TABLE C.1Description of Case-Control Studies of All Selected Cancers as Related to Exposure to Asbestos

ReferenceaPopulation Number of CasesbNumber of ControlsbRelevant Exposures Exposure Assessment Analysis; Adjustment for Potential Confounders
Ahrens et al. 1991Male laryngeal-cancer cases identified in one hospital in Bremen, Germany, in 1986 with histologic confirmation; male controls with nonneoplastic disease selected from same hospital and matched on age and residence100 laryngeal100 Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire covering lifetime occupational history with exposure checklistUnconditional logistic regression; smoking, alcohol consumption, age
Berrino et al. 2003Male cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer, less than 55 yr old, diagnosed in six European centers in 1979-1982 with histologic confirmation; controls selected from census lists, electoral rolls, or population registries and matched for sex and age215 laryngeal and 100 hypopharyngeal819 Asbestos Interview with standardized questionnaire assessing jobs held at least 1 year; job titles coded; panel of industrial hygienists and occupational physicians assessed probabilities of exposure to specific agents Unconditional logistic regression; study centre, age, tobacco-smoking, consumption of alcohol, SES, dietary variables, other agents; Boffetta et al. (2003) analyzed same study population in terms of occupation and industry
Brown et al. 1988White, male laryngeal-cancer cases, 30-79 yr old, diagnosed in 56 hospitals along Gulf Coast of Texas in 1975-1980; controls selected through Texas Department of Health mortality tapes, drivers license records, HCFA-provided Medicare records, and matched on age, vital status, ethnicity, county of residence183 laryngeal250 Asbestos Interview (self-reports or proxy) assessing lifetime occupational and residential histories, lifestyle factors, demographic characteristics; industrial hygienist classified job titles for exposure to specific agentsLogistic regression; cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption
Burch et al. 1981Laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed in southern Ontario in 1977-1979; neighborhood controls matched on sex, age 204 laryngeal(184 men and 20 women)204 Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history and lifestyle factors; self-reported agents and occupational epidemiologist classificationDiscordant pairs, RR; smoking
Cocco et al. 1994Male gastric cancer cases, 35-74 yr old, diagnosed and histologically confirmed in 1985-1987 in four areas of Italy; population controls randomly selected and matched for gender and age640 gastric959 Asbestos Interview assessing work histories (job title and duration); jobs coded and JEM applied for six specific agents Logistic regression; age, study area, residence type, migration, family gastric cancer history, quetelet index, total caloric, protein, and vitamin C intake
De Stefani et al. 1998Male laryngeal-cancer cases, 30-75 yr old, diagnosed in five hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1993-1995; cancer controls selected from same hospitals and timeframe112 laryngeal509 (for asbestos analysis, 352 excluding subjects with colorectal cancer)Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational histories and exposure to specific agents Unconditional logistic regression; age, residence, education, income, tobacco-smoking and type, alcohol consumption
Demers et al. 1994Colon and rectum cancer cases, 40-84 yr-old white males, diagnosed in 1984-1987 through the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (SEER); controls selected through RDD261 colon and rectum183 Asbestos Telephone interview assessing lifetime work, medical, and lifestyle histories; occupations and industries coded and assigned likelihoods of asbestos exposureUnconditional logistic regression; age, smoking
Dietz et al. 2004Laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery university hospitals of Heidelberg and Manheim and town hospitals of Ludwigshafen, Darmstadt and Heilbronn, Germany, in 1998-2000; population controls selected from local registries and matched on sex and age257 laryngeal(236 men and 21 women)769 (702 men and 67 women) In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history, tobacco and alcohol use; quantification using job-specific supplementary questionnaires validated for asbestosConditional logistic regression; age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption
Dumas et al. 2000Male rectal cancer cases, 35-70 yr old, diagnosed in 19 large Montreal-area hospitals in 1979-1985 and histologically confirmed for one of 19 cancer sites; frequency-matched by approximate age, population-based controls also chosen from electoral lists, RDD257 rectal1,295 cancer, 533 population Chrysotile; amphiboles In-person interviews with specific question on details of each job subject had; analyzed and coded by team of chemists and industrial hygienists (about 300 exposures) on semi-quantitative scale Unconditional logistic regression; age, education, respondent status, cigarette-smoking, beer consumption, BMI
Ekstrom et al. 1999Gastric cancer cases, 40-79 yr old, residing in one of five counties, born in Sweden, and diagnosed in 1989-1995, identified and histologically confirmed by participating clinicians from all hospitals in the study area; controls randomly selected from the population register565 gastric1,164 Asbestos In-person interview with professional interviewer; occupational epidemiologists to assess type of exposure and duration from self-reports of exposure and job titlesUnconditional logistic regression; age, sex
Elci et al. 2002Male laryngeal-cancer cases diagnosed in Oncology Treatment Center of Social Security Agency Okmeydani Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, in 1979-1984 with histologic confirmation; controls selected from same hospital, timeframe among cases of HD, cancers of skin (nonmelanoma), testis, bone, male breast as well as benign lesions940 laryngeal1,519 Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history, tobacco and alcohol use; industrial hygienist performed JEM exposure assignmentsUnconditional logistic regression; age, smoking, alcohol consumption
Fredriksson et al. 1989Colon cancer cases, 30-75 yr old, identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry among patients diagnosed in 1980-1983; cases resident of the Umea region and alive during the study’s data collection; randomly selected population controls from the National Population Register frequency-matched on age, sex329 colon(165 men and 164 women)658 (330 men and 328 women) Asbestos Mailed questionnaire assessing occupational history (job titles); telephone interviews followed if necessary; exposure to high or low grade of asbestos independently coded by two physicians and one hygienistMantel-Haenszel; age, sex, physical activity
Garabrant et al. 1992English-speaking, white, male cases of colon cancer, 45-70 yr old, diagnosed in 1983-1986, and identified through the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program; neighborhood controls matched on gender and date of birth419 colon419 Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaires assessing past 30 years of occupational exposures, physical activity and weight, medical history, family cancer history, and a modified Semiquantitative Food Frequency QuestionnaireConditional logistic regression; family history of large bowel cancer, total caloric intake, carbohydrates, calcium, weight, and physical activity
Gerhardsson de Verdier et al. 1992Colorectal-cancer cases identified through local hospitals and Regional Cancer Registry in Stockholm, Sweden in 1986-1988; cases histologically confirmed and subjects limited to those born in Sweden in 1907-1946 and lived half their lives there; population controls randomly selected from Stockholm County population registry352 colon(163 men and 189 women);217 rectal(107 men and 110 women)512 (236 men and 276 women) Asbestos Questionnaire administered in person or through mail with follow-up telephone survey; exposure to list of chemicals or employment in specified occupations determined Unconditional logistic regression; age, sex, nutritional intake markers, BMI, physical activity, family history of colorectal cancer
Goldberg et al. 2001Male cases and controls, 35-70 yr old, diagnosed in 19 large Montreal-area hospitals in 1979-1985 and histologically confirmed for one of 19 cancer sites; frequency-matched by approximate age; population-based controls also chosen from electoral lists and with RDD497 colon1,514 cancer, 533 population Asbestos In-person interviews with specific question on detail of each job subject had; analyzed and coded by team of chemists and industrial hygienists (about 300 exposures) on semi-quantitative scale Unconditional logistic regression; age, respondent status, ethnicity, non-occupational factors (such as cigarette-smoking, alcohol consumption)
Gustavsson et al. 1998Oral-cavity, oro- and hypopharyngeal-, laryngeal-, and esophageal-cancer cases among all Swedish men, 40-79 yr old, residing in two regions with reporting from departments of oncology and surgery in 1988-1990; controls randomly selected from population registers and matched on age, region545 total, including:138 pharyngeal,157 laryngeal,122 esophageal641 Asbestos Interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifestyle and environmental factors; occupational hygienist assigned exposure intensity, probability to 17 specific occupational exposuresUnconditional logistic regression; age, region, alcohol consumption, tobacco-smoking
Hardell 1981Men from Umea region, 25-85 yr old, diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of colon reported to Swedish Cancer Registry 1978-1979; controls from Umea region assembled for two previous studies were used as referents154 colon541 Asbestos Responses to mailed questionnaire on work history, chemical exposures, and lifestyle factors interpreted to determine ever-never status for asbestos exposure.Mantel-Haenszel analysis stratified on age and urban vs rural residence
Hillerdal 1980Male gastrointestinal cancer cases diagnosed in Uppsala county in 1968-1972 obtained through the Swedish Cancer Registry with chest x-rays retrieved through the General Health Survey; controls selected 3:1 based on age, sex, and year of x-ray 386 total(21 esophagus, 148 stomach, 8 small intestine, 108 large intestine, and 101 rectum)1,158 Asbestos Evidence of pleural plaques on chest x-rays regarded as indirect proof of asbestos exposureStandardized incidence ratio (observed/ expected)
Hinds et al. 1979White, male laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed in 3 counties of Washington through the Cancer Surveillance System in 1976-1977; neighborhood controls matched on sex, race, age47 laryngeal47 Asbestos In-person interview (or next-of-kin for deceased) with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history and lifestyle factorsMatched pairs, RR
Krstev et al. 2005Stomach cancer cases, 21-79 yr old, diagnosed at 22 hospitals and eight endoscopic centers in Warsaw, Poland, in 1994-1996; controls randomly selected from an electronic registry and matched on gender and age443 stomach(285 men and 158 women)479 (313 men and 166 women) Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessed lifetime occupational history and exposure to numerous specific agents Unconditional logistic regression; age, education, smoking, lifetime number of jobs held
Luce et al. 2000Cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer identified from the Cancer Registry of New Caledonia in 1993-1995 among residents living there at least 5 years and 18 years old; population controls selected from electoral rolls and matched on sex and age23 larynx(20 men and 3 women);5 hypopharynx305 total (matched also to 228 lung cancer cases, etc.) Pö, a whitewash containing tremolite asbestos In-person (or next-of-kin for deceased) interview with standardized questionnaire assessed lifetime occupational and lifestyle history and residence in whitewashed housesUnconditional logistic regression; age, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol
Marchand et al. 2000Male cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer diagnosed in 15 hospitals in six cities in France in 1989-1991; hospital, cancer controls selected315 laryngeal206 hypopharyngeal305 Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history, tobacco and alcohol use; JEM exposure assignments Unconditional logistic regression; age, smoking, alcohol consumption; Goldberg et al. (1997) analyzed same study population in terms of occupation and industry, while Menvielle et al. (2004) analyzed the occupational information from an SES perspective
Merletti et al. 1991Male oral- and oropharyngeal cancer cases, 26-92 yr old, diagnosed in Turin, Italy, in 1982- 1984; controls selected randomly from resident files, stratified by age, sex 86 oral cavity or oropharyngeal (12 specifically oropharyngeal)373 Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history; job titles coded; industrial hygienists applied JEM to determine exposures to 13 agentsUnconditional logistic regression; age, education, birthplace, tobacco-smoking, alcohol consumption
Muscat and Wynder 1992White, male laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed and histologcally confirmed at eight hospitals in New York, Illinois, Michigan, and Pennsylvania in 1985-1990; hospital controls randomly selected and matched on hospital, age, and year of interview194 laryngeal184 Asbestos In-person interview assessed occupational history and exposure to specific agents; occupation and exposure linkage system applied to determine exposure probability and intensityMultiple logistic regression; age, education, smoking, alcohol, quetelet index
Neugut et al. 1991Colorectal cancer cases among males, 35-84 yr old, undergoing colonoscopy in three NYC medical centers in 1986-1988; colonoscopy controls free of invasive colon carcinomas, inflammatory bowel disease, or colon polyps51 colorectal195 Asbestos Telephone interview or mailed questionnaire assessed self-reported exposure to asbestos with occupational history used as verification Multiple logistic regression; age
Olsen and Sabroe 1984Laryngeal cancer cases, less than 75 yr old, diagnosed in 1980-1982 through five department of oncology in Denmark; population controls matched 4:1 through municipal registries and matched on sex, age326 laryngeal(276 men and 50 women)1,134 (971 men and 163 women) Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational and lifestyle histories, exposure to specific agentsLogistic regression; age, tobacco, alcohol consumption, sex
Parent et al. 1998Male cases and controls, 35-70 yr old, diagnosed in 19 large Montreal-area hospitals in 1979-1985 and histologically confirmed for one of 19 cancer sites; frequency-matched by approximate age; population-based controls also chosen from electoral lists and with RDD250 stomach2,289 cancer, 533 population Chrysotile asbestos, amphibole asbestos In-person interviews with specific question on detail of each job subject had; analyzed, coded by team of chemists and industrial hygienists (about 300 exposures) on semi-quantitative scaleUnconditional logistic regression; age, respondent status, birthplace, education, cigarette-smoking
Parent et al. 2000Male cases and controls, 35-70 yr old, diagnosed in 19 large Montreal-area hospitals in 1979-1985 and histologically confirmed for one of 19 cancer sites; frequency-matched by approximate age; population- based controls also chosen from electoral lists and with RDD 99 esophageal(63 squamous-cell carcinoma, 23 adenocarcinomas, and 13 uncertain morphology)2,299 cancer, 533 population Asbestos In-person interviews with specific question on detail of each job subject had; analyzed, coded by team of chemists and industrial hygienists (about 300 exposures) on semi-quantitative scale Unconditional logistic regression; age, respondent status, birthplace, educational level, beer consumption, spirits consumption, β-carotene index, cigarette-smoking (length, pattern)
Shettigara and Morgan 1975Male cases of laryngeal cancer diagnosed at Toronto General Hospital and resident of metropolitan Toronto in 1974; neighborhood controls matched on sex and age43 laryngeal43 Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing age at first exposure and duration of exposure to asbestos and other agentsDiscordant pairs
Spiegelman and Wegman 1985Cases of colon and rectal cancer and cancer controls selected from sample of Third National Cancer Survey of incident cancers in seven US metropolitan areas and two states in 1969-1971; digestive and occupationally associated cancers (respiratory, urinary, bone, skin, buccal, pharyngeal, leukemia) excluded from controls 370 colon(218 men and 152 women);175 rectal(119 men and 56 women);8 large intestine(6 men and 2 women)1,861 total (626 men and 1,245 women) Asbestos Interviews conducted on primary, secondary occupations, industries, duration; exposure assignment according to NIOSH National Occupational Hazard Survey protocolLogistic regression; age, race, marital status, region, income group, educational level, body mass, nutritional scores
Stell and McGill 1973Male laryngeal cancer cases diagnosed consecutively in one Liverpool hospital; hospital controls matched on age100 laryngeal100 Asbestos In-person interview with questionnaire assessing occupational history Chi-square
Vineis et al. 1993Colon cancer cases diagnosed in 1990-1991 at the Main Hospital of Torino, Italy; controls selected from a 10% sample of patients with nontraumatic conditions in 1989-1990131 colon(74 men and 57 women)463 (254 men and 209 women) Jobs with potential exposure to asbestos Self-reported job titles coded and selected as exposed for: stone cutter, mechanic or pipes and boilers, pipefitter, steamfitter, boilermaker, mechanic at heating company, and pipe installerMantel-Haenszel OR; age
Wortley et al. 1992Laryngeal cancer cases, 20-74 yr old, identified through the Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (SEER participant) in Seattle of western Washington residents in 1983-1987; controls selected through RDD and matched on age and sex235 laryngeal547 Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history; industrial hygienists performed JEM exposure assignmentsMultiple logistic regression; smoking, drinking, age, education
Zagraniski et al. 1986White, male cases of laryngeal cancer diagnosed in two New Haven hospitals in 1975-1980; white, male general surgery controls87 laryngeal153 Asbestos work In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifetime occupational history and lifestyle factorsCondition logistic regression; tobacco, alcohol consumption
Zheng et al. 1992aOral- and pharyngeal-cancer cases, 20-75 yr old, identified through population-based cancer registry as newly diagnosed in 1988-1990; controls randomly selected from Shanghai Resident Registry, matched on age, sex204 oral or pharyngeal(115 men and 89 women)414 (269 men and 145 women) Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors and occupational exposuresChi-squared test
Zheng et al. 1992bLaryngeal cancer cases, 20-75 yr old, identified through population-based cancer registry as newly diagnosed in 1988-1990; controls randomly selected from Shanghai Resident Registry, matched on age, sex201 laryngeal(177 men and 24 women)414 (269 men and 145 women) Asbestos In-person interview with standardized questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors Unconditional logistic regression; age, smoking, education

NOTE: BMI = body mass index; HCFA = Health Care Financing Administration; HD = Hodgkin's disease; JEM = job exposure matrix; NIOSH = National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; OR = odds ratio; RDD = random-digit dialing; SES = socio-economic status.

a

Full citations can be found in the reference list for Chapter 6.

b

Number of cases and controls with information necessary for analysis (as used in this report’s meta-analyses and reported in tables in Appendix E) may have been less.

From: C, Description of Case-Control Studies of All Selected Cancers as Related to Exposure to Asbestos

Cover of Asbestos
Asbestos: Selected Cancers.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Asbestos: Selected Health Effects.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006.
Copyright © 2006, National Academy of Sciences.

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