Table 20Infant mortality rates for mothers 20 years of age and over, according to mother's education, detailed race, and Hispanic origin: United States, selected years 1983-2002
[Data are based on linked birth and death certificates for infants]
This table has been updated since the printed book. Click here for spreadsheet version

Education, race, and Hispanic origin of mother 1983 1 1990 1 1995 2 2001 2 2002 2 1983–85 1,3 1986–88 1,3 1989–91 1,3 1997–99 2,3 2000–2002 2,3
Less than 12 years of educationInfant deaths per 1,000 live births
All mothers15.010.88.97.67.914.613.811.18.27.8
White12.59.07.66.56.712.411.49.27.16.7
Black or African American23.419.517.014.015.621.821.120.314.714.8
American Indian or Alaska Native14.514.312.712.98.615.216.813.810.210.5
Asian or Pacific Islander49.76.65.75.54.59.58.26.95.55.3
Hispanic or Latino5,610.97.36.05.15.310.69.97.55.65.2
 Mexican8.77.05.84.95.09.58.37.15.55.0
 Puerto Rican15.310.110.67.810.114.112.811.78.79.2
 Cuban*14.5*****10.5*9.4*8.2*6.4*
 Central and South American9.87.05.15.05.78.69.26.85.45.2
 Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino9.29.97.35.86.010.110.610.06.86.4
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White612.810.99.99.09.412.611.811.09.29.2
 Black or African American624.719.717.314.315.922.621.620.615.015.1
12 years of education
All mothers10.28.87.87.37.610.09.68.97.57.4
White8.77.16.46.06.38.58.07.26.16.1
Black or African American17.816.014.712.913.617.717.116.414.013.3
American Indian or Alaska Native15.513.47.99.68.813.411.612.38.88.7
Asian or Pacific Islander410.07.55.55.95.39.37.97.55.75.4
Hispanic or Latino5,68.47.05.95.15.49.18.36.85.55.2
 Mexican6.96.85.74.75.27.88.26.55.24.9
 Puerto Rican9.58.56.59.28.110.810.18.67.98.1
 Cuban*6.9*8.0***8.66.67.64.5*3.6
 Central and South American8.76.56.14.84.68.77.46.35.14.5
 Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino8.87.46.55.67.28.87.77.06.16.2
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White68.77.16.56.26.78.37.97.36.36.4
 Black or African American617.816.114.813.113.717.917.416.514.113.4
13 years or more of education
All mothers8.16.45.45.15.07.87.26.45.25.0
White7.25.44.74.34.26.96.25.54.44.2
Black or African American15.313.711.911.711.115.314.913.711.311.4
American Indian or Alaska Native12.56.85.96.77.310.48.48.17.06.9
Asian or Pacific Islander46.65.14.43.74.06.75.95.14.23.9
Hispanic or Latino5,69.05.75.04.64.57.47.05.84.84.6
 Mexican*8.35.55.24.74.77.66.45.74.94.6
 Puerto Rican10.97.36.35.95.48.16.97.86.05.9
 Cuban**5.3*5.3*4.0*3.05.55.94.23.93.9
 Central and South American*7.15.63.74.14.27.27.65.44.14.0
 Other and unknown Hispanic or Latino11.65.45.23.83.97.97.55.64.34.0
Not Hispanic or Latino:
 White67.05.44.64.34.26.86.15.44.44.2
 Black or African American614.813.712.011.811.214.714.913.811.411.5

* Estimates are considered unreliable. Rates preceded by an asterisk are based on fewer than 50 deaths. Rates not shown are based on fewer than 20 deaths.

1

Rates based on unweighted birth cohort data.

2

Rates based on a period file using weighted data. See Appendix I, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

3

Average annual mortality rate.

4

The States not reporting maternal education on the birth certificate accounted for 49–51 percent of the Asian or Pacific Islander births in the United States in 1983–87, 59 percent in 1988, and 12 percent in 1989–91. Starting in 1992 maternal education was reported by all 50 States and the District of Columbia.

5

Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

6

Prior to 1995, data shown only for States with an Hispanic-origin item and education of mother on their birth certificates. See Appendix II, Education; Hispanic origin. The Hispanic-reporting States that did not report maternal education on the birth certificate during 1983–88 together accounted for 28–85 percent of the births in each Hispanic subgroup (except Cuban, 11–16 percent, and Puerto Rican, 6–7 percent in 1983–87); and in 1989–91 accounted for 27–39 percent of Central and South American and Puerto Rican births and 2–9 percent of births in other Hispanic subgroups.

NOTES: Prior to 1995, data for all mothers and by race are shown only for States reporting education of mother on their birth certificates. See Appendix II, Education. The race groups white, black, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander include persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. National linked files do not exist for 1992–94. Data for additional years are available. See Appendix III.

SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System, Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set.

From: Trend Tables

Cover of Health, United States, 2004
Health, United States, 2004: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans.
National Center for Health Statistics (US) .
Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US); 2004 Sep.

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