Table 1Description of the 10 HMOs (data from 1999)

GHCHPHCHP*HFHS/HAPFallonKPCOKPGKPNCKPNWLHS
Year established1947196919571960197719691985194519421973
Structure, %
Group860065010001001000
Staff019330680920060
Independent Physician Association (IPA)00663532080040
Network146900000000
Point of service0700000000
Preferred provider0500000000
Total enrollment (1,000s)4601,3005704902403502582,900436240
Age, years, %
< 2435333739303337343437
24–4432343635282938312929
45–6422252520242621252423
65–741251.559103776
≥ 75112.51961225
Female, %53535252525352515253
Race/ethnicity, %
White89759171876262679458
African American4164.5242733621
Asian American553.5<13221321
Native American1<11<1<111112
Hispanic142<1816210138
Other00020120<100
Retention (1-year) of members, %888684.579-9087908485
Number of clinic sites302007263036159302011
Number of hospitals21665810315535
Number of staff physicians80113365528002604901364162668265
Number of contracted physicians2400341983676468817124811820682400
Number of primary care providers3378044289214481622072132098363525
Enrollment by product line, %
Commercial82846085708196.68873.571
Medicare1365823163.410119
Medicaid4.63.5343027.221
Self-insured19.530430006.20
Other01.62000<.1<.12.1<1

Key: GHC: GroupHealth Cooperative, HPHC: Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, HP: Health Partners (*261,000 member staff model component will participate), HFHS/HAP: Henry Ford Health System/Health Alliance Plan, Fallon: Fallon Community Health Plan, KPCO: Kaiser Permanente Colorado, KPG: Kaiser Permanente Georgia, KPNC: Kaiser Permanente Northern California, KPNW: Kaiser Permanente Northwest, LHS: Lovelace Health Systems.

From: Development of a Multipurpose Dataset to Evaluate Potential Medication Errors in Ambulatory Settings

Cover of Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation (Volume 2: Concepts and Methodology)
Advances in Patient Safety: From Research to Implementation (Volume 2: Concepts and Methodology).
Henriksen K, Battles JB, Marks ES, et al., editors.

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