and private insurance100.023.417.317.018.718.925.725.326.9
 Medicare and other public coverage100.0*6.25.29.110.1. . .. . .. . .. . .
Source of payment for health care
Public coverage 6 Other 7
Characteristic 1987 1997 2000 2003 1987 1997 2000 2003
Percent distribution
All ages34.134.435.433.14.55.95.05.7
Under 65 years:
 Total21.318.121.319.06.07.76.07.0
  Under 6 years35.825.433.631.06.211.24.95.7
  6–17 years11.814.120.122.45.23.73.43.5
  18–44 years19.415.721.117.36.410.37.8*11.5
  45–64 years22.420.320.218.65.86.05.24.3
Sex
 Male23.919.523.519.07.18.96.3*9.5
 Female19.217.019.519.05.26.85.74.9
Hispanic origin and race2
 Hispanic or Latino35.828.927.531.26.010.06.29.3
 Not Hispanic or Latino:
  White15.915.318.014.25.87.15.24.1
  Black or African American47.230.738.843.97.39.98.85.1
  Other21.023.719.0*15.05.19.9*12.8*33.0
Insurance status
 Any private insurance36.26.65.34.74.84.23.3*5.7
 Public insurance only487.280.784.481.43.98.75.85.8
 Uninsured all year528.67.5*21.215.130.951.138.433.1
65 years and over60.864.864.762.51.52.52.92.9
Sex
 Male58.863.466.964.8*1.92.32.22.8
 Female62.365.963.060.71.12.73.53.0
Hispanic origin and race2
 Hispanic or Latino80.277.875.678.3*1.6*2.7*2.21.6
 Not Hispanic or Latino:
  White58.062.664.160.91.62.52.42.6
  Black or African American76.377.668.370.40.62.2*8.9*3.7
  Other***58.0****9.3
Insurance status
 Medicare only68.872.472.268.21.47.75.78.4
 Medicare and private insurance56.156.357.154.01.60.6*0.60.4
 Medicare and other public coverage92.992.787.387.61.0*2.1*3.6*1.6

. . . Category not applicable.

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Estimates based on fewer than 100 sample cases or with a relative standard error of 30% or higher are not shown.

1

Private insurance includes any type of private insurance payments reported for people with private health insurance coverage during the year.

2

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Starting with 2002 data, MEPS respondents were allowed to report multiple races and these persons are included in the Other category. As a result, there is a slight increase in the percent of persons classified in the Other category in 2002 compared with prior years.

3

Includes individuals with insurance that provided coverage for hospital and physician care at any time during the year, other than Medicare, Medicaid, or other public coverage for hospital or physician services.

4

Includes individuals who were not covered by private insurance at any time during the year but were covered by Medicare, Medicaid, other public coverage for hospital or physician services, and/or CHAMPUS/CHAMPVA (TRICARE) at any point during the year.

5

Includes individuals not covered by either private or public insurance throughout the entire year or period of eligibility for the survey. However, a portion of expenses for the uninsured was paid by sources that were not defined as health insurance coverage, such as the Department of Veterans Affairs, community and neighborhood clinics, the Indian Health Service, state and local health departments, state programs other than Medicaid, Workers' Compensation, and other unclassified sources (e.g., automobile, homeowner's, liability insurance).

6

Public coverage includes payments made by Medicare, Medicaid, the Department of Veterans Affairs, other federal sources (e.g., Indian Health Service, military treatment facilities, and other care provided by the federal government), and various state and local sources (e.g., community and neighborhood clinics, state and local health departments, and state programs other than Medicaid).

7

Other sources includes Workers' Compensation, unclassified sources (automobile, homeowners', or liability insurance, and other miscellaneous or unknown sources), Medicaid payments reported for people who were not enrolled in the program at any time during the year, and any type of private insurance payments reported for people without private health insurance coverage during the year as defined in the survey.

NOTES: 1987 estimates are based on the National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES); estimates for other years are based on the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Because expenditures in NMES were based primarily on charges while those for MEPS were based on payments, data for NMES were adjusted to be more comparable to MEPS using estimated charge to payment ratios for 1987. Overall, this resulted in an approximate 11% reduction from the unadjusted 1987 NMES expenditure estimates. For a detailed explanation of this adjustment, see Zuvekas S, Cohen S. A guide to comparing health care estimates in the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey. Inquiry 2002;39(1):76–86. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Center for Cost and Financing Studies. 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey and 1996–2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2006
Health, United States, 2006: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2006 Nov.

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