Table 138B.1Risk Factors for Pediatric AML

Risk factorApproximate riskReference
Monozygotic twin1:55
CBFA2 mutationsUnknown19
Bloom syndromeUnknown94
Down syndrome1:100 to 1:20095
Familial monosomy 7Unknown96
Fanconi’s anemia1:109
Kostmann’s syndrome1:1094
Neurofibromatosis type I1:200–1:50011
Schwachman’s syndromeUnknown13
Carcinogen exposure
BenzeneOR > 1.827
Ionizing radiationOR = 2.4 (NS)28
Maternal drug useOR = 1129
Maternal ETOH useOR = 2.6–3.030, 32
Maternal smokingOR = 0.97–2.430, 31
Maternal topoisomerase inhibitor II intakeOR = 1038
Radon exposureUnder investigation3
Chemotherapy exposure
Alklyating agents1:10 to 1:5022
Topoisomerase II inhibitors1:8 to 1:8025

From: Chapter 138B, Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Cover of Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine
Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine. 5th edition.
Bast RC Jr, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al., editors.
Hamilton (ON): BC Decker; 2000.
© 2000, BC Decker Inc.

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