Gene List

A to C

abl

abl (vertebrate oncogene)-related [CGC].

abl-1 X 2.06

NMK. Major transcript 4.4 kb; sequence (∼400 aa) has 62% identity with oncogene v-abl in predicted kinase domain. [Goddard et al. 1986]

ace

a cetyl c holin e sterase abnormality [PR, RM].

ace-1 X 24.11 p1000 :

class-A acetylcholinesterase reduced 100%; no behavioral phenotype alone (ES1 ME3), but ace-2;ace-1 is uncoordinated (hypercontracted) and ace-2;ace-3;ace-1 is L1-lethal; mosaic focus in muscle. OA6: e1572, etc. CLONED: sequence predicts 609 aa; 37% identity with Torpedo acetylcholinesterase; p1000 is W99op. [Herman and Kari 1985; Arpagaus et al. 1994] [FF]

ace-2 I 4.93 g72 :

class-B acetylcholinesterase reduced 98%; no behavioral phenotype alone (see ace-1 ). ES1 ME3. OA11: g73, etc. [Culotti et al. 1981]

ace-3 II 22.65 dc2 :

class-C acetylcholinesterase reduced >95%; no behavioral phenotype alone (see ace-1 ). ES1. OA1: dc3. [Johnson et al. 1988]

ach

a denylyl c yclase h omolog family [CGC].

ach-1 ?

NMK. Encodes protein with N-terminal similarity to yeast adenylyl cyclase; Ras binding; C-terminal similarity to gelsolin/villin; immunofluorescence indicates ACH-1 centrosome associated at mitosis, not during interphase. [CGC]

acr

a cetyl c holine r eceptor-related [CGC].

acr-1

= lev-1

acr-2 X −2.73

NMK. Structural and functional similarity to non-α-subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. [LM, CGC]

act

act in [RW].

act-1

See act-123 .

act-2

See act-123 .

act-3

See act-123 .

act-4 X −6.27

NMK.

act-5 III 20.3

NMK. Sequence predicts protein with closer similarity to vertebrate cytoplasmic actin than act-123, act-4; act-5:lacZ expressed only in microvillous intestinal cells and excretory cell. [RW]

act-123 V 2.92 st15 :

(pka unc-92) sd; both st15 and st15/+ small, slow-growing, uncoordinated, almost paralyzed; abnormal thin-filament ultra-structure in muscle. ES3 ME0. OA4 (sd): st22ts (25°C phenotypes similar to st15), st119 (dominant paralyzed, recessive larval-lethal, etc.). All are dominant neomorphic mutations of one of the three clustered actin genes; double-mutant intragenic revertants wt in phenotype even if act-1 or act-3 disrupted (e.g., st22st283 internal deficiency in act-3 ). See also emb-22 . CLONED: encodes three actin genes, act-1, act-2, act-3; mutant alterations in either act-1 (st118 is K18T, D11N), act-3 (st15 is Y143N, st22 and ad767 are both Q334K), or both act-2 and act-3 (ad468, recessive, lethal with dominant pharynx muscle defect). [Files et al. 1983; Krause et al. 1989] [DA]

adm

AD A M family proteins [BP]. Disintegrin plus metalloprotease domains.

adm-1 III R

NMK. Sequence predicts protein with extensive similarity to ADAM (disintegrin plus metalloprotease domains) family. [BP]

adn

ad hesio n defect [NJ].

adn-1 I 3.62 rh110

: uncoordinated; detected by extra neurons stained by monoclonal antibody M44 (normally stains only neuron PVP); additional pair of neurons stain (? AVH or AVJ); no obvious axon outgrowth defects, very minor Mig defects. OA>5: rh38sd (Unc and slightly Dpy, many axon trajectories abnormal, excretory canals short, distal tip cells detach from germ cells, and first polar bodies rest in abnormally posterior positions). rh38/+ is not Unc, but has axonal, canal, distal tip cell, and polar body abnormalities; rh38/Df approximately wt; intragenic revertants (rh38rh408, rh38rh410) are impenetrant Uncs, rh240. [NJ]

adn-2 V 0.46 rh162

: excretory canals short; alae abnormal; distal tip cells detach from germ cells; first polar body ends up in posterior positions. [NJ]

adp

sensory ad a p tation abnormal [CX].

adp-1 II 2.5 ky20

: fails to adapt to a subset of odorants detected by neuron AWC (benzaldehyde, butanone); normal adaptation to diacetyl, isoamyl alcohol. See also osm-9 . [Colbert and Bargmann 1995]

aex

a Boc, ex pulsion defects in defecation [JT].

aex-1 I 2.24 sa9

: defecation-defective, severely constipated; anterior body contraction (aBoc) and expulsion muscle contraction (E.p) steps of defecation nearly always missing; adult males not constipated and mate well. OA3: sa10, sa27 (weaker), sa49 (weaker). [Thomas 1990; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT]

aex-2 X 1.1 sa3

: defecation-defective, severely constipated; expulsion muscle contraction (E.p) nearly always absent, anterior body contraction (aBoc) either absent or mistimed; adult male unaffected and mates well. OA1: sa21 (similar). [Thomas 1990; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT]

aex-3 X 19.00 ad418

: defecation-defective, slightly constipated; anterior body contraction (aBoc) and expulsion muscle contraction (E.p) missing in five of six defecation cycles; adult males unaffected and mate well; interactions (Daf-c and Eat) with unc-31 . OA3: sa5, ad696, n2166. CLONED: cosmid C02H7. [Thomas 1990; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT, DA]

aex-4 X 10.11 sa22

: defecation-defective, moderately constipated; anterior body contraction (aBoc) and expulsion muscle contraction (E.p) missing in about six of seven defecation cycles; adult males unaffected and mate well. [Thomas 1990; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT]

aex-5 I 27.19 sa23

: defecation-defective, moderate to severe constipation; expulsion muscle contraction (E.p) missing in about nine of ten defecation cycles; anterior body contraction (aBoc) usually missing as well; adult males unaffected and mate well. OA3: sa41, sa42, sa43 (all similar). [Thomas 1990; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT]

aex-6 I 21.82 sa24

: defecation-defective, moderately to severely constipated; expulsion muscle contraction (E.p) missing in about nine of ten defecation cycles; anterior body contraction (aBoc) usually also missing; slightly sluggish and slight egg-laying defect (Egl). [Thomas 1990; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT]

age

age ing abnormal [TJ].

age-1 II RC hx546

: increased life span; increased thermotolerance; increased resistance to UV, paraquat; increased life span dependent on daf-16, daf-18; dauer-constitutive alleles (m333, mg44, mg55, mg109) are nonconditional, maternal-effect mutants that form dauer and dauer-like larvae; maternally rescued adults are Egl. NA6. CLONED: encodes largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. [Friedman and Johnson 1988; Bird and Riddle 1989; Morris et al. 1996; Malone et al. 1996; Larson et al. 1995; Lithgow et al. 1995] [GR, TJ, JT]

ali

al ae i nconspicuous [CB].

ali-1 V 3.31 e1934

: faint or invisible alae in L1. ES1 ME3 NA1. [CF]

ama

ama nitin resistance abnormal [DR].

ama-1 IV 0.05 m118

: sd; heterozygote m118/+ resistant to 400 μg/ml α-amanitin; no other phenotype. ES1. OA>30 (intragenic revertants): m118m221 (L1-lethal, probable null), m118m235 (including late larval-lethal), m118m252 (embryonic-lethal), m118m238ts (sterile adult), etc. Also hyperresistant allele: m118m526 (sterile 25°C, 80% embryonic-lethal at 20°C). CLONED: encodes a phosphatidyl inositol-3-OH kinase catalytic subunit. [Rogalski et al. 1988, 1990]

ama-2 V 4.84 m323

: dm; heterozygote m323/+ resistant to 100 μg/ml α-amanitin; recessive-lethal. ES1 NA1. CLONED: encodes a phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase catalytic subunit. [Rogalski et al. 1988]

anc

anc horage of nuclei abnormal [CB].

anc-1 I 1.43 e1753

: amb; nuclei of hypodermal cells not elastically anchored; other cytoskeletal abnormalities; no gross phenotype; enhances Mul phenotype of lin-15 mutants, without change in lineage; e1753/Df very unhealthy. ES1. OA4: e1802, e1873, e1874, e1885 (all resemble e1753; all alleles tend to revert spontaneously by intragenic reversion). [Hedgecock and Thomson 1982] [CZ]

aph

a nterior ph arynx-defective [JJ].

aph-1 I 3.63 zu123

: maternal-effect-lethal, no anterior pharynx; resembles Glp-1 embryonic phenotype but no Lag or germ-line phenotypes; maternal rescue complete. OA1: zu147 (weaker allele). [JJ]

aph-2 I 5.06

Mutation maternal-effect-lethal, no anterior pharynx; resembles Aph-1; Egl. CLONED: novel protein, 722 aa with signal sequence; antibody staining indicates APH-2 present on membranes of all late oocytes and early blastomeres. [JJ]

apl

a myloid p recursor- l ike [NY].

apl-1 X 5.91 pk53

: Tc1 insertion; no known phenotype. CLONED: encodes several alternatively processed transcripts; longest ORF 608 aa with extensive similarity to human amyloid precursor protein, but no β-amyloid peptide. [Daigle and Li 1993] [NY]

apx

a nterior p harynx in e x cess [JJ].

apx-1 V 10.21 or3

: maternal-effect-lethal; extra anterior pharyngeal cells; ABp fails to produce intestinal valve cells. OA1: zu183. CLONED: predicted protein with similarity to Delta, Serrate, LAG-2; can substitute for lag-2 if fused to lag-2 promoter. [Mello et al. 1994; Gao and Kimble 1995; Fitzgerald and Greenwald 1995] [JJ, BB, JK, GS]

arf

A DP r ibosylation f actor family [CGC]. See also arl.

arf-1 III 1.36

NMK. Encodes 181-aa predicted class I ARF. [CGC, MQ]

arf-2

= arl-5

arf-3 IV 3.53

NMK. Encodes predicted class II ARF. [MQ]

arg

a pex- r elated g enes [JJ].

arg-1 X 15.47

NMK. Encodes predicted protein related to APX-1; transgene overexpression can rescue lag-2 mutants. [JJ]

arl

ar f- like proteins [CGC]. See also arf.

arl-1 III 0.15

NMK. Encodes predicted ARL. C38D4.8 [MQ]

arl-2 III 0.70

NMK. Encodes predicted ARF-like protein. ZK632.8. [MQ]

arl-3 II 0.80

NMK. Encodes predicted ARL (ARL1-like). F54C9. [MQ]

arl-4 II 1.60

NMK. Encodes predicted ARF-like protein. ZK1320. [MQ]

arl-5 II 0.79

NMK. pka arf-2. Encodes predicted 184-aa ARL2-like protein. [MQ]

arp

a ctin- r elated p roteins [RW].

arp-1 II 23.5

NMK. Sequence predicts protein having 50% homology with actin, 67% with vertebrate actin-related protein; antibody staining suggests located at cell division remnant. [RW]

art

steroid a lpha r educ t ase-related [PK].

art-1 II 0.19

NMK. Significant similarity to rat SC2 gene; downstream gene in operon with sod-1 . [Kuwabara and Shah 1994] [PK]

atn

a c t ini n [RW].

atn-1 V 4.22

NMK. 3.6-kb RNA; encodes α-actinin homolog: almost complete cDNA encodes predicted 926-aa polypeptide; 63% identical to chick smooth muscle α-actinin. [Barstead and Waterston 1991b]

avr

av ermectin r esistance abnormal [CD].

avr-1

= che-3

avr-5

= osm-3

avr-15 ? ad1051

: Eat phenotype, lacks M3-derived IPSP; isolated pharynx insensitive to iontophoretically applied glutamate. [CD, AD]

bas

b iogenic a mine s ynthesis-related [LC].

bas-1 III 0.81 ad446

: serotonin-deficient (no detectable serotonin immunoreactivity); serotonin immunoreactivity restored by exposure to serotonin, but not to 5-hydroxytryptophan; poor male turning behavior. [Loer and Kenyon 1993] [LC, DA]

bas-2 II 0.83

NMK. Encodes predicted biogenic amine synthesis enzyme. [LC]

ben

ben omyl resistance abnormal [TU].

ben-1 III 6.43 e1880

: ts, sd; resistant to 14 μM benomyl; no other phenotype. ES1. OA>20: e1910, u102, u134, etc. (all somewhat ts and sd). CLONED: encodes β-tubulin. [Driscoll et al. 1989]

bli

bli stered cuticle [CB].

bli-1 II 3.03 e769

: adult symmetrically blistered, especially head; enhanced 25°C. ES3 (old adult) ME2. OA6: e770, e935 (weaker allele), e993spo, e1610, etc. Spontaneous mutations frequent. [Brenner 1974] [CB]

bli-2 II 1.26 e768

: adult blistered, especially head; slightly small; enhanced 25°C. ES3 (old adult) ME2. OA3: e107, e527, e772. [Brenner 1974] [CB]

bli-3 I 18.72 e767

: small irregular shape; variable slight blistering in adult. ES2 (adult late larvae) ME1. OA1: n529. [Brenner 1974] [CB]

bli-4 I 0.90 e937

: adult blistered, especially head; penetrance 90%; unique class I allele. ES3 (old adult) ME1. OA13: all other alleles result in late embryonic lethality; most are class II, fail to complement e937, e.g., h42, h199, h254, h1403. Also s90 (pka let-77 , class III allele, late larval-lethal, complements e937 but not other alleles). CLONED: multiple alternatively spliced transcripts, encoding predicted endoproteases (KEX2/subtilisin class) with different C-termini. [Peters et al. 1991; Thacker et al. 1995] [KR]

bli-5 III 18.72 e518

: small dumpyish adult; blistered, especially around pharynx; abnormal bursa in adult male. ES3 (adult late larvae) ME0. OA1: s277 (induced on eT1). [Brenner 1974] [CB, BC]

bli-6 IV 3.15 sc16

: adult blistered, both head and body; often small blisters. ES3 (old adult). OA>4: n776sd, mn4dm (mn4/+ always blistered), revertants of mn4. Null phenotype uncertain. [Park and Horvitz 1986a] [BE, SP]

bop

b last o mere p olarity-defective [JJ].

bop-1

= mom-1

bor

bor dering behavior abnormal [RC].

bor-1 X 17.37 g320

: spo, sd; homozygous mutant worms stay near the border of a bacterial lawn, congregate in groups of 10−50+ individuals; usually leads to extensive burrowing; bordering dependent on volatile component(s) of live bacteria; allele g320 isolated from Freiburg wild isolate RC301, which may contain autosomal Bor enhancers. ES1 ME3. OA2: ad609, n1353 (both EMS-induced in N2, recessive, stronger Bor phenotype than g320). [RC, DR, DA]

cad

ca thepsin D -deficient [PJ].

cad-1 II 23.05 j1

: 90% reduced cathepsin D; gut cells appear more vacuolated and bubbly; gross phenotype wt. OA2: j12, j14 (similar). Probable structural gene for cathepsin D. [Jacobson et al. 1988]

caf

caf feine resistance abnormal [PH]. See also dyf.

caf-1

= osm-3

caf-2

= che-3

cah

c yclase- a ssociated protein h omolog [CGC].

cah-1 X 24.08 pk56

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; sequenced cDNA just 5′to mec-4 has similarity to yeast CAP (cyclase-associated protein) gene. [TU].

cal

cal modulin family [CGC].

cal-1 V 4.31

NMK. Sequence related to calmodulin and troponin C. [Salvato et al. 1986]

can

CAN cell abnormality [NJ]. CAN cell processes run along excretory canal; ablation of CAN cells lethal.

can-1 III 6.85 rh67

: CAN migrates normally, but retains a neuronal phenotype and usually dies; animals pale and have withered tails. [NJ]

cap

actin cap ping protein [RW].

cap-1 IV 3.33

NMK. Encodes homolog of actin capping protein, α-subunit; functional in yeast. [Waddle et al. 1993]

cap-2 II 3.05

NMK. Encodes homolog of actin capping protein, β-subunit; functional in yeast. [Waddle et al. 1993]

cat

cat echolamine abnormality [CB].

cat-1 X 4.18 e1111

: amb; dopamine and serotonin absent from neuron processes, present in cell bodies; poor male turning behavior; enhanced foraging behavior, suppressed by serotonin agonists; serotonin immunoreactivity restored by exogenous serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptophan; ES1 ME1. OA1: n733. [Sulston et al. 1975; Loer and Kenyon 1993] [KP, LC]

cat-2 II 18.15 e1112

: dopamine reduced >95%, serotonin normal; no defect in male turning behavior. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Sulston et al. 1975; Loer and Kenyon 1993] [LC]

cat-3 III N e1333

: (lost); dopamine reduced in neuron processes. [Sulston et al. 1975]

cat-4 V 2.76 e1141

: dopamine reduced >90%, serotonin reduced or absent; poor male turning behavior; enhanced foraging behavior, suppressed by serotonin agonists; serotonin immunoreactivity restored by exogenous serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptophan; cuticle-defective; hypersensitive to SDS, levamisole, hypochlorite. ES1 ME2 NA1. [Sulston et al. 1975; Loer and Kenyon 1993] [DA, KP, LC]

cat-5 V N e1334

: (lost); variable displacement of CEPD cell bodies and other cells. [Sulston et al. 1975]

cat-6 V 4.96 e1861

: sensory neurons CEP, ADE, PDE take up FITC; tubular body of CEP cilia disrupted; abnormal cilia in CEP, OLL; slightly defective dauer formation. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Hedgecock et al. 1987; Perkins et al. 1986]

cct

c haperonin c ontaining T CP-1 [PC].

cct-1 II 0.78 pk58

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; pka tcp-1 ; encodes one of 7−9 related subunits of eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin; ortholog of mouse Ccta (66% aa sequence identity). [Leroux and Candido 1995] [PC]

cct-2 II 0.9

NMK. Encodes one of 7−9 related subunits of eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin CCT; ortholog of mouse Cctb (66% aa sequence identity) [PC]

cct-4 II 0.78

NMK. Encodes one of 7−9 related subunits of eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin CCT; ortholog of mouse Cctd (63% aa sequence identity) [PC]

cct-5 III 3.70

NMK. Encodes one of 7−9 related subunits of eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin CCT; ortholog of mouse Ccte (68% aa sequence identity) [PC]

cct-6 III 1.2

NMK. Encodes one of 7−9 related subunits of eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin CCT; ortholog of mouse Cctz (67% aa sequence identity) [PC]

cdc

c ell d ivision c ycle-related [CGC].

cdc-42 II 0.5 pk57

: Tc1 insertion; no known phenotype; encodes homolog of CDC42 (188 aa, 85% identity to human sequence, complements yeast mutant). [Chen et al. 1993b]

cdh

c a dh erin family [BW].

cdh-1 III 11.31

NMK. Encodes cadherin-related protein; 11-kb embryonic transcript. [BW, NL]

cdh-2 V 18.09

NMK. Encodes cadherin-related protein; 11-kb embryonic transcript. [BW, NL]

cdh-3 III 0.58 pk87

: te; viable, grossly wt; allele is deletion derived from pk77tci; encodes a cadherin-related protein; 10-kb transcript detected on Northern blots, in late-stage embryo and L1 larval RNA; cdh:lac-Z expressed in seam cells, comma-stage through to 3-fold embryos; a few other as yet unidentified hypodermal cells also stain in the anterior; overexpression of truncated transgene leads to Pun (pharynx detachment) phenotype. [BW, NL]

ced

ce ll d eath abnormality [CB].

ced-1 I 10.77 e1735

: programmed cell deaths abnormal; dying cells arrest at highly refractile stage; killer cells fail to engulf target cells; engulfment group A (ced-1,6,7); no gross phenotype. ES1. OA>10: n1506spo, e1754, e1797, e1798, e1799, e1800, e1801, e1814, n691, n2000, n2092 (all alleles similar) [Hedgecock et al. 1983; Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT]

ced-2 IV 17.79 e1752

: programmed cell deaths abnormal; dying cells arrest at highly refractile stage; killer cells fail to engulf target cells; engulfment group B (ced-2,5,10: suppress Vul phenotype of lin-24 , lin-33 ); extensive maternal rescue; no gross phenotype. ES1. OA1: n1994. [Hedgecock et al. 1983; Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT]

ced-3 IV 8.17 n717

: programmed cell deaths fail to occur; epistatic to ced-1 , ced-2 , and nuc-1 ; recessive suppressor of egl-1 and of egg-laying defect of egl-41 homozygotes; semidominant suppressor of egl-1(n487)/+ and egl-41(n1069)/+ heterozygotes; no gross phenotype. ES1 (ES2 in egl-1 background) ME3. OA>10: n718, n1129, n1163, n1164, n1165, n1286, pk59tci. CLONED: 2.9-kb RNA; predicted protein 503 aa, 56 kD; similarity (29% identity) to mammalian ICE (interleukin-1β converting enzyme); antibodies detect 34-kD and 12-kD species. [Yuan et al. 1993] [MT]

ced-4 III 2.44 n1162

: programmed cell deaths fail to occur; recessive suppressor of egl-1 and egl-41 homozygotes; no gross phenotype. ES1 (ES2 in egl-1 background) ME3. OA>10: n1894, n1920, n1461 (Tc4 insertion, also revertants n1561n1712, n1416n1713), n2273 (anomalous allele, enhances cell death by synergy with ced-9 [lf], but reduces cell death alone), etc. CLONED: major transcript 2.2 kb; encodes 549-aa novel protein, 65 kD (confirmed by antibody); minor 2.3-kb transcript (alternatively spliced, may inhibit cell death). [Yuan and Horvitz 1992] [MT]

ced-5 IV 4.65 n1812

: programmed cell deaths abnormal; dying cells arrest at highly refractile stage; killer cells fail to engulf target cells; engulfment group B (ced-2,5,10 : suppress Vul phenotype of lin-24 , lin-33 ); Mig, hermaphrodite distal tip cells execute extra turns; extensive maternal rescue; no gross phenotype. OA1: n2002. CLONED: 5.6-kb transcript; predicted protein 180 kD, novel. [ Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT, NF, ZB]

ced-6 III 1.52 n2095

: programmed cell deaths abnormal; dying cells arrest at highly refractile stage; killer cells fail to engulf target cells; engulfment group A (ced-1,6,7); extensive maternal rescue; no gross phenotype. OA1: n1813. [Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT]

ced-7 III 0.49 n1892

: programmed cell deaths abnormal; dying cells arrest at highly refractile stage; killer cells fail to engulf target cells; engulfment group A (ced-1,6,7); extensive maternal rescue; no gross phenotype. OA6: n1893, n1896, n1996, n1997, n1998, n2001, n2094. CLONED: encodes predicted 191-kD protein, with similarity to ABC transporter proteins. [Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT; ZB]

ced-8 X 0.03 n1891

: programmed cell deaths abnormal and protracted; dying cells arrest at highly refractile stage; killer cells fail to engulf target cells; superficially resembles engulfment group A (ced-1,6,7), but synergizes with weak ced-3 alleles in preventing cell death; no gross phenotype. OA3: n1999, n2090, n2093. CLONED: encodes predicted novel protein. [Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT]

ced-9 III 2.40 n1950

: sd; gf allele, reduced cell deaths; intragenic lf revertants increase cell death: n1950n2077 (partial sterility, Mel, very sick embryo), n1950n2161 (weaker lf, Mel, ectopic cell deaths in embryo), n1653ts (weak lf, viable). CLONED: 2.1-kb ( cyt-1 + ced-9 ) and 1.3-kb transcripts; latter encodes 280-aa protein related to mammalian bcl-2 (23% identity); 3′of cyt-1 , immediately adjacent, shares regulation. [Hengartner et al. 1992; Hengartner and Horvitz 1994b] [MT]

ced-10 IV 1.80 n1993

: dying cells arrest at highly refractile stage; killer cells fail to engulf target cells; engulfment group B (ced-2,5,10: suppress Vul phenotype of lin-24 , lin-33); extensive maternal rescue; no gross phenotype. [Ellis et al. 1991] [MT]

ced-11 III 0.15 n2744

: abnormal programmed cell death corpses. OA4: n2745, n2832, n2833, n2834. CLONED: encodes predicted novel protein. [MT]

ceh

C . e legans h omeobox [TB].

ceh-1 X 7.00

NMK. Encodes homeoprotein with similarities to Apis H40, Drosophila NK-1. [Hawkins and McGhee 1990]

ceh-2 I 0.70

NMK. Encodes homeoprotein; antibodies stain some pharyngeal cells just before pharyngeal morphogenesis. [Bürglin et al. 1989]

ceh-3

= pal-1

ceh-4

= unc-4

ceh-5 IV 4.65

NMK. Encodes diverged homeoprotein (novel class). [Bürglin et al. 1989]

ceh-6 I 2.85 mg60

: embryonic- or L1-lethal; malformed rectum, rectal rupture at or after 2-fold stage; mg60 is 1.6-kb deletion derived from Tc1 insertion pk33; antibody stains strong or transiently in a variety of neuronal tissues, excretory cells, rectal cells Y, K, F, B, U; encodes homeoprotein, POU III subclass. [Bürglin et al. 1989] [TB]

ceh-7 II 0.81

NMK. Encodes diverged homeoprotein (novel class). [Bürglin et al. 1989]

ceh-8 I 2.48

NMK. Encodes homeoprotein. [Bürglin et al. 1989]

ceh-9 I 19.89

NMK. Similar to sea urchin TgHbox5. [Hawkins and McGhee 1990]

ceh-10 III 1.25

NMK. 1.2-kb transcript; encodes 344-aa Paired-like class homeoprotein; extensive similarity to mouse Chx10, goldfish Vsx-1; ceh-10:lacZ expressed maximally in embryo, from 250−300-cell stage, lower in larvae, in certain neuronal nuclei (interneurons AIY, AIN, sensory neurons CEPD, motor neurons RID, RMED; CAN cells, etc.); transgene can induce defects in CAN cell migration and withered tail phenotype. [Hawkins and McGhee 1990; Svendsen and McGhee 1995] [JM]

ceh-11

= egl-5

ceh-12 I 0.34

NMK. Encodes homeoprotein. [Schaller et al. 1990]

ceh-13 III 0.67 pk20, pk36

: Tc1 insertions; no known phenotype; encodes labial-like homeoprotein (68% identity in homeodomain). [Schaller et al. 1990]

ceh-14 X 1.83

NMK. Encodes LIM class homeoprotein. [Bürglin et al. 1989]

ceh-15

= lin-39

ceh-16 III 0.17

NMK. Encodes predicted homeoprotein; Engrailed-related. [Kamb et al. 1989]

ceh-18 X 9.46 mg57

: variable defects in oogenesis, many oocytes fail to arrest in meiosis I (Emo), 11% sterile; some abnormal round eggs; impenetrant gonad arm defects (27%), larval lethality (15%), disorganized hypodermis; male gonad and spermatogenesis normal; probable null allele (deletion derivative of pk37tci). OA2: mg58te, mg61te (weaker phenotypes); also Tc1 insertions ms1, ms2. Encodes 542-aa POU class homeoprotein; CEH-18 antibody staining absent until late embryo; at hatching, most abundant in hypodermal and muscle nuclei, later in DTC nuclei, gonad sheath nuclei; overexpression by HS construct leads to defects; antisense expression in late embryo leads to lethality; hypodermis abnormal. [Greenstein et al. 1994] [DG, GR, YK]

ceh-19 IV 3.53

NMK. Encodes predicted homeoprotein. [Naito et al. 1992] [YK]

ceh-20 III 0.81 ay9

: Vul, Egl, SM migration defects; stronger alleles are larval-lethal, Unc, defective in Q daughter migrations, M lineage; males do not mate, have defective tails. OA3: ay412 (severe Unc, Vul), ay37, ay38 (both larval-lethal). Encodes PBC class homeoprotein; antibody stains posterior of embryo, RVG and VNC of larva; weak staining in body muscle and hypodermis. [Bürglin and Ruvkun 1992] [NH, TB]

ceh-21 X 15.42

NMK. Encodes cut class homeoprotein (T26C11.6). [Bürglin and Ruvkun 1992] [TB]

ceh-22 V 2.80 cc8266

: te; pharyngeal defects, poor feeding, some larval arrest. OA1: pk40tci. Encodes protein related (83%) to NK-2 of Drosophila; candidate binding protein for myo-2 enhancer; ceh-22:lacZ expressed in pharyngeal muscle. [Okkema and Fire 1994]

ceh-23 III 0.54

NMK. Encodes homeoprotein most similar to Drosophila Empty spiracles and Distalless; ceh-23:lacZ expressed primarily in amphid sensilla, CAN cells. [Wang et al. 1993] [TB]

ceh-24 V 5.57 pk92

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; encodes NK class homeoprotein; ceh-24:lacZ expressed in pharynx muscle , vulval muscles, some head neurons. [PD]

ceh-25 ?

NMK. Encodes novel atypical homeoprotein. [TB]

ceh-26 III 0.40

NMK. Encodes predicted protein (K12H4.1), with atypical homeodomain, similar to Drosophila Prospero in homeodomain and C-terminal 100 aa. [Bürglin 1994] [TB]

ces

ce ll death s election abnormal [MT].

ces-1 I 2.91 n703

: sisters of NSM, I2 fail to undergo programmed cell death (gf allele). OA2 (gf): n1895, n1896 (similar). lf alleles (probable null) wt but suppress ces-2 mutations. CLONED: encodes zinc finger protein, most related to Snail of Drosophila. [Ellis and Horvitz 1991] [MT]

ces-2 I 29.06 n732

: sisters of NSM (but not I2) fail to undergo programmed cell death. CLONED: encodes protein related to bZIP transcription factors. [Ellis and Horvitz 1991] [MT]

cey

C . e legans Y box-containing genes [PD]. See also lin-28 .

cey-1 II 3.07 pk81

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; CEY-1 protein binds to internal enhancer of unc-54 in vitro; maternal RNA maintained in germ line, lost in soma; later transcripts ubiquitous. [Seydoux and Fire 1994] [PD]

cey-2 I 0.03

NMK. Encodes predicted Y box protein; maternal RNA maintained in germ line, lost in soma. [Seydoux and Fire 1994] [PD]

cey-3 I 0.00

NMK. Encodes predicted Y box protein. [PD]

cha

ch oline a cetyltransferase [PR, RM].

cha-1 IV 3.31 p1152

: 99% reduced choline acetyltransferase, slow-growing, uncoordinated (coiler), Ric (resistant to aldicarb, trichlorfon); slow pumping. ES3. OA>10: m324 (lethal, probable null), b401ts (ME2), p1154, p1156 (anomalous allele, fails to complement unc-17 ), cn101, n2411, etc. Defecation cycle variable in length, often extremely long in all alleles tested; unc-17 alleles e113, e876 fail to complement cha-1. CLONED: encodes choline acetyltransferase; 37% identical to pig enzyme, 28% to Drosophila enzyme; antibody staining cytosolic, in motor neurons; shares 5′UTR exon with unc-17 . [Rand 1989; Alfonso et al. 1994a,b] [RM, JT, DR, DA]

che

che motaxis-defective [CB]. See also daf, avr, tax, dyf.

che-1 I 1.45 e1034

: nonchemotactic to sodium ion; abnormal sensory neuro-anatomy especially AFD, IL2 cells. ES1 ME2. OA>5: e1035, p674 (pka tax-1 , normal thermotaxis, poor osmotic avoidance), p679, p680, p692, p696. [Dusenbery 1976; Lewis and Hodgkin 1977]

che-2 X 19.54 e1033

: nonchemotactic to sodium ion; slightly small; defective in osmotic avoidance and dauer formation; males impotent; Dyf (no FITC uptake); ciliated neurons have abnormal stunted ultrastructure. ES2 ME0. OA5: m127, mn330mut, mn395, etc. [Lewis and Hodgkin 1977; Starich et al. 1995] [DR, SP, NJ]

che-3 I 2.28 e1124

: nonchemotactic to sodium ion; slightly small; defective in osmotic avoidance and dauer formation; males impotent; ciliated neurons have abnormal stunted ultrastructure; Dyf (no FITC uptake); octopamine-deficient. ES2 ME0. OA>30: e1379, e1253 (pka che-8 ), p801 (pka osm-2 ), m443mut, mn333mut, sa129, etc. Also hf5 (pka caf-2, resistant to 30 mM caffeine; no gross phenotype; Dyf). High forward mutation frequency. [Lewis and Hodgkin 1977; Starich et al. 1995] [NJ, SP, DR]

che-4

= mec-1

che-5 IV N e1073

: poor chemotaxis to sodium ion; erratic movement. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Lewis and Hodgkin 1977] [KP]

che-6 IV N e1126

: nonchemotactic to chloride ion; abnormal IL2 basal bodies. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Lewis and Hodgkin 1977]

che-7 V N e1128

: nonchemotactic to chloride ion; small. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Lewis and Hodgkin 1977]

che-8

= che-3

che-9

= che-13

che-10 II 2.79 e1809

: Dyf (no FITC uptake by amphids or phasmids); striated ciliary rootlets missing from OLQ, IL1, BAG sensory neurons; defective osmotic avoidance; males impotent. ES1. OA>5: m525mut, mn403, n1514. [Perkins et al. 1986; Starich et al. 1995] [DR, SP, MT]

che-11 V 3.87 e1810

: Dyf (no FITC uptake by amphids or phasmids); defective in osmotic avoidance and dauer formation; irregular amphid cilia, abnormal staining, abnormal CEP cilia, etc. ES1 ME0. OA>6: e1815, m162, mn387, mn393. [Perkins et al. 1986; Starich et al. 1995] [SP, DR]

che-12 V 2.21 e1812

: Dyf (weak FITC uptake by amphids and phasmids); amphid sheath cells fail to secrete matrix material; defective osmotic avoidance. ES1 ME3. OA3: e1813, mn389, mn399. [Perkins et al. 1986; Starich et al. 1995]

che-13 I 5.27 e1805

: Dyf (no FITC uptake by amphids or phasmids); severely shortened axonemes and ectopic assembly of ciliary structures and microtubules in many sensory neurons; defective in osmotic avoidance and dauer formation. ES1 ME0. OA2: m523mut, n1520. [Perkins et al. 1986; Starich et al. 1995] [DR, SP]

che-14 I N e1960

: some FITC uptake by amphids but not by phasmids; abnormal uptake by CEP ADE PDE; abnormal amphid channel due to misjoining of sheath and socket cell. ES1 NA1. [Perkins et al. 1986]

che-15 II N n1931

: defective chemotaxis. OA1: n1932. [MT, CX]

che-16 I 2.1 n1929

: sd; defective chemotaxis to cAMP, chloride; normal taxis to volatile odorants. OA1: n1851. [MT, CX]

cib

c hanged i dentity of b lastomeres [GE].

cib-1 I 0.24 e2300

: ts; maternal-effect embryonic-lethal at 25°C, wt at 15°C; TSP in oocyte, early embryo; mutant embryos exhibit abnormal delayed cleavage of P1, P2, P3; other pleiotropic defects. OA6: e2303 (nonconditional strict Mel), e2301, e2302, e2304, e2305, e2306 (all ts, weaker than e2300). [Schnabel and Schnabel 1990]

cib-3 I 7.49 t1008

: Mel? [GE]

clb

c o l lagen, b asement membrane-associated [CH]. Collagen type IV.

clb-1

= let-2

clb-2

= emb-9

clk

cl oc k (biological timing) abnormal [MQ].

clk-1 III 1.99 e2519

: mat; growth and behavior slowed by up to 2-fold; profound zygotic and maternal rescue; slow postembryonic development, slow cell cycle, long life span; swimming, pumping, egg-laying, defecation all slow and irregular. OA4: qm30 (worms viable at 20°C but become sterile at 25°C), qm11, qm47, qm51. CLONED: cosmid rescue (W03B11) [Wong et al. 1995; Lakowski and Hekimi 1996] [MQ]

clk-2 III 0.71 qm37

: slow growth and rhythms, phenotypes similar to Clk-1; profound maternal and zygotic rescue; embryonic-lethal at 25°C, some lethality at all temperatures. NA1. [Lakowski and Hekimi 1996] [MQ]

clk-3 II 21.5 qm38

: slow growth and rhythms, phenotypes similar to Clk-1; profound maternal and zygotic rescue; no lethality. OA1: qm53. [Lakowski and Hekimi 1996] [MQ]

clr

cl ea r [CB].

clr-1 II 1.95 e1745

: ts; starved translucent appearance at 20°C, facilitating Nomarski visualization of neuron processes; phenocopied by growth on 1 mM orthovanadate; inviable at 25°C; suppresses egl-15(n1477ts) and SM Mig defect of egl-17(1313). ES3 (25°C) ES2 (20°C). OA>30: e2530 (slightly stronger phenotype, putative null), ut41 (non-ts-lethal); most alleles isolated as egl-15 suppressors, some of these viable, non-Clr. See also soc. CLONED: encodes protein with similarity to protein tyrosine phosphatases. [Clark et al. 1992; DeVore et al. 1995] [NJ, MT, NH, JC]

cod

co pulation- d efective [PS].

cod-1 V 1.59 sy193

: males unable to insert spicules during mating. [PS]

cod-2 I 10.00 sy43

: males unable to insert spicules during mating, spicule muscle defect. [PS]

cod-3 IV 2.7 sy166

: copulation-defective males. [PS]

cod-4 III 1.99 sy180

: males have difficulty inserting spicules during mating. [PS]

cod-5 II 0.12 sy181

: males fail to execute proper turning behavior during mating. [PS]

cod-6 III 0.93 sy186

: males fail to insert spicules during mating. [PS]

cod-7 I 0.10 sy190

: males unable to insert spicules during mating. [PS]

cod-8 III N sy176

: synthetic spicule insertion-defective with cod-9(sy226). [PS]

cod-9 IV N sy226

: synthetic spicule insertion-defective with cod-8(sy1760). [PS]

cod-10 I 9.04 sy38

: males fail to initiate mating behavior and have a variable tail abnormality that can include abnormal rays, breaks in the alae, and occasional pseudovulvae-like structures. NA1. [PS]

cod-11 I N sy35

: males fail to execute proper turning behavior during mating; sex-specific muscle defects. [PS]

cod-12 II N sy419

: males defective in vulval location during mating. [PS]

cod-13 III N sy420

: males defective in vulval location during mating. [PS]

cod-14 IV N sy421

: males defective in vulval location during mating. [PS]

cod-15 I N sy423

: males defective in vulval location during mating. [PS]

col

col lagen genes [CH]. Families defined by dpy-13, dpy-10, col-6, sqt-1, col-8, dpy-7.

col-1

= sqt-3

col-2 IV 4.58

NMK. Transcript abundant only in dauer larvae; encodes 300-aa collagen, dpy-13 family (59% identical to SQT-3). [Kramer et al. 1982; Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-3 IV 3.95

NMK. Transcript present in all stages, abundant in L4, decreases in adult. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-4 IV 3.49

NMK. Misnamed, not a true collagen; contains 23 repeats of 15-aa sequence GAPPSGGPGPF(D/N)PS; no transcript detected. [Cox et al. 1985] [CH]

col-5 IV 5.50

NMK. Hybridizes to collagen probe. [Cox et al. 1985]

col-6 II 0.44

NMK. Transcript abundant only in dauer larvae; encodes collagen; col-6 family includes col-12,13,14,36,40. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-7 I 2.0

NMK. Transcript present in dauer, adult; not detected in egg or L4. [Cox and Hirsh 1985; Liu et al. 1995] [VT]

col-8 III 0.80

NMK. Transcript present in dauer larvae, adults; not detected in egg or L4; encodes collagen; col-8 family includes col-19,35,39. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-9 X 13.12

NMK. Hybridizes to collagen probe. [Cox et al. 1985]

col-10 ?

NMK. Transcript present at all stages, most abundant in L4. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-11 ?

NMK. Transcripts present at all stages, 7-fold increase in adult. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-12 V 2.57

NMK. Transcripts detected late in each larval stage, at lethargus; encodes collagen, col-6 family; linked to col-13 . [Cox and Hirsh 1985] [IA]

col-13 V 2.57

NMK. Transcript present at all stages; encodes collagen, col-6 family; linked to col-12 . [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-14 ?

NMK. Transcript present at all stages; encodes collagen, col-6 family. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-15 ?

NMK. Transcript present in dauer, L4, adult; not detected in egg. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-16 ?

NMK. Transcript present in dauer, L4, adult; not detected in egg. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-17 ?

NMK. Transcript present in dauer, L4, probably absent from adult; not detected in egg. [Cox and Hirsh 1985; Liu et al. 1995] [VT]

col-18 ?

NMK. Transcript present in dauer, adult; not detected in egg or L4. [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-19 ?

NMK. Transcript present in dauer, adult; not detected in egg or L4; encodes collagen, col-8 family. [Cox and Hirsh 1985; Liu et al. 1995] [VT]

col-20 ?

NMK. Linked to col-17 . [Cox and Hirsh 1985]

col-33 IV 0.08

NMK. Encodes collagen. [von Mende et al. 1988]

col-34 IV 0.01

NMK. Encodes collagen; adjacent and closely related to collagen gene dpy-13 . [von Mende et al. 1988; Bird 1992] [CH]

col-35 ?

NMK. Encodes collagen, col-8 family. [Kramer 1994a] [CH]

col-36 II 0.3

NMK. Encodes 307-aa collagen, col-6 family; transcript present L1, L1-L2, L2-dauer, not eggs, late larvae, adults. C15G2. [Levy and Kramer 1993]

col-37 V 3.61

NMK [KE].

col-39 II 2.88

NMK. Encodes collagen, col-8 family. [Kramer 1994a] [CH]

col-40 II 16.62

NMK. Encodes 292-aa collagen, col-6 family; transcript present L1, L2-dauer, not L2. [Levy and Kramer 1993]

cpr

c ysteine pr otease family [CGC].

cpr-1 V 8.24

NMK. Encodes 329-aa protein (pka gcp-1 ) with 40−50% identity to cysteine proteases; 1.1-kb transcript intestine-specific, present in larvae and adults, not embryos. [Ray and McKerrow 1992]

cpr-2 V 3.48

NMK. Encodes protein with similarity to cysteine protease. [Ray and McKerrow 1992]

cpr-3 V 8.3

NMK. Encodes protein with significant similarity to proteases of cathepsin B family (EST cm12b6); 50% identity to CPR-1. [Larminie and Johnstone 1996] [IA]

cpr-4 V 0.16

NMK. Encodes protein with significant similarity to proteases of cathepsin B family (EST cm14e3). [Larminie and Johnstone 1996] [IA]

cpr-5 V 19.9

NMK. Encodes protein with significant similarity to proteases of cathepsin B family (EST cm04d10). [Larminie and Johnstone 1996] [IA]

cpr-6 X 2.75 pk91

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; encodes protein with significant similarity to proteases of cathepsin B family (EST cm01a5). [Larminie and Johnstone 1996] [IA]

crf

See nhr.

crf-1

= nhr-1

crf-2

= nhr-2

crt

c al r e t iculin family [CGC].

crt-1 V 1.13

NMK. Encodes predicted 395-aa calreticulin (61% identity to mouse calreticulin). [Smith 1992]

cut

cut iclin [NA].

cut-1 II 3.16

NMK. Cross-hybridization to Drosophila vitelline membrane protein gene (pka vmp-1 ); encodes collagenase-resistant cuticle component; predicted 423 aa, trans-spliced to SL1; transcript highest in dauer; CUT-1 present in cortical layer (all stages) and under alae (dauers). [Sebastiano et al. 1991] [NA]

cut-2 V 5.16

NMK. Cross-hybridizes to Drosophila vitelline membrane protein gene (pka vmp-2 ); encodes collagenase-resistant cuticle component; predicted 231-aa secreted protein, repetitious, some similarity to CUT-1; CUT-2 present in cortical layer (all stages) and under alae (dauers). [Lassandro et al. 1994] [NA]

cwn

C aenorhabditis WN T family [CF].

cwn-1 II 18.97 mu109

: embryonic-lethal; early arrest as disorganized embryo at 2−3-fold stage; allele obtained by psoralen screen for lethals rescued by cwn-1 transgene. OA1: mu110. CLONED: 1.4-kb transcript, trans-spliced; most abundant in embryo; encodes 372-aa Wnt homolog. [Shackleford et al. 1993] [CF]

cwn-2 IV 4.58

NMK. 1.5-kb transcript; most abundant in embryo; encodes predicted 362-aa Wnt homolog. [Shackleford et al. 1993] [CF]

cya

cy clin A [CGC].

cya-1 III 0.13

NMK. Encodes predicted cyclin A. [Kreutzer et al. 1995] [KB].

cya-2 II 14.80

NMK. 1.4-kb transcript; encodes predicted cyclin A. [Kreutzer et al. 1995] [KB]

cyb

cy clin B [CGC].

cyb-1 IV 4.73

NMK. 72% identity to sea urchin cyclin B. [Kreutzer et al. 1995] [KB]

cyb-2 V 8.50

NMK. Encodes predicted cyclin B. [Kreutzer et al. 1995] [KB]

cyp

cy clo p hilin-related [TP].

cyp-1 V 5.84

NMK. Cyclophilin family, trans-spliced to SL1; partial sequence identity 83% to human CYP gene, 74% to yeast CSBY; possible signal peptide. YAC Y14B8. [Page et al. 1996] [WS, TP]

cyp-2 III 21.51

NMK. Cyclophilin family; partial sequence identity 64% to human CYP gene, 66% to yeast CSBY. Cosmid ZK526. [Page et al. 1996] [WS]

cyp-3 V 7

NMK. Cyclophilin family, trans-spliced to SL1. YAC Y15F7. [Page et al. 1996] [TP]

cyp-4 II 3.04

NMK. Cyclophilin family (diverged CsA-binding domain). Cosmid M106. [Page et al. 1996] [WS]

cyp-5 I 29.9

NMK. Cyclophilin family, trans-spliced to SL1. Cosmid B0467. [Page et al. 1996] [TP]

cyp-6 III 26.3

NMK. Cyclophilin family; signal peptide. Cosmid C51B6. [Page et al. 1996] [TP]

cyp-7 V N

NMK. Cyclophilin family; signal peptide. [Page et al. 1996] [TP]

cyp-8 X 0.65

NMK. Cyclophilin family (diverged CsA-binding domain). Cosmid D1009. [Page et al. 1996] [TP]

cyp-9 III 5.70

NMK. Cyclophilin family (diverged CsA-binding domain), trans-spliced to SL2. Cosmid C14B1. [Page et al. 1996] [TP]

cyp-10 II 0.15

NMK. Cyclophilin family (diverged CsA-binding domain). Cosmid B0252. [Page et al. 1996] [TP]

cyp-11 II 0.81

NMK. Cyclophilin family (diverged CsA-binding domain). Cosmid T01B7. [Page et al. 1996] [TP]

cyt

cyt ochrome [CGC].

cyt-1 III 2.40

NMK. Transcripts 2.1-kb (cyt-1 + ced-9) and 0.75 kb; encodes 182-aa presumptive cytochrome b560; 3′end overlaps ced-9 , shared regulation. [Hengartner and Horvitz 1994b] [MT, WS]

D to F

dad

d efender against a poptotic d eath (homologs of mammalian DAD) [JR].

dad-1 ?

Tc1 insertions obtained; no phenotype known. CLONED: 0.55-kb transcript, encodes 113-aa predicted protein, >60% identity to vertebrate DAD-1; transgene overexpression inhibits cell death; Ce-dad-1 functional in hamster cells. [Sugimoto et al. 1995] [JR]

daf

da uer larva f ormation abnormal [DR].

daf-1 IV 28.04 m40

: ts, mat; constitutive dauer formation at 25°C, reversible by shift to 15°C; dark intestine; clumpy; exhibits Srf-6 phenotype even at 16°C; no effect on life span. ES3 (L3). NA17: n690 (Egl type C), sa184 e1287, e1146, m402::Tc1, etc. CLONED: 2.5-kb transcript, encodes predicted 669-aa receptor Ser/Thr kinase, member of TGF-β receptor family. [Georgi et al. 1990; Malone and Thomas 1994; Larsen et al. 1995] [DR,AT]

daf-2 III 7.98 e1370

: ts; constitutive dauer formation at 25°C, reversible by shift to 15°C; increased adult life span, increased thermotolerance, UV resistance; non-Srf; ES3 (L3). OA>40: e979, m577, m41 (wt at 15°C), sa223 (sterile), m65 (nonconditional), etc. Most alleles (not e1370) hypersensitive to dauer pheromone. [Larsen et al. 1995; Malone and Thomas 1994; Dorman et al. 1995; Murakami and Johnson 1996] [DR, CF, JT, AT]

daf-3 X 19.35 e1376

: defective dauer formation. ES1 ME3 OA7. CLONED: encodes dwarfin/MAD/DPC-4 family protein. [Riddle et al. 1981; Thomas et al. 1993] [GR]

daf-4 III 1.52 m63

: ts; constitutive dauer formation at 25°C; reversible by shift to 15°C; at all temperatures, small and defective in intestinal endocytosis, similar to Sma-2; Srf-6 at 16°C; type-E Egl; weak maternal rescue. ME0: males have crumpled spicules, fused and displaced rays. ES3 (L3) ES2 (other stages); all alleles ts Daf. OA7: e1364, m72amb, m592 (also ts for Sma), etc. Most alleles resemble m63. CLONED: encodes predicted 744-aa receptor Ser/Thr kinase, related to TGF-β type II receptor kinases, binds human BMP-4. [Estevez et al. 1993] [DR, JT, PB, PJ, AT]

daf-5 II 23.33 e1386

: defective dauer formation. ES1 ME3. OA11: e1385, etc. [Riddle et al. 1981; Thomas et al. 1993] [DR]

daf-6 X 19.07 e1377

: defective dauer formation; abnormal chemotaxis; defective osmotic avoidance; poor male mating; abnormal sensory anatomy, especially amphidial sheath cells (resembles Che-14); Dyf. ES1 ME2 OA6. [Albert et al. 1981; Perkins et al. 1986; Starich et al. 1995] [DR, SP]

daf-7 III 26.16 e1372

: ts; constitutive dauer formation at 25°C, reversible at 15°C; type-C Egl at all temperatures; dark intestine; clumpy; Srf-6 at 16°C; no effect on life span. ES3 (L3). OA11: m62amb, m83op, m696 (internal deletion), m434::Tc1, etc. All alleles Egl and ts Daf. CLONED: encodes novel member of TGF-β superfamily, possible ligand for DAF-1/DAF-4 receptor, expressed in ASI neurons. [Golden and Riddle 1984a; Larsen et al. 1995] [DR, JT, AT]

daf-8 I 2.87 m85

: ts; constitutive dauer formation at 25°C, reversible by shift to 15°C; type-C Egl at all temperatures; dark intestine; clumpy; Srf-6 at 16°C. ES3 (L3). OA7: e1393ts (weak allele), etc. CLONED: encodes dwarfin/MAD/DPC-4 family protein. [Golden and Riddle 1984a; Malone and Thomas 1994] [DR, JT]

daf-9 X L e1406

: constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae irreversible (genetically lethal); does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES3 (L3). OA6: m677. [Albert and Riddle 1988] [DR]

daf-10 IV 4.13 e1387

: defective dauer formation; abnormal chemotaxis and osmotic avoidance; males impotent; abnormal sensory anatomy, especially amphidial neurons and sheath cells, cephalic neurons; Dyf; octopamine-deficient. ES1 ME0. OA10: m79, p821 (pka osm-4 ), m534mut, etc. [Albert et al. 1981; Starich et al. 1995] [DR, SP]

daf-11 V 3.19 m47

: ts; constitutive dauer formation at 25°C, reversible by shift to 15°C; defective chemotaxis, normal osmotic avoidance; Odr (defective in response to benzaldehyde, not to diacetyl); impenetrant Srf-6; no effect on life span. ES3 (L3). OA9: m84 (Daf non-Odr), m597::Tc1, sa203 (high penetrance at 15°C), etc. CLONED: encodes predicted transmembrane guanyl cyclase. [Golden and Riddle 1984a; Vowels and Thomas 1994] [DR, JT, AT]

daf-12 X 2.12 m20

: defective dauer formation; cell migration and lineage defects. ES1 ME3 (ME0 at 25°C). OA>20: m25 (pka daf-20), rh84 (pka mig-7 , distal tip cells fail to reflex, fail to express unc-5:lacZ), etc. At least six phenotypic classes; some alleles lead to heterochronic defects; some alleles enhance Age phenotype of daf-2 . CLONED: encodes protein similar to nuclear hormone receptors. [Larsen et al. 1995; Hedgecock et al. 1987] [DR, NJ]

daf-13 X 6.14 m66

: formation of SDS-sensitive dauer larvae. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Riddle et al. 1981] [DR]

daf-14 IV 4.52 m77

: ts; constitutive dauer formation at 25°C, incomplete penetrance, reversible by shift to 15°C; type-C Egl; dark intestine; clumpy; Srf-6 at 16°C; no effect on adult life span. ES3 (L3). OA1: sa340 (21% dauers at 25°C, derived from egl-21 strain). CLONED: cosmid rescue; encodes dwarfin/MAD/DPC-4 family protein. [Golden and Riddle 1984a; Larsen et al. 1995; Thomas et al. 1993] [DR, GR, JT]

daf-15 IV 4.24 m81

: constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae irreversible (genetically lethal); does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES3 (L3) OA7. [Albert and Riddle 1988] [DR, JK]

daf-16 I 3.76 m26

: defective dauer formation; suppresses Age phenotype of age-1, daf-2. ES1 ME3 NA15 (m27, pka daf-17; mg11, possible defect in maintenance of dauer state). [Riddle et al. 1981; Gottlieb and Ruvkun 1994; Murakami and Johnson 1996] [DR, GR]

daf-17

= daf-16

daf-18 IV 29.15 e1375

: defective dauer formation; forms some dauer-like larvae when starved; partly suppresses Age phenotype of daf-2, age-1. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Larsen et al. 1995] [DR]

daf-19 II 1.84 m86

: ts; constitutive dauer formation at 25°C, reversible by shift to 15°C; defective chemotaxis and osmotic avoidance; Dyf; fails to take up FITC at 15°C or 25°C; cilia but not ciliary rootlets missing from sensory neurons. ES3 (L3) ME0. OA5: m334 (nonconditional), sa190, sa232. CLONED: cosmid rescue. [Perkins et al. 1986; Malone and Thomas 1994] [DR, JT]

daf-20

= daf-12

daf-21 V 6.42 p673

: ts, mat; constitutive dauer formation; poor recovery even at low temperature; defective chemotaxis, defective response to some volatile odorants (benzaldehyde, isoamyl alcohol, like Daf-11); normal osmotic avoidance; slightly lethargic, semi-sterile at 25°C; strong maternal rescue; p673/Df is not Daf-c. NA1. [Vowels and Thomas 1994] [DR, JT]

daf-22 II 12.07 m130

: defective dauer formation (suppressible by exogenous dauer pheromone); defective dauer pheromone production. ES1 NA1. [Golden and Riddle 1985] [DR, JT]

daf-23 II 3.53

= age-1

daf-24

= daf-19.

daf-25 I L m362

: ts, mat; constitutive formation of dauer larvae at 25°C, poor dauer recovery at 15°C; adults Egl. ES3 (L3) OA3. [DR]

daf-26 IV L m442

: defective dauer formation; not Dyf. ES1 NA1. [DR]

daf-27 III N

(lost)

daf-28 V 23.76 sa191

: ts; constitutive dauer formation; dauer larvae resume development within 2 hours, even at 25°C; semidominant, 10% of sa191/+ animals form dauers; probable gf mutation. NA1. [Malone and Thomas 1994; Malone et al. 1996]

daf-29 II L m683

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae; two molts; does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES2 OA1. [DR]

daf-30 IV C m654

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae; two molts; does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES2 OA1. [DR]

daf-31 IV C m655

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae; three molts; dauer-like pharynx; does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES2 NA1. [DR]

daf-32 V N m688

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae; two molts; does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES2 NA1. [DR]

daf-33 III L m687

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae; three molts; does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES2 NA1. [DR]

daf-34 III L m651

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae; two molts; does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES2 OA4. [DR]

daf-35 III R m678

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae; two molts; does not form true dauers in pheromone. ES2 NA1. [DR]

deb

de nse b ody component [RW].

deb-1 IV 3.33 st385

: amb; Pat (paralyzed embryonic arrest at 2-fold); disorganized muscle; some pharyngeal pumping. OA1: st555 (similar). CLONED: encodes dense body component, vinculin. [Barstead and Waterston 1991a; Williams and Waterston 1994]

dec

de fecation c ycle period abnormal [JT]. See also flr-1,3,4.

dec-1 X 17.73 sa48

: long defecation cycle period, shorter at 25°C. [Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JT]

dec-2 III 22.42 sa89

: long defecation cycle period; slightly slow growing and scrawny; appears to feed normally. [Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JT]

dec-4 IV 3.25 sa73

: long defecation cycle period; slightly slow growing and scrawny, reduced brood especially at 25°C; appears to feed normally. [Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JT]

dec-7 III 1.04 sa92

: ts, short defecation cycle period at 20°C, longer at 25°C; appears to feed normally. OA1: sa296. [Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JT]

dec-8

= unc-43

dec-9 IV 4.65 sa293

: short defecation cycle period; semidominant; appears to feed normally. [Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JT]

dec-10 X 2.15 sa294

: short defecation cycle period; dominant; appears to feed normally. [Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JT]

dec-11 IV 15.00 sa292

: long defecation cycle period; slightly slow growing and scrawny; appears to feed normally. [Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JT]

dec-12 I 11.13 sa295

: long defecation cycle period; slightly slow growing and scrawny; appears to feed normally. [Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JT]

deg

deg eneration of certain neurons [TU].

deg-1 X 1.32 u38

: ts, dm; touch-insensitive and prod-insensitive only in tail; PVC interneurons degenerate at L1/L2, certain other neurons die at hatching (some IL1, also probably AVG) or L4 molt (probably AVD). ES2. OA1 (dominant): u529 (identical). Intragenic revertants (e.g., u38u175) are wt (probable null phenotype). Also recessive gf allele: u506 (cs embryonic-lethal, arrest at 2-fold with cell degenerations at 15°C; see also des-1,4) CLONED: encodes predicted membrane protein; two transmembrane domains surrounding Cys-rich domain; Deg alleles are A707V (u38, second transmembrane domain) and A393T (u506, predicted extracellular). [Chalfie and Wolinsky 1990; Hong and Driscoll 1994; Garcia-Anoveros et al. 1995] [MP, TU]

deg-2 X 0.61

NMK. Encodes predicted 730-aa protein; resembles DEG-1, MEC-4 (54% identity over 469 aa); missense transgene leads to progressive Tab as L3, probably due to death of neuron PVC; suppressed by mec-6(e1342). [TU]

deg-3 V 3.43 u662

: dominant uncoordinated, Tab in tail; subset of neurons undergo progressive degeneration; see also des-2,3. OA>8 pseudo-wt intragenic revertants, e.g., u662u692, u662u693 : wt phenotype. CLONED: encodes α-subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; u662 is missense change in second transmembrane domain. [Treinin and Chalfie 1995]

des

de generation s uppressor [TU].

des-1 X 15.3 u586

: maternal-effect suppressor of cs embryonic lethality caused by deg-1(u506); does not suppress larval degenerations, Tab phenotype; no obvious phenotype alone. NA1. [TU]

des-2 II N

Mutation acts as a suppressor of deg-3(u662). [Treinin and Chalfie 1995] [TU]

des-3 III N

Mutation acts as a suppressor of deg-3(u662). [Treinin and Chalfie 1995] [TU]

des-4 X N u552

: maternal-effect suppressor of cs embryonic lethality caused by deg-1(u506); does not suppress larval degenerations, Tab phenotype. NA1. [TU]

dhc

d ynein h eavy c hain [RW].

dhc-1 I 1.6

NMK. 14.5-kb transcript, trans-spliced to SL1; encodes predicted 4568-aa protein that has significant homology with cytoplasmic and axonemal dyneins. [Lye et al. 1995] [RW]

dif

dif ferentiation abnormal [CB].

dif-1 IV 3.40 e2562

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal (mn); embryos arrest at the completion of gastrulation with little or no tissue differentiation; probable null. OA4: e2577 (similar), e2591cs (100% dead eggs at 15°C, variably viable and sometimes dumpy at 25°C; TSP 5−8 hours embryo), etc. CLONED: 1.2-kb transcript, present at all stages; encodes predicted 312-aa protein with similarity to mitochondrial carrier proteins. [Ahringer 1995]

dif-2 IV 4.85 e2576

: cs; maternal-effect embryonic-lethal (mn); embryos arrest at the completion of gastrulation, with little or no tissue differentiation; e2576 is cs, with more differentiation at 25°C than at 15°C, but is inviable at both temperatures. NA1. [JA]

dig

di splaced g onad [MT].

dig-1 III 0.94 n1321

: gonad displaced, usually to anterior; 13% have dorsal gonad; phenotype enhanced in n1321/Df; additional failures of adherence in various tissues, twisted pharynx, defects in ciliated sensory endings; defective head withdrawal (Not phenotype), normal osmotic avoidance; similarities to Mig-4. OA6: n1480, n2467 (Not, defects in CEP, OLQ, AWC, AFD sensory endings; IL1 and IL2 processes abnormal), nu52, nu336 (severe sensory defects, somewhat Unc, very small brood), nu319ts (weak; TSP embryonic). [Thomas et al. 1990] [KP, NJ]

dom

do wnstream of m es [SS]. Genes sharing operons with mes genes.

dom-3 I 0.38

NMK. Novel predicted 393-aa protein; downstream gene in operon with mes-3 . [Zorio et al. 1994; Paulsen et al. 1995] [SS]

dom-6 IV 3.92

NMK. Encodes protein with similarity to CSK1; regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase; downstream gene in operon with mes-6 . [SS]

dpy

d um py [CB].

dpy-1 III 19.41 e1

: strong dumpy; mosaic analysis indicates focus in hyp7, also required in other hypodermal syncytia; suppresses some alleles of glp-1 . ES3 ME1. OA>20: e6, e830xri, e874pdi, e1177icr, f14, s513, etc. High forward mutation frequency. [Brenner 1974; Hedgecock and Herman 1995] [EL]

dpy-2 II 0.00 e8

: dumpy left roller; early larvae non-dumpy; suppresses some alleles of glp-1, emb-5. ES3 ME1. OA>10: e115, sc38ts, sc78sd, e489 (pka rol-2 ), e961, q292, etc. CLONED: encodes collagen; 41% identical to adjacent gene dpy-10 . [Brenner 1974; Levy et al. 1993] [CH]

dpy-3 X 15.78 e27

: medium dumpy (nonroller); L1 non-dumpy; suppresses some alleles of glp-1, emb-5. ES3 (all stages) ME1. OA>10 : e2079, sc26 (left roller dumpy), e182 (pka dpy-12 , medium dumpy, ES3 [adult], ME1), m39ts [Brenner 1974] [EL]

dpy-4 IV 12.41 e1166

: sd, icr; large dumpy; e1166/+ slightly dumpy. ES3 (adult) ES1 (larva) ME3. OA1: e1158sd,icr. [Cox et al. 1980] [DR]

dpy-5 I 0.00 e61

: strong dumpy; early larvae non-dumpy; e61/+ very slightly dumpy; homozygote suppressed by Smg, hemizygote enhanced by Smg. ES3 ME1. OA7: e565, e907pdi, s102, s111fdi, s1300::Tc1, s1706spo. CLONED: encodes novel protein, 257 aa; has signal sequence. [Brenner 1974; Hodgkin et al. 1989] [KR]

dpy-6 X 0.00 e14

: small dumpy, nonroller. ES3 ME0. OA6: e1502aci, f10, f11, n754, etc. [Brenner 1974]

dpy-7 X 1.81 e88

: dumpy (nonroller); suppresses some alleles of glp-1, emb-5. ES3 ME1. OA>8: e1324ts, sc27ts (left roller dumpy), m38, e2076, q288, etc. CLONED: trans-spliced to SL1; encodes typical cuticular collagen, 318 aa, no close relatives; four missense alleles sequenced; expressed at each larval stage 5.5 hours prelethargus. [Johnstone et al. 1992] [IA]

dpy-8 X 5.80 e130

: medium dumpy (nonroller); suppresses some alleles of glp-1, emb-5. ES3 ME1. OA>10: e1281ts, sc24ts (left roller dumpy), sc44, e2279, q287 (weak?), etc. [Brenner 1971; Maine and Kimble 1989]

dpy-9 IV 28.03 e12

: large dumpy. ES3 (adult) ES1 (larvae) ME2. OA3: e424, e858, e1164icr. [Brenner 1974]

dpy-10 II 0.00 e128

: small dumpy (nonroller); sometimes poor survival from freezing; non-null; suppresses some alleles of glp-1, emb-5. ES3 (all stages) ME1. OA>10: e223, sc48 (left roller dumpy), sc30ts (pka rol-7 , left roller dumpy at 25°C), cn64 (dominant left roller), q291, s364fdi, etc. CLONED: encodes collagen 41% identical to DPY-2; e128 is splicing defect, cg36 (left roller dumpy, ochre, probable null). [Brenner 1974; Levy et al. 1993] [CH]

dpy-11 V 0.00 e224

: medium dumpy. ES3 (adult) ES2 (larvae) ME2. Males Ram (lumpy rays) at 25°C. OA>10: e33, e1180icr (these and most other alleles have much stronger dumpy “piggy” phenotype, etc.), e455, e733, e752, s287 (induced on eT1 ), s10, s261, s360fdi, etc. [Brenner 1974; Baird and Emmons 1990] [CB]

dpy-12

= dpy-3

dpy-13 IV 0.00 e184

: sd; strong dumpy; e184/+ medium dumpy. ES3 (all stages) ME2. NA13: e458, e1165icr, e225 (pka dpy-16 : recessive medium dumpy), e458, m399::Tc1, e1165, etc. CLONED: encodes 302-aa collagen; dpy-13 family includes col-2, col-34, sqt-3; e184 is in-frame deletion, e458 is 673-bp deletion, null, strong dumpy; expressed at each larval stage, 4−2.5 hours prelethargus. [Brenner 1974; von Mende et al. 1988] [CH, IA]

dpy-14 I 1.40 e188

: ts; medium dumpy adult, strong dumpy L1 (20°C); ts-lethal (25°C); lethality enhanced by Smg. ES3 (all stages 20°C). Synthetic lethal with some mutations at 20°C. ME2. OA2: n497, s70. CLONED: cosmid rescue. [Brenner 1974; McKim et al. 1992] [KR, TR]

dpy-15

= sqt-3

dpy-16

= dpy-13

dpy-17 III 2.16 e164

: medium dumpy, spindle-shaped adult; old adults sometimes less dumpy; strong dumpy L1; low penetrance defects in outgrowth of posterior canal cell processes. ES3 (all stages) ME2. OA6: e1345ts, e905pdi, e1295icr, e1345, e2145, etc. [Brenner 1974] [NJ]

dpy-18 III 8.50 e364

: amb; medium dumpy. ES3 (adult) ES2 (larvae) ME2. Males have abnormal lumpy rays (Ram) at 25°C. OA>10: e499, e1270, e1862, s361fdi, s1304 (induced on eT1 ), bx26 (Ram at 25°C), h662. [Brenner 1974; Baird and Emmons 1990] [PB]

dpy-19 III 0.16 e1259

: ts, des, mat; dumpy (20°C, 25°C); wt (15°C); abnormal Q and Q daughter migrations. ES3 (adult 25°C). Weaker phenotype if mother dpy-19/+. ME0 (25°C) ME3 (15°C). OA3: e1314ts, n1347, pk102. [DR, MT, CF]

dpy-20 IV 5.18 e1282

: ts; medium dumpy (20°C), weak dumpy (15°C), strong dumpy, round-nosed (25°C); TSP during L1 and L2 stages. ES3 (25°C all stages) ME2 (20°C). OA>10: other alleles mostly severe round-headed dumpy (20°C), inviable, or almost inviable (15°C), e1362, e1415, cn142 (strongest allele), e2017amb (slightly weaker), cn322, etc. m474::Tc1: strong dumpy, reverts to Dpy (m474s2033) or wt (m474m495). CLONED: rare 1.9-kb RNA, most abundant in L2; encodes predicted 359-aa novel protein. [Hosono et al. 1982; Clark et al. 1995] [BC]

dpy-21 V 12.97 e428

: weak dumpy (XX); non-dumpy (XO); lethal to 2A;3X. ES3 (adult) ES1 (larvae). Some X chromosome transcript levels elevated in XX and XO. ME3. OA2: e459 (resembles e428), ct16 (very weak phenotype). [Hodgkin 1983; Meyer and Casson 1986] [TY]

dpy-22 X 1.94 e652

: variable, scrawny, dumpy, slow growing (XX); very abnormal small or inviable male (XO); reduced X chromosome expression. ES2 (all stages XX) ES3 (all stages XO) ME0 NA1. [Meneely and Wood 1987; Plenefisch et al. 1989]

dpy-23 X 7.34 e840

: variable dumpy, head swollen around pharynx, inviable at 15°C (XX); HSN migration defect; variable QL and DTC Mig defects also; inviable on low-phosphate media; very abnormal or inviable males (XO). ES2 (XX) ES3 (XO) ME0. OA1: gm17 (similar). [Meneely and Wood 1987] [CB, BG]

dpy-24 I 5.27 s71

: weak dumpy; abnormal DTC migration. ES3 (adult) ES1 (larvae) NA1. [Hedgecock et al. 1987] [BC, BS]

dpy-25 II 4.49 e817

: sd; strong dumpy, inviable at 15°C; e817/+ medium dumpy. ES3 (all stages). Intragenic revertants may be wt, probable null phenotype. ME1 NA1. [Hodgkin 1983; Chen et al. 1992] [PD]

dpy-26 IV 5.91 n199

: mat; XX daughters of n199/+ mothers are maternally rescued weak dumpy phenotype with protruding vulva (ES2) 4% Him; XX daughters of n199/n199 mothers are severely dumpy and Him (2% of brood) or die as embryos or young larvae (98% of XX brood); XO n199 animals are non-dumpy almost wt males (ME3); similar or slightly stronger phenotypes in n199/Df. OA3: n198 (resembles n199), y6 (weaker phenotypes), y65. CLONED: encodes predicted 1263-aa novel protein; antibody staining indicates DPY-26 associated with X chromosomes in XX, diffuse nuclear in XO. [Plenefisch et al. 1989] [TY]

dpy-27 III 5.04 rh18

: mat; XX phenotype is zygotic weak dumpy maternal-effect dumpy/near lethal-like Dpy-26 but non-Him. ES2. XO phenotype nearly wt male (ME3). OA5: y57 (weaker allele), y44, y42, y56am, y49 (strongest allele) CLONED: encodes 1469-aa protein with similarities to chromosome structural proteins, specifically localized to X chromosomes in XX but not XO animals. [Plenefisch et al. 1989; Chuang et al. 1994]

dpy-28 III 5.15 y1

: ts, mat; at 24°C, XX phenotype is zygotic weak dumpy, 3% Him, maternal-effect dumpy/near lethal; XO phenotype wt male (ME3); XX viable at 15°C, 0.4% Him. OA1: s939 (non-ts, Him, >99% maternal XX lethality at 15°C, >90% at 20°C). [Plenefisch et al. 1989]

dpy-29

= sdc-3

dpy-30 V 3.70 y130

: maternal ts-lethal to XX animals, as a result of X chromosome overexpression; fully penetrant at restrictive temperature (25°C); XO animals viable abnormal males, scrawny, slow-growing, mating-defective. OA1: y228am. CLONED: 0.6-kb transcript, encodes 123-aa novel protein; antibody staining indicates DPY-30 ubiquitous nuclear protein, present in both sexes; upstream gene in operon with rnp-1 . [Hsu and Meyer 1994; Hsu et al. 1995]

dyf

dy e f illing of neurons defective [SP]. In wt, 16 amphid and phasmid neurons will take up fluorescent dyes (FITC, DiO). See also daf, che, osm, tax, avr.

dyf-1 I 0.45 mn335

: mut; defective in dye filling (FITC or DiO) of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME2. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-2 III 21.71 m543

: mut; defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME4 (both alleles). OA1: m160. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-3 IV 5.25 m185

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME4 (m185) ME2 (mn331) ME1 (sa122). OA2: mn331mut, sa122. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-4 V 4.23 m158

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME4 (m158) ME4 (m177) ME3 (mn332). OA2: m177, mn332mut. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-5 I 3.70 mn400

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; animals slightly short; chemotaxis-defective. ME2. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-6 X 2.46 m175

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME3 (m175) ME4 (mn346). OA1: mn347mut. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-7 X 1.95 m537 :

mut; defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME1. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-8 X 12.79 m539

: mut; defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; animals slightly short; chemotaxis-defective. ME1. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-9 V 23.47 n1513

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME1 (n1513) ME3 (sa121). OA1: sa121. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-10 I 1.55 e1383

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME4 NA1. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-11 X 17.86 mn392

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; animals slightly short; chemotaxis-defective. ME3 NA1. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-12 X 1.93 sa127

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; chemotaxis-defective. ME3. OA3: nr272, nr2477, nr2344 (dominant Avr allele, heterozygotes 98% non-Dyf, but many have less uptake than wt). [Starich et al. 1995]

dyf-13 II 0.22 mn396

: defective in dye (FITC or DiO) filling of amphid and phasmid neurons; usually 1−2 amphid neurons dye fill (FITC or DiO); reduced growth rate and reduced and variable brood sizes; mildly chemotaxis-defective. ME2 NA1. [Starich et al. 1995]

dyn

dyn amin-related [CX].

dyn-1 ? ky51

: ts reversible uncoordinated phenotype; encodes protein with similarity to vertebrate dynamin; antibody staining indicates high in axons. OA1: pk76tci. [CX]

eat

eat ing abnormal (pharyngeal defects) [DA].

eat-1 IV 4.85 e2343

: slow, irregular pumping, body slightly long and thin, movement slightly sluggish. OA1: ad427 (stronger phenotype). [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-2 II 22.46 ad465

: medium-strong Eat: slow, often regular pumping; somewhat hypersensitive to arecoline (cholinergic agonist), most L1s arrested by 5 mM; lose synaptic transmission from MC motor neuron. OA>10: ad451, ad453, ad459, ad570, ad692. Complex complementation, five classes. [Avery 1993a; Raizen et al. 1995] [DA]

eat-3 II 1.31 ad426

: generally disgusting worm; very slow, irregular pumping; sluggish; Egl; dies on recovery from dauer; strong maternal rescue effect; eat-3 progeny of an eat-3/+ mother move normally and have only a weak Eat phenotype. NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-4 III 0.14 ad572

: xri; weak Eat; normal pumps interspersed with abnormal pumps in which corpus contractions feeble but long-lasting, and terminal bulb contractions long-lasting but of normal strength; phenotype resembles that caused by killing pharyngeal M3 neurons, but is stronger; lacks M3-derived IPSPs; other behavioral defects include Not, Fab, Che, Ttx; possibly general defect in glutamatergic neurons. OA6: ad537, ad613, ad801, ad818, ad819, ky5. CLONED: encodes possible transporter protein, “NERD” family (45% identity to rat brain phosphate transporter); eat-4:lacZ expressed in multiple neurons. [Avery 1993a] [CX, DA, KP]

eat-5 I 1.87 ad464

: corpus and terminal bulb contractions not synchronized; usually the terminal bulb pumps more slowly than the corpus; phenotype less penetrant in adults; defective dye-coupling between terminal bulb and corpus. NA1. CLONED: encodes predicted protein related to UNC-7, Drosophila Passover (four transmembrane domains). [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-6 V 4.83 ad467

: strong relaxation-defective; pharynx often fails to relax or relaxes slowly; long yawns occur, where the corpus stays open for seconds, punctuated with erratic partial relaxations; terminal bulb usually more strongly affected than the corpus, but the motions of the two precisely synchronized; relaxation transient reduced in size in electropharyngeograms; hypersensitive to inhibitors of Na/K ATPase; synthetic lethal with eat-11 (ad541). OA2: ad601xri, ad792. CLONED: encodes α-subunit of Na/K ATPase (pka spa-1 ). [Avery 1993a; Davis et al. 1995] [DA]

eat-7 IV 17.60 ad450

: narcoleptic; eat-7 worms when undisturbed fall “asleep”; tend to become starved; sleeping worms do not move or pump, and probably do not defecate; disturbing them wakes them up, and while awake act fairly normal. OA1: ad540. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-8 III 25.63 ad697

: brief, rare pumps; pumping otherwise normal in Nomarski, except pumps sometimes so brief as to be only coordinated twitches; penetrant, strong Eat. OA1: ad599. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-9 I 23.58 e2337

: slightly starved; irregular pumping. NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-10 IV 27.99 ad606

: strong Eat; slippery isthmus and corpus. NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-11 I 2.24 ad541

: weak Eat: slippery corpus; slightly long; movement slightly loopy (i.e., bends deeper than normal); hypersensitive to arecoline (cholinergic agonist), will not grow at concentrations ≥1 mM; synthetic-lethal with eat-6 ; suppressed by egl-30 (gf), exp-2 (gf). NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA, JT]

eat-12

= egl-19

eat-13 X 1.16 ad522

: strong Eat; slippery pharynx; possible terminal bulb relaxation defect. NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-14 X 5.40 ad573

: medium or weak Eat; grinder sometimes fails to relax fully between pumps; resembles phm-2 in motion defect, but weaker, and no obvious anatomical abnormalities exist. NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-15 I 1.80 ad602

: medium to weak Eat: slippery isthmus, corpus, and grinder. NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-16 I 3.88 ad702

: strong Eat: slippery isthmus and corpus. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-17 X 23.83 ad707

: strong Eat: stuffs corpus and isthmus; abnormality in pharyngeal muscles pm6 and pm7 contraction timing. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

eat-18 I 23.60 ad820

: sd; Eat; starved; homozygote has slow pharyngeal pumping, defective MC neurotransmission, and lacks I-phase transients in the EPG (ES3); ad820/+ pumps slower than wt but faster than ad820/ad820 and not very starved (ES1). OA1: ad1110 (putative lf allele). [Raizen et al. 1995] [DA]

eft

e longation f ac t or [CGC].

eft-1 III 1.1

NMK. Encodes 849-aa protein; C-terminal has 47−58% similarity to elongation factors; N-terminal has homology with GTP-binding proteins; lacks diphtheria toxin target His (Tyr instead). [Ofulue and Candido 1992]

eft-2 I 3.62

NMK. Encodes protein with >80% similarity to elongation factor EF2 from yeast, Drosophila, humans. [Ofulue and Candido 1992]

eft-3 III 0.82

NMK. Encodes 463-aa protein with 83% identity to EF1α; eft-3:lacZ fusion expressed widely, but not in intestine or body wall muscle. [FK]

eft-4 X 1.09

NMK. Encodes EF1α protein; amino acid sequence identical to eft-3 . [FK]

egl

eg g l aying-defective [MT]. Egl-c : egg-laying-constitutive; drug response categories define response to serotonin and to imipramine (serotonin re-uptake inhibitor).
Type A: egg laying not stimulated by either serotonin or imipramine (probable defects in vulva or sex muscles)
Type B: stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine
Type C: stimulated by imipramine and by serotonin
Type D: stimulated by imipramine, not by serotonin
Type E: variable response

egl-1 V 6.18 n487

: sd, ts; transient bloating Egl; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN cells undergo programmed cell death, hence ced-3 suppressible; no phenotype in male; n487/+ is ts Egl (penetrance 85% at 25°C, 60% at 20°C). ES2 (adult) ME3. OA3: n986, n987 (both stronger non-ts alleles, n987/+ penetrance >95%), n1084 (weaker than n487). [Ellis and Horvitz 1986; Desai and Horvitz 1989] [MT]

egl-2 V 20.40 n693

: dm; severe bloating Egl; stimulated by imipramine, not serotonin; weak uncoordinated kinker phenotype; muscle activation-defective (flaccid, long); defecation-defective, severely constipated; E.p (expulsion muscle contraction) nearly always missing, corrected by imipramine; egg-laying and defecation muscles appear normal by polarized light. ES3 (adult) ME1 (abnormal bursal morphology, cloacal structures protrude, poor vulval location; weak similar phenotype in n693/+). Probable gf allele. OA>4: intragenic revertants, e.g., n693n905, n693sa326 (phenotypically wt). Also second sd allele: n2656. [Trent et al. 1983; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT]

egl-3 V 2.33 n150

: ts; moderate bloating Egl; stimulated by serotonin and by imipramine; coiler phenotype. ES3 (adult 25°C) ES2 (larvae, males) ME2. OA3: n588 (weakly semidominant), n729. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-4 IV 15.30 n478

: transient bloating Egl; variable drug response; overresponds to dauer pheromone. ES2 (adult) ME1 (no obvious morphological defect). OA4: n477, n479ts, n579, n612. [Trent et al. 1983; Golden and Riddle 1984a]

egl-5 III 0.54 n486

: moderate bloating Egl; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; uncoordinated coiler phenotype; Mec in posterior; HSN cell bodies absent or displaced and serotonin-negative; not suppressed by ced-3 . ES3 (adult) ME0. OA>10: e2495, u202, e2399, e2502, e2506, e2508, n1066, n1067, n1439 (weakest allele, males can mate), n945amb (strongest allele), n988, n989. CLONED: encodes Abd-B class homeoprotein (pka ceh-11 ) [Chisholm 1991; Wang et al. 1993] [CF, MT]

egl-6 X 12.73 n592

: sd; transient bloating Egl; variable drug response; uncoordinated weak kinker phenotype. ES2 ME2 NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-7 III 3.18 n575

: sd, ts; moderate bloating at 25°C, unhealthy; some bloating at 15°C; stimulated by serotonin and by imipramine. ES2 (adult 25°C) ME2 NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-8 V 20.25 n488

: transient variable bloating; variable drug response; Unc; Pbo, pBoc defecation contractions weak or very weak. ES2 (adult) ME0 (variable Mab: fan-defective, missing rays). OA5: sa28 (pka pbo-2 ), sa32ts, sa46 (weaker), sa47. [Trent et al. 1983; Thomas 1990]

egl-9 V 2.64 n586

: ts; transient bloating at 25°C; variable drug response; resistant to paralysis by toxin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ES2 (adult 25°C) ME3. OA3: n571 (non-ts), sa307, sa330. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT, JT]

egl-10 V 4.18 n692

: sd, ts; transient bloating, sluggish weak kinker; type B/C; HSN appears normal; weakly semidominant, partially ts. ES3 (adult) ES2 (other stages) ME2. OA9: n480ts (slight bloating; stimulated by serotonin and by imipramine), n1068, n1083, n1185, etc. CLONED: predicted protein has distant similarity to yeast signal transduction component, Sst2p. [Trent et al. 1983; Koelle and Horvitz 1996] [MT]

egl-11 V 3.19 n587

: ts; transient bloating at 25°C; variable drug response. ES2 (adult 25°C) ME2. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-12 V 16.12 n602

: sd; transient bloating; variable drug response; weakly semidominant. ES2 (adult) ME2. OA1: n599 (recessive). [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-13 X 3.84 n483

: penetrance 70%; severe bloating or bag-of-worms phenotype (insensitive to serotonin and imipramine); minority wt. ES3/0 (adult) ME3. OA1: e1447. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-14 X 3.66 n549

: transient bloating; variable drug response. ES2 (adult) ME0 (no obvious morpho-Mab, poor vulva location) NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-15 X 2.49 n484

: moderate to severe bloating; 60% form bag-of-worms (insensitive to serotonin, imipramine); vulval and uterine muscles defective because of defects in sex myoblast migrations; Soc suppresses and is suppressed by clr-1 mutations. ES3 (adult) ME3. OA>10: n1458, n1459, ay1 (all three resemble n484, class 1). Also stronger alleles (class II, putative null): n1454, n1456, n1478 (all larval-lethal, L1 arrest). Also class III alleles: n1477ts, n1460, n1780, n1784 (all scrawny, Egl, Soc). Also class IV alleles: n1783, n1775 (Soc, no other phenotype). CLONED: 4.2-kb transcript, encodes predicted 1040-aa FGFR-type receptor tyrosine kinase; transgene overexpression leads to Clr phenotype. [Stern and Horvitz 1991; DeVore et al. 1995] [MT, NH]

egl-16

= sdc-1

egl-17 X 19.55 e1313

: moderate to severe bloating; 30% form bag-of-worms; insensitive to serotonin and imipramine; severe posterior displacement of hermaphrodite sex muscles (due to gonadal repulsion); enhancer of weak Tra mutation; suppressed by clr-1 mutations. ES3 (adult) ME3. OA9: ay6, n1377, ay10 (putative null); all similar. CLONED: cosmid rescue; ay6, n1377 are deletions. [Stern and Horvitz 1991; Clark et al. 1993] [MT, NH]

egl-18 IV 15.67 n162

: variable bloating; a few form bag-of-worms; variable drug response; vulval abnormalities; low penetrance Vab. ES3/1 (adult) ME0 (variable Mab, rays blobby or missing, fan abnormal). OA2: n474, n475. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-19 IV 3.38 n582

: sd; moderate bloating; stimulated by imipramine, not by serotonin; slow and floppy; long; n582/Df more severe phenotypes. ES3 (adult) ES2 (other stages) ME1. NA(lf)>10: st556 (pka pat-5 ), st576, st577 (all embryonic-lethal, severe Pat, probable null phenotype). Also apparent gf alleles: ad695sd (pka eat-12 , weak Eat: terminal bulb stays contracted for longer than normal, sometimes >1 sec; corpus action normal; muscle hyperactivated, sticky pumping, short, ad695/+ similar but weaker phenotypes), n2368 (Eat: delayed relaxation and repolarization of terminal bulb; Egl: eggs of <10 nuclei are laid, vulval muscles show spontaneous contraction; Dpy: may be due to body muscles hypercontraction; Mab: protruding spicules. n2368/+ has a phenotype similar to but weaker than n2368. ES3 ME0. n2368 but not n2368/+ has a cs Pat phenotype, penetrant at 12°C. ME0. Intragenic revertants, e.g., n2368ad979 are recessive Pat) CLONED: may encode calcium channel subunit. [Avery 1993a; Williams and Waterston 1994] [DA, MT]

egl-20 IV 4.43 n585

: ts; moderate bloating at 25°C; variable drug response; pleiotropic Mig, some but not all migrations defective, QL daughters migrate anteriorly. ES3 (adult) ME0 (variable Mab: blobby rays, small fan, displaced sex muscles, etc.) NA1. [Trent et al. 1983; Garriga and Stern 1994] [CF, MT]

egl-21 IV 4.63 n611

: ts; transient bloating at 25°C; variable drug response; partially temperature-sensitive; uncoordinated weak coiler; abnormal 5-HT signaling. ES2 (adult) ME2. OA2: n476, n576. [Trent et al. 1983] [KP, MT]

egl-22

= unc-31

egl-23 IV 10.68 n601

: dm; severe bloating (insensitive to serotonin and imipramine); some animals form bag-of-worms; uncoordinated sluggish phenotype (recessive); vulval muscles contract under laser stimulation; muscle activation defective (flaccid, long); defecation-defective; moderate constipation but almost never have expulsion (E.p) contraction. ES3 (adult) ES1 (larvae) ME3. OA>4: intragenic revertants n601sa179, etc.; all phenotypically wt (probable null). Also second sd allele. [Trent et al. 1983; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT, MT]

egl-24 III 1.06 n572

: variable bloating (insensitive to serotonin and imipramine); some animals wt; variable Unc and Lon phenotypes. ES2 (adult) ME2 NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-25 III 1.51 n573

: variable bloating (insensitive to serotonin and imipramine); variable abnormal tail morphology. ES2 (adult) ME0 (no obvious morphological defect) NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-26 II 18.21 n481

: variable bloating; insensitive to serotonin and imipramine; 60% adults form bag-of-worms; abnormal vulva; suppressor of Tra-3. ES2 (adult) ME3. OA1: e1952 (pka egl-48 , HME1/2, stronger suppressor of Tra-3). [Trent et al. 1983; Hodgkin 1986] [CB, MT]

egl-27 II 0.12 n170

: variable bloating, moderate to severe; variable drug response; possibly abnormal vulva; Mig. Males Lin, very abnormal: reduced rays, short spicules, swollen bursa, hermaphroditic tail spike. ES2 (adult) ES3 (adult male) ME0. OA1: e2394. [Trent et al. 1983; Desai et al. 1988] [CZ, MT]

egl-28 II 1.58 n570

: ts; transient bloating at 25°C; variable drug response; partially temperature-sensitive; Dpy; ES2 (adult) ME0 (occasional Mab, also variable Spe defect in germ line) NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-29 II 5.32 n482

: variable, some animals wt, some form bag-of-worms (80%); insensitive to serotonin and imipramine; variably abnormal vulva (protrusive; abnormal VU pi fate). ES2 (adult) ME3 NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT, PS]

egl-30 I 13.53 n686

: sd; moderate bloating, variable drug response; Unc slow, very sluggish phenotype, Sma, Gro; muscle activation defective (flaccid, long). ES3 (adult) ES2 (other stages) ME0 (slight morpho-Mab). OA>10 (dominant): n715sd (uncoordinated paralyzed phenotype, n715/+ has type-C bloating), ad805, ad803, ad806, ad809, ad810 (recessive-lethal, flaccid arrest at hatching), ad813, ad814. The strongest gf alleles are homozygous-lethal; homozygotes hatch, but paralyzed, with no or feeble contractions of body wall, pharyngeal, and defecation muscles; homozygotes, however, move normally during embryonic elongation; many dominant suppressors of eat-11 . Also intragenic revertants: n715n1190, n715n1189 (candidate lf: weak Egl, possibly hyperactive), pk45tci. Null phenotype uncertain. CLONED: corresponds to gqa-1 , α-subunit of G protein q (80% identity to mammalian Gqα). [Trent et al. 1983; Park and Horvitz 1986a; Brundage et al. 1996] [DA, MT, PS]

egl-31 I 3.07 n472

: moderate to severe bloating; insensitive to serotonin and imipramine; some animals form bag-of-worms (20%) or rupture at vulva; sex muscles variably defective because of abnormalities in early M lineage; Unc poor backing phenotype; Lon? ES2 (adult) ES2 (other stages) ME0 (males have M lineage defect also) NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [CZ, MT]

egl-32 I 3.96 n155

: ts; moderate bloating; variable drug response; partially temperature-sensitive; suppressible by daf-3 . ES2 (adult) ME3 (some males have abnormal somatic gonads, some have abnormal or feminized germ lines) NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-33 I 3.96 n151

: ts; moderate to severe bloating at 25°C; insensitive to serotonin and imipramine; some animals form bag-of-worms (40%) or rupture at vulva; Gro; Unc kinker phenotype at 25°C. ES3 (adult 25°C) ES2 (larvae 25°C) ME2 NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-34 I 2.41 n171

: variable bloating; variable drug response; some animals wt, some form bag-of-worms (10%). ES2 (adult) ME0 (variable Mab: blobby rays, misshapen bursa, sex muscle defects). OA1: e1452. [Trent et al. 1983] [CZ, MT]

egl-35 III 17.53 n694

: ts; transient bloating at 25°C; sensitive to serotonin and to imipramine; Unc, unhealthy; precocious HSN differentiation. ES2 (adult 25°C) ME3/ME0 (variable Mab: some tail deformity at 25°C, less at 20°C) NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [CZ, MT]

egl-36 X 1.95 n728

: dm; severe bloating; insensitive to serotonin and imipramine; 50% adults form bag-of-worms; abnormal defecation (E.p), weakly constipated; Sma? ES2 (adult). Muscle activation defective (flaccid, long). ME3. n728/+ has similar phenotype. NA1. [Trent et al. 1983; Park and Horvitz 1986a; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT, MT]

egl-37 II 1.41 n742

: ts; transient bloating at 25°C; variable drug response. ES2 (adult 25°C) ME3 NA1. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT]

egl-38 IV 4.46 n578

: severe bloating; insensitive to serotonin and imipramine; almost no egg laying; >90% adults form bag-of-worms (>90%); defect in vulval-uterine attachment, persistent survival of AC; uncoordinated very sluggish phenotype; abnormal vulva. ES3 (all stages). OA2: sy294 (pka lin-50 , males have abnormal tails with U and B lineage defects; hermaphrodites also have abnormal tails, frequently sterile), s1775. [Trent et al. 1983] [MT, PS]

egl-39

= unc-16

egl-40 IV 4.19 n606

: ts, sd; transient bloating; sensitive to serotonin and imipramine; partially temperature-sensitive; Dpy; overresponds to dauer pheromone. ES2 (adult 25°C) ME3 NA1. [Trent et al. 1983; Golden and Riddle 1984a] [MT]

egl-41 V 5.67 n1077

: cs, sd; moderate bloating; sensitive to serotonin, not to imipramine; HSN cells absent in adult ( ced-3 suppressible); other indications of weak masculinization of XX animals (CEM cells survive; weak suppressor of tra-2[gf]); also XO animals sometimes weakly feminized, especially at 25°C. Penetrance of n1077/+ XX: 60% Egl at 20°C. ES2 (adult) ES1 (other stages). OA3: n1069, n1074, e2055 (all similar). [Desai and Horvitz 1989; Hodgkin et al. 1985] [CB, MT]

egl-42 II 0.31 n995

: sd; moderate bloating; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN appear normal; slight bloating in n995/+. ES2 (adult) ME2 OA1 (n996sd). [Desai and Horvitz 1989] [MT]

egl-43 II 1.81 n997

: moderate bloating; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN cell bodies serotonin-positive but misplaced posteriorly along path of HSN migration; aberrant variable HSN processes; abnormal IL2 wiring. ES2 (adult) ES1 (other stages) ME2. OA1: n1079. CLONED: 2.5- and 1.8-kb transcripts, encode 517-aa or 360-aa zinc finger proteins, related to mouse Evi-1. [Desai and Horvitz 1989; Garriga and Stern 1994] [KP, MT, NG]

egl-44 II 1.69 n998

: moderate bloating; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN cell bodies do not contain serotonin; axon defects; slow growth; serotonin levels increased if synapse formation blocked; ectopic expression of mec-7 . ES2 (adult) ME2. OA2: n1080, n1087 (strongest allele). [Desai and Horvitz 1989] [MT, TU]

egl-45 III 0.54 n999

: moderate bloating; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN cell bodies sometimes degenerate in L4, absent in adult and never contain serotonin; Unc; axon defects; some sterility; n999/Df often very unhealthy, slow, sterile; HSN degeneration suppressed by unc-76 and unc-42 mutations. ES2 (adult) ES1 (other stages) ME1 (variable morpho-Mab: posterior bulges in fan, some spicule and muscle defects). NA1. CLONED: encodes novel predicted protein. [Desai and Horvitz 1989] [MT]

egl-46 V 0.13 n1127

: moderate bloating; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN cell bodies do not contain serotonin; torpid Unc and Lin (abnormal Q lineage) phenotypes; axon defects; serotonin levels increased if HSN synapse formation blocked; ectopic expression of mec-7; n1127/Df similar. ES2 (adult) ES1 (other stages) ME2. OA3: n1075, n1076. [Desai and Horvitz 1989] [MT, TU]

egl-47 V 2.57 n1081

: dm; moderate bloating; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN appear normal; slightly Unc, kinking tendency; probable gf allele. ES2 (adult) ME2. OA1: n1082dm. [Desai and Horvitz 1989] [MT]

egl-48

= egl-26

egl-49 X N n1107

: ts, sd; Egl; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN appear normal. ME2 NA1. [Desai and Horvitz 1989] [MT]

egl-50 II 23.50 n1086

: cs; Egl; stimulated by serotonin, not imipramine; HSN appear normal; slight Dpy; weak Tra (some intersexes at 15°C), weak Him. ME2. [Desai and Horvitz 1989] [MT]

ego

e nhancer of g lp- o ne ( glp-1 ) [EL].

ego-1 I 2.04 om18

: recessive enhancer of glp-1(bn18) at 20°C; reduced germ cell number, 50% of wt in young adult, delayed spermatogenesis, abnormal unfertilized oocytes. NA1. [Qiao et al. 1995] [EL]

ego-2 I 6.88 om33

: recessive enhancer of glp-1(bn18) at 20°C; also interacts with glp-4(om14). NA1. [Qiao et al. 1995] [EL]

ego-3 V 6.31 om40

: recessive enhancer of glp-1(bn18) at 20°C; reduced germ cell number, 50% of wt in young adult, delayed spermatogenesis; some proximal germ-line proliferation; abnormal unfertilized oocytes, some somatic gonad abnormalities; severe Unc as larva, not as adult. NA1. [Qiao et al. 1995] [EL]

ego-4 III 0.82 om30

: recessive enhancer of glp-1(bn18) at 20°C; reduced germ cell number, 30% of wt in young adult, defective oocytes (Mel, usually mid-embryonic arrest). OA1: om60. [Qiao et al. 1995] [EL]

ego-5 III 0.70 om31

: recessive enhancer of glp-1(bn18) at 20°C; reduced germ cell number, 30% of wt in young adult, defective oocytes (Mel, late embryonic arrest). OA1: om62. [Qiao et al. 1995] [EL]

eha

e gg-laying h ormone of A plysia, related [CGC].

eha-1 I 3.72

NMK. Hybridizes to Aplysia probe. [CGC]

eln

See eft.

elt

e rythroid- l ike t ranscription factor family [BL].

elt-1 IV 4.45 zu180

: zygotic recessive-lethal; makes no hypodermis; extra cell divisions in all hypodermal lineages, extra neuron-like cells. OA1: pk60 (Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype). CLONED: 1.7-kb transcript, trans-spliced to SL1; encodes GATA family protein, functional in yeast; transcripts most abundant in germ line, especially male; elt-1:lacZ expressed in embryo from 50-cell stage. [Spieth et al. 1991b] [BL, JJ, JM]

elt-2 X 1.95 pk46

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; encodes GATA family protein; transcripts maximal in embryo, absent from oocytes; elt-2:lacZ expressed specifically in intestinal cells, from 2 E cell stage onward. [Hawkins and McGhee 1995] [JM]

elt-3 X 15.5

NMK. Encodes GATA family protein. [BL, CGC]

emb

emb ryogenesis abnormal [RC].

emb-1 III 4.46 hc57

: ts, mm; at 25°C, 1−24-cell arrest; no pseudocleavage-defective cytoplasmic streaming; normal and defective execution before one-cell stage; viable at 16°C. OA1: hc62ts (similar phenotype). [Miwa et al. 1980] [MJ]

emb-2 III 5.09 hc58

: ts, mnz; at 25°C, lima bean arrest; abnormal blastocoel; division rates slowed ∼20%; normal execution in oogenesis or early cleavage; defective execution later; viable at 16°C, slightly slow divisions. NA1. [Miwa et al. 1980] [MJ]

emb-3 IV 3.84 hc59

: ts, mm; at 25°C, lima bean arrest; early nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities; abnormal blastocoel; division rates slightly faster; normal and defective execution before fertilization. NA1. [Miwa et al. 1980] [MJ]

emb-4 V 21.06 hc60

: ts, mm; at 25°C, lima bean arrest; slow division rates especially E lineage; shift to 25°C in L1 results in defective gonadogenesis. Subviable at 16°C: 60% of eggs fail to hatch, many larvae die or have gross morphological abnormalities. NA1. [Miwa et al. 1980] [MJ]

emb-5 III 3.36 hc61

: ts, mm; at 25°C, lima bean arrest; misplaced gut granule birefringence; abnormal gastrulation division rates slowed (except E lineage, precocious), Ea divides a/p; normal and defective execution at 24-cell stage; shift to 25°C in L1 results in defective gonadogenesis; viable at 16°C; suppressible by mutations in dpy-2,3,7,8,10. OA3: g16ts, g65ts (similar to hc61), hc67ts (division rates faster than wt, otherwise like hc61). CLONED: 5.4-kb transcript, encodes predicted 1521-aa protein; some similarity to yeast nuclear protein SPT6. [Miwa et al. 1980; Nishiwaki et al. 1993; Hubbard et al. 1996] [MJ]

emb-6 I 0.47 hc65

: ts, mm; at 25°C, 14-cell arrest; no gut granule birefringence; division rates very slow; normal and defective execution before first cleavage; viable at 16°C. OA1: g36ts (similar). [Miwa et al. 1980; Denich et al. 1984] [MJ]

emb-7 III 3.12 hc66

: ts, mm; at 25°C, lima bean arrest; division rates slightly slowed; normal and defective execution before first division; viable at 16°C but slightly abnormal division rates. OA2: b84ts (pka zyg-4 , 25°C embryonic arrest <100 nuclei; L1 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis), b64. [Miwa et al. 1980] [MJ]

emb-8 III 4.44 hc69

: ts, mm; at 25°C, eggs osmotically sensitive; variable arrest (early to mid-cleavage); division rates slowed; viable at 16°C, but eggs are fragile. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (ZC235). [Miwa et al. 1980] [MJ]

emb-9 III 0.47 hc70

: sd, ts, nn; at 25°C, early pretzel arrest; a few animals hatch and die in L1; ts for larval growth (arrest shortly after any shift to 25°C); normal and defective execution in late embryogenesis. OA>10: g23ts, g34ts, b117ts, b189ts (pka zyg-6 ) (all similar to hc70), mj70ts (Mig, abnormal Q daughter migration). Also Pat alleles: st540, st545 (paralyzed arrest at 2-fold, late paralysis, no elongation). Putative nulls recessive, arrest at 3-fold stage; strong missense alleles arrest at 2-fold. CLONED: pka clb-2 ; encodes 1758-aa basement membrane collagen (type IV), α1 chain. [Denich et al. 1984; Sibley et al. 1993] [CH, MJ, RW]

emb-10 I 1.75 hc63

: ts; embryonic arrest. OA1: k12ts (sterile; viable at 16°C). [MJ]

emb-11 IV 4.73 g4

: ts, mm; osmotically sensitive eggs at 25.6°C (leaky at 25°C); 94% arrest during early proliferation; escapers mostly arrest in L1; temperature shift-up in L1 or L4 results in abnormal gonadogenesis; adults dumpy at 25°C, uncoordinated at 16°C. OA1: g1ts (similar phenotypes but lower penetrance). [Cassada et al. 1981] [RC]

emb-12 I 2.06 g5

: ts, mm; osmotically sensitive eggs at 25.6°C (leaky at 25°C); 72% arrest during early proliferation; escapers have abnormal gonads; temperature shift-up in L1 results in incompletely penetrant gonad defects; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981] [RC]

emb-13 III 11.73 g6

: ts, nm; at 25°C, 99% eggs arrest at lima bean; no gut granule birefringence; reduced cytoplasmic streaming before first cleavage slow divisions; E, D, and P lineages early; escapers arrest as larvae, abnormal gonadogenesis; L1 temperature shift-up results in larval arrest, abnormal gonad; viable at 16°C, variably long. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-14 I 1.67 g43

: ts, nm; osmotically sensitive eggs at 25°C; 100% eggs arrest during proliferation; escapers arrest as larvae; L1 temperature shift-up results in some gonad abnormality; viable at 16°C; poor male mating. OA1: g14ts,mm? (similar phenotypes, lower penetrance). [Cassada et al. 1981] [RC]

emb-15 X 7.61 g15

: ts, mnz; at 25°C, 97% eggs arrest at pretzel; prolonged mitoses during cleavage; escapers arrest L1−L4; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-16 III 0.80 g19

: ts, mm; at 25°C, 91% eggs arrest at lima bean; misplaced gut granule birefringence; E lineage early, MS delayed; escapers arrest in L1 abnormal gonadogenesis; L1 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis; viable at 16°C, somewhat uncoordinated. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-17 I N g20

: ts, mnz; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at lima bean; normal gut granule birefringence; eggs variably irregular in shape; some lineages early, some delayed; L1 or L4 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis; at 16°C, uncoordinated; synthetic lethal with many dpy mutations. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-18 V 2.21 g21

: ts, mm; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at lima bean; normal gut granule birefringence; eggs variably round in shape; C and E lineages late, P4 early; escapers arrest L2−L4; L1 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis; slightly long at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-19 I 2.06 g22

: ts, mm; osmotically sensitive eggs at 25°C; 100% arrest during early proliferation; escapers arrest L1−L4; L1 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981] [RC]

emb-20 I 13.31 g27

: ts, mm; osmotically sensitive eggs at 25.6°C (leaky at 25°C); 96% eggs arrest during early proliferation; escapers viable F1 Emb; viable at 16°C. OA1: g26. [Cassada et al. 1981] [RC]

emb-21 II 0.58 g31

: ts, mm; at 25°C, 90% eggs arrest 26−30 cell stage; no gut granule birefringence; variable round eggs; large ooplasmic granules, prolonged mitoses especially AB; escapers arrest L2−L3, abnormal gonadogenesis; L1 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-22 V 1.39 g32

: ts, nm; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at lima bean; misplaced gut granule birefringence; strong ooplasmic streaming, erratic pronuclear migration, no polar body formation, all mitoses prolonged; temperature shift-up at all stages after lima bean results in immediate arrest; viable at 16°C. NA1. Tightly linked to and possibly identical with act-123 . [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-23 II 2.94 g39

: ts, mm; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at lima bean; misplaced gut granule birefringence; very large ooplasmic granules; MS, C, and P2 divisions late; escapers arrest L1−L2 abnormal gonads; L1 temperature shift-up results in L1−L2 arrest abnormal gonads; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-24 III 0.02 g40

: ts, mnz; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at pretzel; normal gut granule birefringence; E lineage late; L1 temperature shift-up results in L1−L3 arrest; viable at 16°C, but many defective embryos. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-25 III 0.37 g45

: ts, mm; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at 100−250 cells; normal gut granule birefringence; eggs variably long in shape; later divisions slow or incomplete; escapers arrest L1−L2; L1 temperature shift-up results in L1−L2 arrest; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-26 IV 2.45 g47

: ts, mm; at 25.6°C (leaky at 25°C), 80% eggs arrest at lima bean; abnormal gut granule birefringence; slow ooplasmic streaming, cleavage timing alterations; escapers arrest L1−L4 abnormal gonads; L1 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis; viable at 16°C, slightly long, poor male mating; meiotic phenotype at 20°C (pka him-12 ), self-progeny 8% XO male, low brood size (65% unhatched eggs), males sire many inviable zygotes. ES3 (progeny) ME2 NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-27 II 0.78 g48

: ts, mm, pat : at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at one-cell stage; no polar body formation, no pseudocleavage, 30% fail to reform pronucleus; pronuclear migration and fusion are slow or absent, pronuclei disintegrate; escapers viable adults, F1 Emb; males crossed with wt hermaphrodites sire progeny that arrest at 100-cell stage; mutant hermaphrodites crossed with wt males also produce embryos arrested at 100-cell stage; pleiotropic defect in gametogenesis (cf. emb-30 ); L1 temperature shift-up results in viable adult F1 Emb; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [DS, RC]

emb-28 V 13.87 g49

: ts, mm; at 25.6°C (leaky at 25°C), 91% arrest at lima bean; misplaced gut granule birefringence; very large ooplasmic granules; slow and abnormal first cleavage, later divisions slow; escapers viable with abnormal gonad; L1 temperature shift-up results in viable adult F1 Emb; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-29 V 18.40 g52

: ts, nn; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest before mitosis during 150−200-cell stage; misplaced gut granule birefringence; some divisions delayed; escapers arrest L2−L4; L1 or L4 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis; probably general G2/M cell cycle arrest; viable at 16°C. OA4: b262 (similar phenotypes), s819, s1613, s1666fdi. CLONED: cosmid rescue? [Denich et al. 1984; Hecht et al. 1987] [BC, HH]

emb-30 III 1.29 g53

: ts, mm, pat; round osmotically sensitive eggs at 25°C; 96% eggs arrest at one-cell stage; ooplasmic streaming somewhat abnormal, only one polar body; no pseudocleavage; no pronuclear migration or fusion; some endomitosis; escapers are viable adults, F1 Emb; males crossed with wt hermaphrodites sire progeny that arrest at 100-cell stage; pleiotropic defect in gametogenesis? (cf. emb-27 ); L1 temperature shift-up results in viable adult F1 Emb; viable at 16°C, slightly uncoordinated. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue; operon includes tbg-1 , so emb-30 may correspond to tbg-1 . [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC, SQ]

emb-31 IV 2.92 g55

: ts, mm; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at lima bean; normal gut granule birefringence; abnormal blastocoel and gastrulation; escapers sometimes arrest in L1−L2; abnormal gonads; L1 temperature shift-up affects gonadogenesis; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981] [RC]

emb-32 III 6.65 g58

: ts, mnz; at 25.6°C (leaky at 25°C), 97% eggs arrest at lima bean; normal gut granule birefringence; ooplasmic streaming slow, cleavage timing altered, late divisions slow; escapers arrest in L2; L1 temperature shift-up results in L2 arrest, abnormal gonadogenesis; viable at 16°C, dumpy. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-33

= glp-1

emb-34 III 0.26 g62

: ts, nm; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at lima bean; abnormal gut granule birefringence; egg shape variable; some pseudocleavage failure, erratic pronuclear migration; first mitosis prolonged, later divisions prolonged and skewed; L1 temperature shift-up results in L1 arrest; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emb-35 IV 0.23 g64

: ts, mnz; at 25.6°C (leaky at 25°C), 97% eggs arrest at lima bean; normal gut granule birefringence; later divisions delayed and prolonged, P4 early; escapers small, arrest L1−L4; L1 temperature shift-up results in some larval arrest, dumpy adults F1 Emb; viable at 16°C. NA1. [Cassada et al. 1981; Denich et al. 1984] [RC]

emo

e ndo m itotic o ocytes [BS]. Formerly oar.

emo-1 V 2.83 oz1

: oocyte diakinesis arrest-defective; hermaphrodite sterile; in hermaphrodite, unfertilized oocytes in diakinesis undergo DNA endoreduplication and become polyploid. OA1: oz151 (embryonic-lethal). CLONED: cosmid F32D8. [Iwasaki et al. 1996] [BS]

emo-2 III 1 oz136

: recessive-sterile, endomitotic oocytes. [BS]

emo-3 IV 5.8 oz138

: recessive-sterile, endomitotic oocytes. [BS]

emo-4 V N oz145

: recessive-sterile, endomitotic oocytes. [BS]

emo-5 II N oz148

: recessive-sterile, endomitotic oocytes. [BS]

emo-6 III 1 oz154

: recessive-sterile, endomitotic oocytes. [BS]

emo-5 II N oz148

: recessive-sterile, endomitotic oocytes. [BS]

emo-6 III 1 oz154

: recessive-sterile, endomitotic oocytes. [BS]

enu

en hancer of u ncoordinated behavior [CB].

enu-1 II N ev419

: sd; no phenotype alone but enhances uncoordinated phenotype of vab-8(ev411); ES3 (in ev411 background) ES0 (without ev411). NA1. [NW]

epi

epi thelialization abnormal [NJ].

epi-1 IV 4.72 rh165

: basal lamina missing or defective in epidermis, gonad, intestine; pharynx normal; some migrations defective; body wall myofilaments disorganized; uterus and spermatheca fail to epithelialize, release proliferating germ cells; sterile. OA3: rh152 (weaker allele, mostly sterile), gm1, gm80 (more severe?). CLONED: encodes predicted protein with similarity to laminin A (pka lgx-3 ). [NJ, GS, NG]

evl

abnormal e version of v u l va [GS].

evl-1 V 2.4 ar115

: everted vulva, sterile; normal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, abnormal oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-2 II 2.4 ar119

: everted vulva, sterile; normal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, abnormal oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-3 II 1.8 ar99

: everted vulva, sterile; normal L4 vulval invagination, no uterine cavity, abnormal distal germ line, no sperm or oocytes. OA2: ar100, ar118 (both similar). [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-4 II RC ar101

: everted vulva, sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, abnormal oocytes. OA1: ar116 (similar). [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-5 V 0.5 ar105

: everted vulva, sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, abnormal oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-6 IV 5 ar120

: everted vulva, sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, abnormal oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-7 IV 1.8 ar108

: everted vulva, sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, no oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-8 III RC ar102

: everted vulva (or sometimes no vulval induction), sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, abnormal oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-9 I RC ar121

: everted vulva, sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, distal germ line abnormal, abnormal oocytes, no sperm. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-10 I 0.5 ar95

: everted vulva, sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, distal germ line abnormal, no sperm or oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-11 V 1.6 ar114

: everted vulva, sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, no uterine cavity, abnormal oocytes. OA1: ar113 (similar). [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-12 V 3.2 ar109

: everted vulva (or sometimes no vulval induction), sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, no uterine cavity, abnormal oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-13 IV 3.3 ar107

: everted vulva, sterile; abnormal L4 vulval invagination, no uterine cavity, no oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-14 III 3.3 ar96

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus and oocytes. OA2: ar97, ar112 (both similar) [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-15 IV L ar126

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, no oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-16 I RC ar93

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus and oocytes, distal germ line abnormal. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-17 I RC ar94

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus and oocytes, distal germ line abnormal. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-18 III L ar117

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, distal germ line abnormal, no sperm or oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-19 III RC ar98

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, distal germ line abnormal, no sperm or oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-20 II 0.9 ar103

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, distal germ line abnormal, no sperm or oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-21 III L ar122

: everted vulva (or sometimes no vulva), sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, abnormal uterus, distal germ line abnormal, no sperm. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-22 II LC ar104

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, no uterine cavity, no sperm or oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-23 IV 3.4 ar106

: everted vulva (or sometimes no vulva), sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, no uterine cavity, abnormal oocytes. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

evl-24 IV 4 ar124

: everted vulva, sterile; no L4 vulval invagination, no uterine cavity or oocytes, distal germ line abnormal. NA1. [Seydoux et al. 1993]

exc

exc retory canal abnormal [NJ].

exc-1 X 21.24 rh26

: excretory canal defect; large vacuoles appear randomly along the excretory canal, especially at the tips; 100% penetrant; often visible by low-power microscopy. NA1. [NJ]

exc-2 X 5.24 rh90

: excretory canal defect; canals very short and consist of a series of vacuoles; luminal coat partly detached, floats in canal; 100% penetrant; usually visible by low-power microscopy. OA1: rh105. [NJ]

exc-3 X 1.12 rh186

: excretory canal defect; canals shortened and animal somewhat pale; defect visible only by Nomarski microscopy. OA1: rh207. [NJ]

exc-4 I 25.31 rh133

: excretory canal defect; vacuoles appear in canal during embryogenesis and drastically shorten canal by hatch; animals pale, slightly Unc, and often killed by growth of large vacuoles at the excretory cell body; defect visible by low-power microscopy. OA1: n2400 [NJ]

exc-5 IV 4.30 rh232

: excretory canal defect; large vacuoles appear randomly along the excretory canal; 100% penetrant; often visible by low-power microscopy. OA2: n2669 (weaker allele, smaller vacuoles), n2672. [NJ]

exc-6 X 21.00 rh103

: excretory canal defect; canal varies in length from no outgrowth to almost complete outgrowth; frequent small vacuoles and extra branchings in the canal lumen visible only by Nomarski microscopy; animal somewhat pale. NA1. [NJ]

exc-7 II 1.59 rh252

: excretory canal defect; canal invariably short with multiple cysts of varying size clustered along length, especially at the tips; visible only by Nomarski microscopy; animal somewhat pale. NA1. [NJ]

exc-8 X N rh210

: excretory canal defect; resembles Exc-6. NA1. [NJ]

exp

exp ulsion step of defecation abnormal [JT].

exp-1 II 0.87 sa6

: severe to moderate constipation; E.p contraction present about every sixth cycle, slight Egl; defecation phenotype resembles Unc-25, Unc-47; GABA staining normal; sa6/Df similar. NA1. [Thomas 1990; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [JT]

exp-2 V 0.32 sa26

: sd; recessive-lethal; sa26/+ strongly dominant, severely constipated, jerky Unc; expulsion muscle contraction always absent from defecation cycle (E.p), severe egg-laying defect (type-A Egl); serotonin nonresponsive; egg laying and anal muscle normal as observed by polarized light, pumping very shallow but rapid; muscle activation defective (flaccid, long). NA1 (gf). Intragenic revertants, e.g., sa26sa66 sa26sa68, recessive-lethal, no dominant E.p phenotype. [Thomas 1990; Reiner and Thomas 1995] [DA, JT]

exp-3 V 21.73 n2372

: sd; severely bloated egg-laying-defective (type A); frequently forms bag-of-worms; also semidominantly defective for expulsion step of defecation; rarely has expulsion (E.p); severely constipated; egg-laying and enteric muscles grossly normal by polarized light microscopy; muscle activation defective (flaccid, long). ES3 (adult) ES2 (larvae) ME3 NA1. [Reiner et al. 1995] [JT]

exp-4 IV 4.96 n2373

: sd; moderately bloated egg-laying-defective (type A); infrequently forms bag-of-worms; also semidominantly defective for expulsion step of defecation; infrequently has expulsion defect (E.p); moderately constipated; egg-laying and enteric muscles grossly normal by polarized light microscopy; muscle activation defective (flaccid, long). ES3 (adult) ES2 (larvae) ME3 NA1. [Reiner et al. 1995] [JT]

fab

f oraging behavior ab normal [KP].

fab-1 I N ky2

: hyperactive foraging; suppressed by serotonin agonists and uptake inhibitors. [KP]

fab-2 I N n2460

: hyperactive foraging; suppressed by serotonin agonists but not by imipramine. [KP]

fab-3 III N n2462

: hyperactive foraging; suppressed by serotonin agonists but not by imipramine. [KP].

fab-4 V R n2466

: hyperactive foraging; suppressed by serotonin agonists and uptake inhibitors. [KP]

fat

fat ty acid desaturase [CGC].

fat-1 IV 8.3

NMK. Encodes fatty acid desaturase (EST cm10e11); complements Arabidopsis mutant fad2 (deficient in 18:3 fatty acid synthesis). [CGC]

fem

fem inization. Formerly isx ( i nter s e x ) [CB].

fem-1 IV 1.99 e1965

: mat; XO animals transformed into fertile females if mother homozygous, into intersexes if mother heterozygous; XX animals females if mother homozygous, females or hermaphrodites if mother heterozygous; null allele. ES3 (XO adult) ES2 (XX adult) ME0. OA>20: e1991amb (resembles e1965), e1949, etc. Also many ts alleles: hc17ts (pka isx-1 , causes only partial XO feminization at 25°C; XX self-fertile at 20°C), e1918ts, e1988ts, e1973ts. CLONED: 2.4-kb transcript, encodes 656-aa protein with six ANK repeats; antibody staining indicates present in both sexes, both germ line and soma. [Doniach and Hodgkin 1984; Spence et al. 1990; Gaudet et al. 1996] [AS]

fem-2 III 26.79 e2105

: ts, mat; XO animals transformed into fertile females (25°C) or intersexes (20°C) if mother homozygous, into abnormal males if mother heterozygous; XX animals fertile females if mother homozygous, hermaphrodite if mother heterozygous; XX phenotype non-ts; e2105/Df similar phenotypes. ES3 (XO adult) ES2 (XX progeny) ME0. OA>5: e2102 (Q182oc, similar to e2105), b245ts (pka isx-2 , weaker missense allele, causes only partial XO feminization at 25°C, XX self-fertile at 20°C), q117ts (missense). CLONED: encodes predicted 449-aa protein, with similarity to protein phosphatase class 2C; allele e2105 (probable null) is double mutant, b245tse2005op. [Kimble et al. 1984; Hodgkin 1986; Pilgrim et al. 1995] [DP]

fem-3 IV 4.13 e1996

: sd, mat, oc; XO animals transformed into fertile females if mother homozygous, into intersexes if mother heterozygous; XX animals fertile females; some e1996/+ XX animals female, some e1996/+ sons of e1996 mothers are feminized. ES3 (XO adult) ES2 (XX adult) ME0. OA>20 e1950, e2068amb, e2006ts (XX self-fertile at 20°C). Also gf, ts alleles: q20sd,ts (at 25°C, XX germ line makes only sperm; at 15°C, XX germ line makes oocytes and excess sperm). ES3 (progeny) ME3. OA8(gf): q22ts (weaker), q95ts (strongest allele, 80% Mog even at 15°C). CLONED: 1.7-kb and 1.55-kb (minor) transcripts; former encodes predicted 388-aa novel protein; gf alleles are alterations in 3′UTR; transgene overexpression of fem-3 leads to extensive masculinization of XX soma. [Hodgkin 1986; Ahringer et al. 1992] [CB, JK, AS]

fer

fer tilization-defective [BA]. See also spe.

fer-1 I 2.91 hc1

: ts; hermaphrodites and males grown at 25°C produce nonfunctional nonmotile sperm with short pseudopods; membranous organelles fail to fuse with sperm plasma membrane; TSP in L4; similar phenotype in hcl/Df. ES2 (adult). Self-fertility <1% (25°C), 100% (16°C); sperm normal if grown at <25°C. OA7: hc80 (nonconditional), hc24 (leaky ts), b232, etc. CLONED: cosmid rescue (C02D7); 7-kb transcript, encodes probable novel protein. [Ward et al. 1981] [BA]

fer-2 III 7.28 hc2

: ts; hermaphrodites and males grown at 25°C produce nonfunctional nonmotile sperm with aberrant pseudopods, perinuclear tubules; TSP L2−L4; self-fertility 2% (25°C), 70% (16°C). ES2 (adult) NA1. [Ward et al. 1981] [BA]

fer-3 II N hc3

: ts; hermaphrodites and males grown at 25°C produce nonfunctional nonmotile sperm with some aberrant pseudopods, perinuclear tubules; TSP L3−L4; self-fertility 1% (25°C), 60% (16°C). ES2 (adult) NA1. [Ward et al. 1981] [BA]

fer-4 V 2.75 hc4

: ts; hermaphrodites and males grown at 25°C produce nonfunctional nonmotile sperm with aberrant pseudopods, perinuclear tubules; skewed transmission ratio from hc4/+ males, implying haplo-expression; self-fertility 3% (25°C), 50% (16°C). ES2 (adult) NA1. hc4/Df hermaphrodites have abnormal gonads with no oocyte production, no rescue by wt sperm. [Ward et al. 1981] [BA]

fer-5

= fer-6

fer-6 I 2.89 hc6

: ts; hermaphrodites and males grown at 25°C produce few sperm with defective pseudopods and retention of fibrous bodies; self-fertility 1% (25°C), 50% (16°C); TSP L4. ES2 (adult) NA1. (hc23ts [pka fer-5 ] is probably reisolate of hc6.) [Ward et al. 1981] [BA]

fer-7 I 1.92 hc34

: ts; hermaphrodites and males grown at 25°C produce nonfunctional nonmotile sperm; self-fertility 6% (25°C), 40% (16°C); TSP L4. ES2 (adult) NA1. [Argon and Ward 1980] [BA]

fer-14 I 25.45 hc14

: ts; hermaphrodites and males grown at 25°C produce nonfunctional motile spermatozoa; sperm from Fer-14 males can outcompete wt hermaphrodite sperm; self-fertility <0.5% (25°C), 8% (16°C). ES2 (adult) NA1. [BA, DS, SL]

fer-15 II 0.77 hc15

: ts; hermaphrodites and males grown at 25°C produce spermatids that fail to activate into spermatozoa; self-fertility <1% (25°C), 100% (16°C). ES2 (adult); similar phenotype in hc15/Df. OA2: hc89, b26. See also age-1. [Roberts and Ward 1982a] [BA, TJ, SL]

fib

fib rillarin

fib-1 ?

NMK. Similarity to fibrillarin; upstream gene in operon with rps-16 . [Zorio et al. 1994] [BL]

fkh

f or k h ead family of transcription factors [JM].

fkh-1 V 25 pk48

: Tc1 insertion; no known phenotype. CLONED: three transcripts, present in all stages, highest in embryo; fkh-1:lacZ expressed primarily in gut; >75% identity to Drosophila fork head in DNA-binding domain. [JM]

flp

F MRFamide- l ike p eptide [NY].

flp-1 IV N pk41

: Tc1 insertion; no known phenotype. CLONED: encodes FMRF-containing neuropeptides; six exons, four encode FMRFamide-like peptides; alternatively spliced transcripts. [Rosoff et al. 1992] [NY]

flr

fl uo r ide resistance abnormal [JC]. See also dec.

flr-1 X 12.39 ut1

: resistant to 400 μg/ml NaF; slow growth; small. OA5: ut2, ut4, ut6, ut11, sa96 (very short defecation cycle period, often with weak or missing motor program steps, Con, scrawny, and slow growing; fluoride-resistant; appears to feed normally). CLONED: encodes protein with some similarity to DEG-1/MEC-4 family. [Katsura et al. 1994; Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JC, JT]

flr-2 V 3.49 ut5

: partially resistant to 400 μg/ml NaF; normal defecation. OA1: ut71. [Katsura et al. 1994] [JC, JT]

flr-3 IV 29.14 ut9

: resistant to 400 μg/ml NaF; slow growth; small; very short defecation cycle period. OA2: ut8, ut10. CLONED: encodes protein with some similarity to kinases, but lacks ATP-binding consensus. [Katsura et al. 1994; Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JC, JT]

flr-4 X 19.96 ut3

: resistant to 400 μg/ml NaF; slow growth; small. OA2: ut7, sa201 (ts, at 25°C, very short defecation cycle period, often with weak or missing motor program steps, Con, scrawny, and slow growing; fluoride- resistant; appears to feed normally). CLONED: cosmid rescue (F09B12). [Katsura et al. 1994; Iwasaki et al. 1995] [JC, JT]

flr-5 V 1.89 ut73

: partially resistant to 400 μg/ml NaF; normal defecation. [Katsura et al. 1994] [JC, JT]

flu

flu orescence of gut abnormal [CB].

flu-1 V N e1002

: sd; increased gut fluorescence, bluish purple; low orthoamino-phenol content, low kynurenine hydroxylase. ES1 ME2 OA5. [Babu 1974; Siddiqui and Babu 1980]

flu-2 X 3.61 e1003

: reduced gut fluorescence, dull green; high orthoamino-phenol content, low kynureninase levels, enhanced mutagen sensitivity. ES1 ME3 OA4. [Babu 1974; Bhat and Babu 1980]

flu-3 II N e1001

: increased gut fluorescence, purple. ES1 ME2 OA2. [Babu 1974]

flu-4 X N e1004

: increased gut fluorescence, blue. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Babu 1974]

fog

f eminization o f g erm line [CB].

fog-1 I 4.45 e1959

: sd; homozygous XX animals transformed into fertile females; homozygous XO animals somatically male, make oocytes in germ line; heterozygous XO animals somatically male with both sperm and oocytes in germ line. ES2 (adults). OA>10: e2121, e1959, e2122, q155, q253ts (fertile at 15°C). [Barton and Kimble 1990; Ellis and Kimble 1995] [JK, RE]

fog-2 V 24.94 q71

: XX animals transformed into females; XO animals wt males. ES3 (adult XX) ME3 OA5. [Schedl and Kimble 1988] [BS]

fog-3 I 4.56 q469

: XX animals transformed into females; XO animals somatically male, make oocytes in germ line; q469/Df similar; no dominant phenotypes. ES3 (adult XX) ME0. OA>10: q441, q443, q470, q520fdi, q502uvp, oz137, oz147. [Ellis and Kimble 1995] [RE]

fox

f eminizing site o n X chromosome [CB].

fox-1 X 14.00

Extra copies of locus lead to dominant XO lethality and feminization. CLONED: 1.8-kb transcript, encodes predicted 415-aa protein with RNP motif. [Hodgkin et al. 1994] [CB, TY]

ftt

f ourteen- t hree- t hree (14-3-3) family [DS].

ftt-1 IV 5.31

NMK. Encodes predicted protein 78% identical to Drosophila and bovine 14-3-3 proteins. [Wang and Shakes 1994] [DS]

ftt-2 X N

NMK. Encodes predicted protein with similarity to 14-3-3 proteins. [DS]

G to K

gbr

G A B A r eceptor family [CGC].

gbr-1 III 13.91

NMK. Cross-hybridization to GABA receptor probe. [CGC]

gcp

See cpr.

ges

g ut es terase [JM].

ges-1 V 18.93 ca1

: electrophoretic variant of major gut esterase, no other phenotype. ES1 ME3. OA>10: ca4, ca6, etc. (all electrophoretic variants), ca6ca7, ca6ca9, ca10, ca11, etc. (null mutations, major gut esterase activity absent, no other phenotype), pk47, pk49 (Tc1 insertions; deletion derivatives also obtained). CLONED: encodes gut-specific esterase, expressed from 200-cell stage onward; extensive promoter analysis. [McGhee et al. 1990; Aamodt et al. 1991] [JM]

gld

g erm l ine d ifferentiation abnormal [BS].

gld-1 I 2.24 q485

: hermaphrodite germ cells enter meiosis, fail in pachytene, reenter mitosis, and form large proximal germ-line tumor; males unaffected; probable null phenotype. ES3 (adult) ME3. OA>15: multiple phenotypic classes and subclasses:
class A: q268, q365 (probable nulls, resemble q485)
class B: q93oz12 (sperm, then germ cells arrested in pachytene)
class C: q93 (gf, Mog)
class D: q126 (gf, Fog)
class E: q266 (gf, Fog, abnormal oocytes)
class F: q343 (sperm, then abnormal oocytes)
Complex complementation. CLONED: encodes predicted 463- or 466-aa proteins, with similarity to shrimp GRP33, mouse Src-associated protein Sam68; includes KH (possible RNA-binding) domain. [Francis et al. 1995a,b; Jones and Schedl 1995] [BS]

gld-2 I N q497

: germ cells enter meiosis, fail in pachytene, make enlarged oocyte-like cells; spermatogenesis also defective in males; in presence of extragenic modifier (q525), proximal germ line becomes mitotic. NA1. [JK]

glh

g erm l ine h elicase [KB].

glh-1 I 1.34

NMK (but may correspond to let-545 ). Encodes predicted 70-kD protein with RNA helicase similarity, DEAD box, four zinc finger motifs; expression correlated with germ line; antibody staining suggests associated with P granules. [Roussell and Bennett 1993] [KB]

glh-2 I 1.14

NMK. Encodes predicted protein, 80% identity with glh-1 . [KB]

glp

g erm l ine p roliferation abnormal [JK].

glp-1 III 0.14 q46

: germ cells divide only a few times in both XX and XO, forming 10–20 sperm; somatic gonad superficially wt; mosaic analysis indicates germ-line focus. ES3 (adult). OA>10: q35, q50 (both have weaker phenotype than q46, some oocyte production; fertilized eggs arrest during embryogenesis), e2072 (Mel, late embryonic arrest, no AB-derived pharyngeal cells, variable hypodermal defects), e2141ts, e2144ts (both Mel at 25°C), g60ts,mm (pka emb-33 ; at 25°C, 100% eggs arrest at lima bean or earlier, misplaced gut granule birefringence; escapers have abnormal gonadogenesis; L1 temperature shift-up results in viable adult F1 Emb; viable at 16°C). Also gf alleles: q35sd (causes Muv, extra vulval differentiation, mimics lin-12[gf]), oz112gf (dominant germ-line tumorous in both sexes, some Muv, extra vulval differentiation). See also sog, ego, lag, lin-12, etc.; lag functions redundant with lin-12 . CLONED: 4.4-kb transcripts, encodes 1295-aa transmembrane receptor, closely related to LIN-12, Drosophila Notch, etc.; extracellular ten EGF-like repeats, other repeats; intracellular six ANK repeats, etc.; antibody staining indicates GLP-1 membrane-associated in early embryo, AB descendants, mitotic germ cells, not detected in gametes; very extensive developmental and molecular analysis. [Austin and Kimble 1987, 1989; Priess et al. 1987; Yochem and Greenwald 1989; Crittenden et al. 1994] [JK, BS, GE, JR, GS]

glp-3 III 0.81 q145

: sterile, no germ-line proliferation in hermaphrodites or males; about three undifferentiated germ cells per gonad arm; no somatic defects. OA4: q156, q171, q363, q456 (all similar). [JK]

glp-4 I 20.84 bn2

: ts; hermaphrodites raised at 25°C sterile, ∼12 germ-line nuclei, nonreflexed gonad arms; males at 25°C ∼16 germ-line nuclei, normal soma; germ cells arrested at meiotic prophase; fertile at 16°C; TSP throughout larval development. OA3: om14 (proliferation normal; oocytes small, irregular; other germ-line abnormalities), om23 (weaker phenotypes), om24. Also probable intragenic revertants of bn2: bn2bn39, bn2bn40 (some fertility at 25°C). [Beanan and Strome 1992; Qiao et al. 1995] [EL, SS]

glr

gl utamate r eceptor family [CX].

glr-1 III 0.18 n2461

: fails to respond to light nose touch (Not) or to harsh body touch (Tab); other sensory responses normal; n2461/Df similar. ME3. Missense mutation. OA1: ky176te,sd (non-null deletion, Not, Mec; slightly sluggish; other sensory responses normal; ky176/+ Not, Mec). CLONED: encodes predicted 962-aa protein with similarity to AMPA-class glutamate receptors (40% identity to rat GluRB); glr-1:GFP expressed in 17 neuron classes. [Maricq et al. 1995; Hart et al. 1995] [CX, KP]

goa

G protein O , A lpha subunit [PS].

goa-1 I 2.04 sy192

: hyperactive, Egl-c; defective male mating. OA3: pk39 (Tc1 insertion, similar phenotypes), n363, n1134 (some axon guidance defects?). CLONED: encodes homolog of mammalian G-protein α-subunit (>80% identity); goa-1:lacZ expressed in most neurons, some muscle cells, pharynx, distal tip cells; transgene overexpression leads to lethargy, slow pumping, egg-laying defects, irregular defecation. [Mendel et al. 1995; Segalat et al. 1995] [KP, PS]

gon

gon ad development abnormal [CB].

gon-1 IV 4.31 e1254

: defective formation of somatic gonad primordium; much germ-line proliferation, almost no gamete maturation, variable vulval induction, no uterus; e1254/Df similar. ES3 ME0 (male somatic gonad also abnormal). OA4: e2547, e2551, q517, q518 (similar). [Hodgkin et al. 1989] [CB, JK]

gon-2 I 2.88 q362

: partial maternal-effect gonadless (Z1 and Z4 often fail to divide). OA3: q388ts (zygotic sterile at 25°C, fertile 15°C, upshift gives Gon progeny), dx12, dx13. CLONED: cosmid rescue (T01H8) [EJ]

gon-3 IV N e2548

: abnormal somatic gonad, late defect, sterile. NA1. [CB]

gon-4 IV 4.53 e2575

: abnormal gonad development, sterile; vulva development mostly abnormal, some spermatogenesis, little oogenesis; often failure of division of Z1, Z4. OA2: q519, q521. [CB, JK]

gon-5 I N e2550

: abnormal somatic gonad, late defect, sterile. NA1. [CB]

gon-6 II N e2586

: abnormal somatic gonad, late defect, sterile. NA1. [CB]

gon-7 V N e2589

: abnormal somatic gonad, late defect, sterile. NA1. [CB]

gon-9 I N e2611

: abnormal gonad development, sterile. [CB]

gon-10 V 6.36 e1795

: hermaphrodites have very abnormal swollen proximal gonad with apparent giant oocytes, additional nongonadal somatic abnormalities, sterile, variable tail malformation. NA1. [CB]

gon-11 I 3.8 dx5

: ts; partial maternal-effect gonadless (Z1 and Z4 undergo few or no divisions); zygotic germ-line phenotype, proximal proliferation. NA1. [EJ]

gpa

G p rotein, A lpha subunit [PS].

gpa-1 V 3.18 pk15

: te; deletion of most of coding region, derived from Tc1 insertion pk1; no detectable phenotype. Also pk14te (smaller deletion). CLONED: 48% identity to GPA-3; gpa-1:lacZ expressed in some amphid and phasmid neurons, spicular neurons, some anterior pharyngeal cells. [Lochrie et al. 1991; Zwaal et al. 1993] [PS, NL]

gpa-2 V 1.54 pk16

: te; deletion of most of coding sequence, derived from Tc1 insertion pk19; no obvious phenotype, some reduction in dauer formation, stronger with gpa-3(0). OA>50: numerous Tc1 insertions analyzed. CLONED: gpa-2:lacZ expressed in phasmid neurons, some nerve ring neurons, PVT, sphincter. [Lochrie et al. 1991; Zwaal et al. 1993] [PS, NL]

gpa-3 V 1.97 pk35

: te, deletion of most of coding sequence, derived from Tc1 insertion pk12; no obvious phenotype, some reduction in dauer formation, stronger with gpa-2(0). CLONED: 48% identity to GPA-1; gpa-3:lacZ expressed in amphid and phasmid neurons. [Lochrie et al. 1991; Zwaal et al. 1993] [PS, NL]

gpb

G p rotein, B eta subunit [PS].

gpb-1 II 3.99 pk13

: Tc1 insertion, also excision derivative pk44; recessive- lethal, arrests at L1 stage with very little body wall or pharyngeal muscle activity; in absence of maternal rescue, arrests as early embryonic-lethal. [Zwaal et al. 1996] [JA, NL]

gpd

g lyceraldehyde 3- p hosphate d ehydrogenase [HH].

gpd-1 II 2.38

NMK. Encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, minor isozyme (GAPDHase-1), ubiquitous, predominant expression in embryo; sequence closest to gpd-4 . [Barrios et al. 1989] [HH]

gpd-2 X 13.05

NMK. Encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, major muscle-specific isozyme (GAPDHase-2); expression increases postembryonically; middle gene in operon between mai-1 and gpd-3. [Barrios et al. 1989; Spieth et al. 1993] [HH, BL]

gpd-3 X 13.05

Deleted in Bergerac strains; no apparent phenotype; encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, major muscle-specific isozyme (GAPDHase-2); expression increases postembryonically; final gene in operon with mai-1, gpd-2. [Barrios et al. 1989; Spieth et al. 1993] [HH, BL]

gpd-4 II 1.95

NMK. Encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, minor isozyme (GAPDHase-1); ubiquitous, predominant expression in embryo; sequence closest to gpd-1. [Barrios et al. 1989] [HH]

gqa

G protein, class Q , A lpha subunit [PS].

gqa-1

= egl-30

gro

gro wth rate abnormal [CB].

gro-1 III 1.99 e2400

: spo, mat; postembryonic growth rate greatly reduced; increased resistance to heat shock; some increase in life span; tends to avoid bacterial lawn; complete maternal rescue. ES0 (zygotic) ES2 ME2. Polymorphic in wild isolate (Palm Canyon, California). NA1. [CB, DR]

gro-2 IV 9.46 e2442

: spo, mat; postembryonic growth rate greatly reduced, tends to avoid bacterial lawn; spontaneous mutation from cross with Bergerac strain; complete maternal rescue. ES0 (zygotic) ES2 ME2 NA1. [CB, MQ]

gro-3 I 18.67 e2556

: spo, mat; no obvious zygotic phenotype; in absence of maternal rescue, homozygotes are very slow growing, slow moving, Egl, tend to avoid bacterial lawn. ES0 (zygotic) ES2 ME1. e2556 spontaneous in N2 background. NA1. [CB]

gsa

G protein, S , A lpha subunit [FK].

gsa-1 I 13.37 pk75

: excision derivative of pk27tci, 1.8-kb deletion; recessive-lethal, L1/L2 arrest. CLONED: encodes 375-aa predicted protein; 66% identity with rat Gsα; gsa-1:lacZ expressed in many cells from late embryo onward. [Zwaal et al. 1993] [NL]

gst

g lutathione S t ransferase [GS].

gst-1 III 0.12

NMK. Encodes predicted glutathione-S-transferase P subunit; trans-spliced to SL2. [Weston et al. 1989]

gum

gu t m orphology abnormal [EJ].

gum-1 I 1.1 q373

: accumulates large, possibly aqueous vesicles in gut, leading to marbled appearance under Nomarski. OA2: dx2ts, oz162. [EJ]

gum-2 IV N e1747

: gut cells have spongy appearance under Nomarski; in L4, intestine less patchy than wt under dissecting scope. OA2: e1739 (weaker?). [CB, EJ]

gum-3 X N e1823

: gut cells have spongy appearance under Nomarski. OA1: q433. [CB, EJ]

gum-4 X N q412

: gut cells accumulate vesicles, possibly lipidaceous, leading to tapioca-like appearance under Nomarski. NA1. [EJ]

gum-5 V 2.5 dx4

: causes large vesicles to accumulate in adult gut. NA1. [EJ]

gum-6 X L oz124

: causes large vesicles to accumulate in adult gut of hermaphrodites but not of males. NA1. [EJ]

gus

abnormal g l u curonida s e [NA].

gus-1 I 25.85 b405

: β-glucuronidase activity reduced >99%; no gross phenotype. ES1. NA11: b410 (slight activity), gb25, etc. Also intragenic revertants, e.g., gb94b410. Probable structural gene. [Sebastiano et al. 1986] [NA]

gut

gut differentiation abnormal [EH].

gut-2 V 5.24 lw6

: E cells fail to gastrulate, division rate does not slow; mutant EMS not responsive to wt P2 induction; lw6/Df similar. OA>10: it92, lw63 (Gro, sterile). CLONED: cosmid rescue (T10G8). [EH, CB]

gut-4 IV 3.0 lw4

: Mel, no gastrulation; arrests as ball of cells without gut or pharyngeal muscle differentiation. [EH]

ham

H SN a bnormal m igration [MT].

ham-1 IV 6.05 n1438

: multiple HSN defects, Egl, Dyf; HSN and sister phasmid neuron PHB both abnormal; also disrupted asymmetry in other sister cells RID, ADE/ADA, ADL, ALN/PLM. OA1: n1810. CLONED: 1.8-kb RNA, encodes 414-aa novel protein. [Desai et al. 1988; Garriga and Stern 1994] [NG, NH, MT]

ham-2 X N n1332

: multiple HSN defects, abnormal HSN migration, reduced serotonin; Egl. [Desai et al. 1988; Garriga and Stern 1994] [NG, NH, MT]

ham-3 III N n1654

: multiple HSN defects, abnormal HSN migration, reduced serotonin; Egl; other impenetrant Mig defects. [Desai et al. 1988; Garriga and Stern 1994] [NG, NH, MT]

hcd

h ermaphrodite c opulation d efective [PS].

hcd-1 II N sy417

: hermaphrodites fail to stimulate sperm transfer from males. [PS]

hcd-2 III N sy418

: hermaphrodites fail to stimulate sperm transfer from males. [PS]

hch

h at ch ing abnormality [CB].

hch-1 X N e1734

: delayed hatching from eggshell rescued by protease or wt hatching fluid; QL and descendant cells migrate forward instead of backward. ES1. OA1: e1907 (same phenotypes). [Hedgecock et al. 1987; Hishida et al. 1996] [NJ]

her

her maphroditization [CB].

her-1 V 2.11 e1518

: XX animals wt, XO animals transformed into fertile hermaphrodites. ES3 (XO). Similar phenotype in e1518/Df. OA>20: e1520, e1561ts (XO fertile male 15°C, fertile hermaphrodite 25°C), q428ts (very weak Her), etc. Also gf alleles: n695sd,ts (XO animals wt, XX animals partly masculinized Egl hermaphrodites; n695/+ XX animals slightly masculinized), y101 (stronger masculinization, still incomplete). Intragenic revertants are recessive Her-1 alleles: n695n826, y1hv101 (viable deletion), etc. ES2 (XX) NA1. Intragenic revertants have class-1 phenotype. CLONED: 0.8- and 1.2-kb transcripts, XO-specific; 1.2-kb transcript necessary and sufficient; encodes 175-aa predicted cysteine-rich novel protein with signal sequence. [Hodgkin 1980; Perry et al. 1993, 1994] [NT, PA]

her-2

= tra-1

him

h igh i ncidence of m ales [CB].

him-1 I 0.24 e879

: sd; self-progeny 21% XO male, 5% 3X hermaphrodite; 8% nullo-X ova as a result of reductional meiotic nondisjunction; X chromosome recombination specifically reduced 40% or more, except at left end (recombination increased); Rad; e879/+ self-progeny 1% XO. ES3 (progeny) ME2 NA1. [Hodgkin et al. 1979; Broverman and Meneely 1994]

him-2 I 6.98 e1065

: self-progeny 2% XO male; 1.5% nullo-X ova; some associated sterility. ES2 (progeny) ME3 NA1. [Hodgkin et al. 1979]

him-3 IV 1.97 e1147

: self-progeny 3.5% XO male, 2% nullo-X ova. ES2 (progeny) ME3. OA1: e1256 (stronger allele, 11% Him, many unhatched eggs [71%]; males sire inviable zygotes; probably generalized meiotic nondisjunction; some reduction in autosomal recombination, effects on segregation of free duplications). [Hodgkin et al. 1979] [KR]

him-4 X 1.57 e1267

: icr; self-progeny 6% XO male, very low brood size; frequent gonad eversion with rupture at vulva; 2% nullo-X ova; male gonad abnormal, testis fails to connect with proctodeum, may be twice reflexed; Mua (muscle attachment) phenotype, general defects in transhypodermal anchorage. ES2 (adult) ME0. OA2: e1266icr (same phenotypes), rh166. [Hodgkin et al. 1979] [NJ]

him-5 V 5.83 e1467

: ts; at 20°C, self-progeny 16% XO male, 3% 3X hermaphrodite, 11% nullo-X ova as a result of reductional meiotic nondisjunction; X chromosome recombination specifically reduced 50% or more, except at left end (increased); additional sterility not due to autosomal nondisjunction (brood reduced 64% at 25°C); some embryonic lethality. ES3 (progeny) ME3. OA4: e1490 (stronger allele: 33% Him at 20°C). CLONED: cosmid rescue K02A12. [Hodgkin et al. 1979; Broverman and Meneely 1994] [FH]

him-6 IV 6.25 e1423

: self-progeny 15% XO male, 6% 3X hermaphrodite, low brood size (78% unhatched eggs), 8% nullo-X ova as a result of reductional meiotic nondisjunction; autosomal nondisjunction; males sire inviable zygotes. ES3 (progeny) ME3. OA1: e1104 (weaker allele: 5% Him). [Hodgkin et al. 1979; Haack and Hodgkin 1991] [KR]

him-7 V 5.02 e1480

: self-progeny 3% XO male, 0.6% nullo-X ova; males make slight excess of nullo-X sperm, sire some inviable zygotes. ES2 (progeny) ME3 NA1. [Hodgkin et al. 1979]

him-8 IV 4.69 e1489

: self-progeny 37% XO male, 6% 3X hermaphrodite, 38% nullo-X ova as a result of reductional meiotic nondisjunction; X chromosome recombination specifically reduced 90% except at left end (increased). ES3 (progeny) ME2. OA6: mn253, ec51, etc. (all >30% Him). CLONED: cosmid rescue T19G9 [Hodgkin et al. 1979; Broverman and Meneely 1994] [SP, FH]

him-9 II 4.84 e1487

: aci; self-progeny 5% males, 2% nullo-X ova. ES3 (progeny) ME3 NA1. [Hodgkin et al. 1979]

him-10 III 1.69 e1511

: ts; self-progeny 2% XO male (15°C), 12% male (20°C), 27% male (25°C), low brood size, many unhatched eggs at 25°C; probably some chromosome loss in premeiotic germ line: abnormal mitotic cytology, jackpots in male production. ES3 (progeny 25°C) ME3 (20°C) NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982] [AV]

him-11 III N n318

: self-progeny 5% XO male. ES3 (progeny) NA1. [CB]

him-12

= emb-26

him-13 I N e1742

: self-progeny 5% XO male. ES3 (progeny) NA1. [CB]

him-14 II 0.54 it44

: ts; viable self-progeny 2−40% male, 95% dead eggs, probable generalized nondisjunction, meiotic defect. OA4: it13, it21, it23, it52 (strongest allele, <3% eggs hatch). [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

him-15 III 0.32

No point mutations; several small deletions of unc-86 (such as eDf25, pka e1416) exhibit additional weak Him phenotype (2% XO males) due to deletion of adjacent him-15. [Hodgkin et al. 1979; Finney et al. 1988] [MT]

his

his tone structural genes [EM]. Core histone genes are organized in ∼11 genomic clusters, each containing at least one of H2A, H2B, H3, H4 genes.

his-1 V 9.19

NMK. Histone-type H4, HIS1 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-2 V 9.19

NMK. Histone-type H3, HIS1 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-3 V 9.19

NMK. Histone-type H2A, HIS1 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-4 V 9.19

NMK. Histone-type H2B, HIS1 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-5 V 1.60

NMK. Histone-type H4, HIS2 cluster. [EM]

his-6 V 1.60

NMK. Histone-type H3, HIS2 cluster. [EM]

his-7 V 1.60

NMK. Histone-type H2A, HIS2 cluster. [EM]

his-8 V 1.60

NMK. Histone-type H2B, HIS2 cluster. [EM]

his-9 II 16.04

NMK. Histone-type H3, HIS3 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-10 II 16.04

NMK. Histone-type H4, HIS3 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-11 II 16.04

NMK. Histone-type H2B, HIS3 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-12 II 16.04

NMK. Histone-type H2A, HIS3 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-13 II 16.04

NMK. Histone-type H3, HIS3 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-14 II 16.04

NMK. Histone-type H4, HIS3 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-15 II 16.04

NMK. Histone-type H2B, HIS3 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-16 II 16.04

NMK. Histone-type H2A, HIS3 cluster. [Roberts et al. 1989] [EM]

his-17 V 1.71

NMK. Histone-type H3, HIS4 cluster. [EM]

his-18 V 1.71

NMK. Histone-type H4, HIS4 cluster. [EM]

his-19 V 1.71

NMK. Histone-type H2A, HIS4 cluster. [EM]

his-20 V 1.71

NMK. Histone-type H2B, HIS4 cluster. [EM]

his-21 V 1.71

NMK. Histone-type H2A, HIS4 cluster. [EM]

his-22 V 1.71

NMK. Histone-type H2B, HIS4 cluster. [EM]

his-23 V 1.60

NMK. Histone-type H2B. [EM]

his-24 X 17.00

NMK. Histone-type H1; contains intron, encodes polyadenylated RNA. [Sanicola et al. 1990]

hlh

h elix- l oop- h elix transcription factor family [PD].

hlh-1 II 4.52 cc450

: amb; recessive-lethal, arrest at varying stages as lumpy dumpy with some muscle differentiation, disorganized myofilaments; encodes member of MyoD family; transcripts present transiently in MS descendants, stably in D daughters and C and MS lineages leading to body wall muscle; antibody staining similar (nuclear staining, persists through development of body wall muscle cells). [Krause et al. 1990, 1994; Chen et al. 1992] [KM, PD]

hlh-2 I 1.83

NMK. Encodes homolog of vertebrate E12, Drosophila Daughterless; lacZ fusion indicates transcription in some neuronal precursors; antibody staining indicates all blastomere nuclei stain up to 200-cell stage, later expression complex, strong in head, ventral cord, and tail at comma stage; fewer than 20 cells stain at hatching. Cosmid K07G5. [KM]

hmp

h u mp back (dorsal lumps) [JJ].

hmp-1 V 3.44

Mutations zygotic-lethal, arrest at 1.25−1.5-fold stage with lumps in dorsal hypoderm. CLONED: encodes probable α-catenin homolog. [JJ]

hsp

h eat s hock p rotein family [BC].

hsp-1 IV 18.36

NMK. Encodes protein related to generic hsp70; quite strong expression normally, only weak heat shock induction. [Heschl and Baillie 1990] [BC]

hsp-2 X 12.84

NMK. Pseudogene derived from hsp-1 . [Heschl and Baillie 1990] [BC]

hsp-3 X 3.40

NMK. Encodes protein related to mammalian grp78/BiP; not heat-shock-induced. [Heschl and Baillie 1990] [BC]

hsp-4 ?

NMK. Encodes protein related to mammalian grp78/BiP; strongly induced by heat shock. [Heschl and Baillie 1990] [BC]

hsp-5 ?

NMK. Probable pseudogene. [BC]

hsp-6 ?

NMK. Encodes protein related to generic hsp70, mitochondrial import sequence, bacterial dnaK similarity; strongly induced by heat shock. [Heschl and Baillie 1990] [BC]

hsp-16A V 1.85

NMK. Two divergently transcribed genes hsp16-1, hsp16-48, encoding 16-kD heat shock proteins (<70% identity); HSP16-1 145 aa, 92% identity to HSP16-2 and HSP16-48 143 aa, 94% identity to HSP16-41; expression depends on heat shock; transgene lacZ fusions expressed in many tissues (not germ line) after heat shock, strongest in muscle and hypodermis. [Russnak et al. 1985; Stringham et al. 1992b] [PC]

hsp-16B ?

NMK. Two divergently transcribed genes hsp16-2, hsp16-41, encoding 16-kD heat shock proteins (<70% identity); HSP16-2 145 aa, 92% identity to HSP16-1 and HSP16-41 143 aa, 94% identity to HSP16-48; expression depends on heat shock; transgene lacZ fusions expressed in many tissues (not germ line) after heat shock, strongest in intestine and pharyngeal tissue; not located on physical map. [Russnak et al. 1985; Stringham et al. 1992] [PC]

hum

h eavy chain, u nconventional m yosin [DU].

hum-1 I 3.15

NMK. Encodes predicted unconventional myosin heavy chain, class I. [DU]

hum-2 V 1.98

NMK. Encodes predicted unconventional myosin heavy chain, class V. [DU]

hum-3 ?

NMK. Encodes predicted unconventional myosin heavy chain, class VI. [DU]

hum-4 X 3.33

NMK. Encodes predicted unconventional myosin, novel, probably class XII. [DU]

hum-5 III 4.38

NMK. Encodes predicted 1017-aa unconventional myosin heavy chain, class I. (T02C12.1) [CB, CGC]

inf

in itiation f actor for protein synthesis [CGC].

inf-1 III 0.82

NMK. 1.7-kb RNA, encodes DEAD box RNA helicase, probable homolog of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (71% identity to mouse eIF-4A). [Roussell and Bennett 1992; Seydoux and Fire 1994] [KB]

isx

See fem.

itr

i nositol t riphosphate r eceptor-related [CGC].

itr-1 IV 3.5

NMK. Sequence (yk33g8) has similarity to receptor for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate from vertebrates and Drosophila. [LM, CGC]

kin

protein kin ase [CGC]. See also ksr, pkc.

kin-1 I 28.97

NMK. 2.5-kb transcripts (alternatively spliced); encodes 358-aa catalytic (Cα) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (82% identity to murine Cα subunit) and variant (Cα′) 374-aa subunit, different 56-aa at C-terminal; SL1 trans-spliced. [Gross et al. 1990] [CR]

kin-2 X 3.72

NMK. Encodes regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (clone CR#LRI1). [CR]

kin-3 ?

NMK. Encodes casein kinase IIα; not located on physical map (clone CR#G1, Y42G4, Y52D1). [CR]

kin-4 IV 5.07

NMK. Encodes two protein kinase L isoforms: PKL1 (1528 aa, ST kinase, low in embryos, increases 5-fold on hatching) and PKL2 (1377 aa, different C-terminal, maximal in embryos, absent in L1). [CR]

kin-5 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes predicted tyrosine kinase; transcript not detected. [FK]

kin-6 II 3.78

NMK. Encodes predicted tyrosine kinase; transcript not detected. [FK]

kin-7

= let-23

kin-8 II 1.16

NMK. Encodes transmembrane kinase of trk/NGFR class; contains Kringle domain. [FK]

kin-9 X 0.58

NMK. Encodes predicted tyrosine kinase. [FK]

kin-10 I 2.55

NMK. Encodes predicted protein with similarity to casein kinase II β. CR#CKB1. In operon with kup-2 . [Hu and Rubin 1991] [CR]

kin-11 X 0.76

NMK. Encodes two isoforms of protein kinase C2 (PKC2A and PKC2B). Clone CR#PKC2A, cosmid E01H11. [CR]

kin-13 V N

NMK. Encodes kinases related to protein kinase C (PKC1A and PKC1B); transcript from proximal promoter encodes 707-aa PKC1B; antibody stains cell bodies and processes of ∼75 sensory neurons; transcription from distal promoter yields kup-1 , PKC1A (SL2 trans-spliced, 763 aa, additional 56 aa at N-terminal of PKC1B); B:A ratio ∼40 in early development, unity in adults. [Land et al. 1994a,b] [CR]

kin-14 I 1.75

NMK. Encodes predicted tyrosine kinase, similarity to v-ros. [FK]

kin-15 II 1.34

Tc1 insertion: retarded development? Encodes predicted tyrosine kinase with transmembrane domain, no large extracellular domain; related to kin-16. [Morgan and Greenwald 1993] [WR]

kin-16 II 1.34

Tc1 insertion: retarded development? Encodes predicted tyrosine kinase with transmembrane domain, no large extracellular domain; related to kin-15. [Morgan and Greenwald 1993] [WR]

kin-17 X 1.86

NMK. Encodes predicted protein kinase. [FK]

kin-18 III 1.13

NMK. Encodes 982-aa predicted protein; residues 1−300 have similarity to Ser/Thr kinases. [CB, CGC]

kra

k etamine r esponse a bnormal [HK].

kra-1 V 0.51 kh30

: semidominant convulsive behavior in 30 mM ketamine or other NMDA antagonists; recessive cs Unc; variable motility; weakly resistant to cholinergic agonists, ouabain; normal muscle morphology. [HK]

ksr

k inase s uppressor of activated r as [MH].

ksr-1 X 0.61 n2526

: pka sar-2 ; suppresses activated ras, let-60(n1046gf); low penetrance larval lethality (rod-like L1 arrest, 10%); 4% abnormal vulval development; synergistic effects with lin-45, mpk-1 mutations, etc.; nonsense mutation, probable null allele. OA>10: ku68, ku83 (pka sur-3 ), n1860, n2682 (similar phenotypes, impenetrant Let, Egl, Mig), ku113, n2519, n2509, etc. (weaker, <1% larval lethality). CLONED: 2.3-kb and rarer 2.65-kb transcripts; encodes 771-aa predicted protein with similarity to both Tyr and Ser/Thr kinases. [Sundaram and Han 1995; Kornfeld et al. 1995b] [MT, MH]

kup

k inase up stream genes [BL]. Genes in operons with kinase genes.

kup-1 V N

NMK. Upstream in operon with kin-13 ; encodes predicted 385-aa novel protein; antibody stains nuclei of most cells. [Zorio et al. 1994] [CR]

kup-2 I 2.55

NMK. Upstream gene in operon with kin-10 . [Zorio et al. 1994]

L

lag

l in-12 a nd g lp-1 phenotype [JK].

lag-1 IV 2.90 q385

: larval arrest at L1, characteristic Lag (Lin-12 and Glp-1) phenotype: rectum/anus and excretory cell absent (98%), sometimes twisted nose (12%). OA>10 (other alleles mostly weaker): q416 (sometimes viable and fertile at 20°C), q426 (low larval lethality), om13 (viable, impenetrant embryonic and larval lethality; strong Ego, enhances glp-1[bn18ts]), om27 (viable, Ego), om108 (viable, Ego), etc. CLONED: 2.6-kb transcript, encodes protein with high similarity to Drosophila Suppressor of hairless. [Lambie and Kimble 1991; Christensen et al. 1996] [JK]

lag-2 V 10.37 q387

: larval arrest at L1, characteristic Lag (Lin-12 and Glp-1) phenotype: rectum/anus absent, excretory cell absent, often twisted nose (76%); similar phenotype in q387/Df. NA>6: q420 (weaker allele), s1486 (pka let-461 ), ut103, ut105 (both Clr). Also gf alleles: n1255, sa37 (pka sel-3 , partly suppresses lin-12[gf] mutations). CLONED: encodes 400-aa membrane protein with similarity to Drosophila Delta and Serrate; transcript present in DTC. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991; Tax et al. 1994; Henderson et al. 1994] [MT, JC]

lag-3 V N

Mutation leads to larval arrest, Lag phenotype. NA1. [JK]

lam

lam inin-related [NJ].

lam-1 IV 1.40 rh219

: resembles Epi-1, basal lamina missing or defective in epidermis, gonad, intestine; abnormal excretory canals, muscle cell positions, sheath cells, proximal gonad, basement membranes, ray morphology; rh219/Df is larval-lethal. CLONED: rescued by cosmid C24D10; encodes laminin β-chain. [NJ]

lan

See ric.

lan-2

= unc-18

lan-5

= ric-1

lep

lep toderan male tail [DF].

lep-1 I 3.77 bx37

: sd; male tail tip is pointy and protrudes beyond the posterior edge of the fan, 100% penetrant; no hermaphrodite phenotype. OA1: bx42sd (92% penetrant). [DF]

lep-2 ? bx73

: mail tail tip protrudes beyond posterior edge of fan, failure of tail tip syncytium retraction. NA1. [DF]

let

let hal [SP, KR]. See also gon, lin, mel, stu, etc.

let-1 X 19.78 mn119

: early larval-lethal. OA5: mn124, mn102 (late larval-lethal), mn115 (hermaphrodite sterile, lays fertilized eggs, male sterile), etc. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-2 X 23.78 mn153

: amb; embryonic-lethal. OA>15: (many ts; complex interallelic complementation pattern), mn114ts (pka let-8 ), b246ts, e1470ts, g30ts (inviable at 20°C), b246ts (viable at 20°C), q37ts (Mig, Q daughters affected), st550 (embryonic-lethal, late paralysis, elongation arrest at 2-fold), etc. High forward mutation frequency. See also sup-20 . CLONED: encodes 1795-aa type IV (basement membrane) collagen, α2 chain (pka clb-1 ); alternative splicing [Kramer] either exon 9 (higher in embryo) or 10 (higher in larva, adult). [Meneely and Herman 1981; Sibley et al. 1993] [CF, CH, MT, RW, SP]

let-3 X 22.44 mn104

: amb; early larval-lethal, incompletely suppressible by sup-5 . NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-4 X 17.42 mn105

: amb; early larval-lethal; cystic excretory canals. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [NJ, SP]

let-5 X 17.54 mn106

: amb, mat, mnz; progeny grow slowly, fail to reach adulthood. OA1: mn132 (similar). [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-6 X 24.13 mn130

: early larval-lethal. OA3: mn108, etc. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-7 X 18.63 mn112

: late larval-lethal, XX animals die at early L3, XO die at late L4. OA1: mn107 (sterile). [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-8

= let-2

let-9 X 17.64 mn107

: sterile; defective sperm. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-10 X 22.44 mn113

: early larval-lethal. OA1: mn118. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-11 X 22.41 mn116

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-12 X 20.65 mn121

: amb; early larval-lethal. OA1: mn125 (pka let-17 , similar). [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-13 I 19.00 e1188

: lethal. NA1. [DR]

let-14 X 22.46 mn120

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-15 X 21.82 mn127

: amb; early larval-lethal. OA2: mn123, e1471. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-16 X 23.49 mn117

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-17

= let-12

let-18 X 21.82 mn122

: amb; embryonic-lethal, incompletely suppressible by sup-5 . OA2: mn142, mn136 (late larval-lethal). [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-19 II 0.81 mn19

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-20

= mnDf71

let-21 II 3.68 e1778

: sterile uncoordinated polynucleate oocytes; abnormal positioning of germ-line nuclei. NA1. [NJ]

let-22 II 0.24 mn22

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-23 II 1.03 mn23

: early larval-lethal. OA>15: sy15 (rod-like early larval-lethal, probable null), sy5 (similar to sy15, W1078op), mn224 (early larval-lethal, non-null), n1045 (homozygous viable, Vul at 15°C, weak Muv [hyperinduced] at 25°C; P12 transformed to P11 fate), sy1 (viable, Vul, Q1318och), sy97 (viable, Vul, ME0, abnormal spicules), sy10 (impenetrant larval-lethal, survivors sterile, Emo, abnormal oocytes), etc. Alleles affect subset or all of five phenotypes (L1 viability, vulval induction, male spicules, oogenesis, P12). Also gf allele sa62sd (scrawny Muv, sa62/+ variable Muv, 5−50%). CLONED: 4.9-kb transcript, encodes 1323-aa EGF-receptor-class tyrosine kinase (pka kin-7 ); let23:lacZ expressed in many but not all cells; extensive molecular and developmental analysis. See also lfe, sli, etc. [Sigurdson et al. 1984; Aroian et al. 1990; Aroian and Sternberg 1991; Aroian et al. 1994; Koga and Ohshima 1995] [FK, SP]

let-24 II 0.69 mn24

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-25 II 2.69 mn25

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-26 II 4.14 mn26

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-27 II N mn27

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-28 II N mn28

: embryonic-lethal. OA1: mn212. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-29 II 2.99 mn29

: late larval-lethal. OA2: b285 (Mel), mn182. [Sigurdson et al. 1984; Kemphues et al. 1988a]

let-30 II 1.10 mn30

: embryonic-lethal. OA1: mn239. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-31 II 1.45 mn31

: embryonic-lethal. OA1: mn223. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-32 II N mn32

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-33 X 22.97 mn128

: mat, mm; Mel, homozygotes lay fertilized eggs that do not hatch; no male rescue but males fertile; mn128/Df sterile. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-34 X 20.50 mn134

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-35 X 22.43 mn135

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-36 X 21.23 mn140

: slow growth, late larval-lethal or adult producing inviable progeny; rescued by mating; mn140/Df early larval-lethal. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-37 X 22.97 mn138

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-38 X 21.82 mn141

: mat, mnz; Mel, homozygotes lay fertilized eggs that do not hatch, males fertile; mn141/Df sterile. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-39 X 21.23 mn144

: amb; early larval-lethal, incompletely suppressible by sup-5. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-40 X 21.82 mn150

: ts; early larval-lethal at 25°C, dumpyish sterile with abnormal gonads at 20°C; males fertile; mn150/Df early larval-lethal at 20°C. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-41 X 22.97 mn146

: amb; early larval-lethal, incompletely suppressible by sup-5. NA1. [Meneely and Herman 1981] [SP]

let-42 III 1.48 g38

: leaky maternal-effect-lethal phenotype at 25°C; animals developing to adulthood sterile, frequently Evl. OA1: oz36 (similar phenotype at 25°C; also impenetrant late-onset tumorous germ-line phenotype, strongest at 15°C; oz36 males exhibit some tumorous germ lines, some oogenesis, and yolk synthesis). [RC, BS]

let-43 X 8.46 mg49

: larval-lethal [GR, DG]

let-44 X 7.93 mg41

: embryonic-lethal [GR, DG]

let-45 I 13.60 h1292

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-46 I 13.60 h1297

: lethal. OA3: h1330, h1337, h1359. [KR]

let-47 I 13.59 h1319

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-48 I 13.60 h1320

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-49 I 27.17 st44

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984] [RW]

let-50 I 27.46 st33

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984] [RW]

let-51 IV 4.63 s41

: embryonic-lethal, cystic excretory canals. NA1. [Rogalski et al. 1982] [BC, NJ]

let-52 IV 5.52 s42

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s2346 (homozygote and hemizygote arrest at L2), s2381 (L3 arrest, s2381/Df L2 arrest). CLONED: cosmid rescue (T12G3). [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-53 IV 4.55 s43

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [Rogalski et al. 1982] [BC]

let-54 IV 4.06 s44

: early larval-lethal (L1−L2 molt). OA1: s53 (similar). [Rogalski et al. 1982] [BC]

let-55 IV 4.61 s45

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Rogalski et al. 1982] [BC]

let-56 IV 5.42 s173

: slow development, eventually reaches sterile adult stage after 7 days; s173/Df slower development initially, still reaches sterile adult stage. OA>10: s46 (late larval-lethal, hemizygote mid larval-lethal), s50, s168 (late larval-lethals), s1210, s1223, s1262 (homozygotes and hemizygotes mid larval-lethal), s173 (homozygote and hemizygote arrest as sterile adults), s2217, s2230, s2321 (resemble s173). CLONED: cosmid rescue, C11F2. [Clark et al. 1988; Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-57 IV R s47

: sterile adult, not rescued by mating. [Rogalski et al. 1982] [BC]

let-58 IV N s48

: (lost) embryonic- or early larval-lethal. [Rogalski et al. 1982] [BC]

let-59 IV 4.89 s49

: early larval-lethal; hemizygote embryonic/early larval-lethal. OA5: s175 (pka let-62 , embryonic-lethal), s681, s1087, s1174, s1197. [Rogalski and Baillie 1985; Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-60 IV 5.17 s59

: mid larval-lethal (leaky, escapers non-Vul). OA>10 (recessive): s1124 (strongest allele, both homozygote and hemizygote arrest as rod-like early larva; rare escapers die as Vul adult), s2336 (homozygote L3 arrest, hemizygote L2 arrest), s1155, n2021 (viable, 14% Vul), etc. Weak lf mutations have mating defects. Also dominant negative alleles, OA8: sy93dm (dominant Vul, viable), sy99 (dominant Vul, recessive-lethal), sy92 (weaker dominant, recessive-lethal), etc. Also gf alleles, OA>5: n1046sd,amb (pka lin-34 , non-null; adult hermaphrodite Muv [penetrance 57%], normal vulva with one to three large additional protrusions; n1046/+ 17% Muv. ES2. Male gross morphology wt, ME1), n1700, sy130 (all identical to n1046), ga89ts (at 25°C, 57% Muv, near-sterile, ME0). CLONED: encodes 143-aa Ras protein; let-60:lacZ fusion indicates complex developmental expression, multiple functions; extensive molecular and developmental analysis. [Rogalski et al. 1982; Han and Sternberg 1990, 1991; Beitel et al. 1990] [BC, MH, MT, PS, SD]

let-61 IV 4.63 s65

: late larval-lethal; s65/Df similar. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-62

= let-59

let-63 IV 4.69 s170

: mid larval-lethal; s170/Df similar. OA2: s679 (late larval-lethal), s1766. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-64 IV 4.85 s216

: thin sterile adult progeny; not rescued by wt sperm. OA3: s171 (leaky sterile adult), s697 (pka let-74 , late larval-lethal, s697/Df similar), s1746. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-65 IV 5.12 s254

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae; forms true dauers in pheromone, dauers recover to arrested state. NA11: s174, s694, s1084, s1154, s1222, s1730, s1777, m644, m650 (all resemble s254), s694 (sterile adult), s1083 (homozygote is mid larval-lethal, hemizygote is sterile adult). [Clark et al. 1988] [BC, DR]

let-66 IV 5.71 s176

: early larval-lethal; s176/Df mid larval-lethal. OA1: s1739 (homozygote and hemizygote both early larval-lethal). [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-67 IV 5.71 s214

: sterile adult, rescued by wt sperm; s214/Df mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-68 IV 5.77 s1258

: early larval-lethal; s1258/Df similar. OA4: s1081 (early larval-lethal), s693, s696, s698 (some alleles arrest at sterile adult stage). [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-69 IV 4.63 s684

: late larval-lethal. OA3: s1111, s172 (both early larval-lethal, s1111/Df embryonic- or early larval-lethal). [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-70 IV 4.85 s689

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: s1132 (early larval-lethal, s1132/Df mid larval-lethal). [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-71 IV 4.69 s692

: leaky sterile adult; s692/Df is similar. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-72 IV 4.69 s52

: late larval-lethal. OA1: s695 (mid larval-lethal, s695/Df similar). [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-73 IV 4.85 s685

: sterile adult; s685/Df similar. OA1: s1747 (sterile adult, hemizygote similar). [Clark et al. 1988; Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-74

= let-64

let-75 I 1.85 s101

: early larval-lethal (L1); no pumping, pharyngeal birefringence abnormal; possibly = myo-1 . OA3: s107, s108, s143.[McKim et al 1992; Avery 1993a] [DA, KR, RW]

let-76

= unc-37

let-77

= bli-4

let-78 I 1 s82

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [Rose and Baillie 1980] [KR]

let-79 I 3 s81

: L1-lethal. NA1. [Rose and Baillie 1980] [KR]

let-80 I 2.60 s96

: L1-lethal. NA1. [Rose and Baillie 1980] [KR]

let-81 I 2.24 s88

: L1-lethal. NA1. [Rose and Baillie 1980] [KR]

let-82 I 2.23 s85

: L1-lethal (larva abnormal?). NA1. [Rose and Baillie 1980] [KR]

let-83 I 2 s97

: L1-lethal. NA1. [Rose and Baillie 1980] [KR]

let-84 I 2.68 s91

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [Rose and Baillie 1980] [KR]

let-85 I 2.24 s142

: L1-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-86 I 1.56 s141

: L1-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-87 I 2.16 s106

: semiviable; L1-lethal with dpy-14(e188). OA2: s87 (L1-lethal), s139. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-88 I 2.24 s132

: L1-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-89 I 2.60 s133

: L1-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-90 I 2.24 s140

: L1-lethal (larva abnormal?). NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-91 IV 5.00 s678

: mid larval-lethal; s678/Df similar. OA2: s753 (fails to complement let-651 [s1185]), s1720. Anomalous complementation: let-91(s753)/let-651(s1185) lethal; other combinations viable. [Clark et al. 1988; Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-92 IV 5.32 s504

: early larval-lethal; s504/Df similar. OA3: s677, s2021 (homozygote and hemizygote arrest as L2), s2209 (similar). CLONED: partial cosmid rescue B0033. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-93 IV 5.71 s734

: mid larval-lethal. OA2: s2254 (homozygote arrests at L2, hemizygote at L1), s2357 (similar). [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-94

= lin-3

let-95

= let-91

let-96 IV 4.63 s1112

: mid larval-lethal; s1112/Df similar. OA1: s1732 (late larval-lethal). [Clark et al. 1988; Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-97 IV 6.11 s1121

: early larval-lethal; s1121/Df similar. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988; Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-98 IV 4.85 s1117

: late larval-lethal; s1117/Df similar. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-99 IV 5.81 s1201

: Mel; s1201/Df similar; incorrect spindle orientation in AB and P1. OA1. CLONED. [Clark et al. 1988; Charest et al. 1990] [BC, KK]

let-100 IV 4.85 s1160

: early larval-lethal; s1160/Df embryonic-lethal or early larval-lethal. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-201 I 23.57 e1716

: lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984]

let-202 I 22.93 e1720

: lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984]

let-203 I 23.57 e1717

: lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984]

let-204 I 23.60 e1719

: lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984]

let-205 I 25.38 e1722

: lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984]

let-206 I 25.45 e1721

: lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984]

let-207 I 25.64 e1723

: lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984]

let-208 I 29.03 e1718

: lethal. NA1. [Anderson and Brenner 1984]

let-209

= rrn-1

let-236 II 0.23 mn88

: larval-lethal. NA1. Possible U1 snRNP 70-kD protein? [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-237 II 0.78 mn208

: larval-lethal. OA1: b283 (Mel, leaky). [Sigurdson et al. 1984; Kemphues et al. 1988a]

let-238 II 0.80 mn229

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-239 II 0.83 mn217

: embryonic-lethal. OA1: mn93 (similar). [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-240 II 1.24 mn209

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-241 II 1.59 mn228

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-242 II 1.81 mn90

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-243 II 2.11 mn226

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-244 II 2.11 mn97

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-245 II 2.39 mn185

: embryonic-lethal. OA1: mn221. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-246 II 2.98 mn99

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-247 II 3.19 mn211

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-248 II 3.07 mn237

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-249 II 3.69 mn238

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-250 II 3.69 mn207

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-251 II 5.92 mn95

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-252 II 0.79 mn100

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-253 II 0.25 mn181

: larval-lethal; some embryonic and larval death or very slow growth to Egl adult; severe constipation; most intestinal nuclei fail to divide in L1. OA2: mn184, n2142. CLONED: cosmid rescue (F31B8). [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP, ML]

let-254 II N mn214

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-255 II N mn186

: larval-lethal. OA1: mn236. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-256 II N mn231

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-257 II 24.00 mn235

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-258 II N mn206

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-259 II 22.94 mn210

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-260 II N mn232

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-261 II N mn233

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-262 II N mn87

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-263 II 0.20 mn240

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-264 II 0.13 mn227

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-265 II 0.24 mn188

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-266 II 5.92 mn194

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-267 II N mn213

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-268 II 1.83 mn189

: larval-lethal. OA1: mn198. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-269 II N mn201

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-270 II N mn191

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-271 II N mn193

: larval-lethal. NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984] [SP]

let-272 IV 3.44 m243

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: m266. [DR]

let-273 IV 2.87 m263

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-274 IV 1.61 m256

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-275 IV 0.56 m245

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: m257. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-276 IV 0.62 m240

: early larval-lethal. OA5: m239 (embryonic-lethal), etc. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-277 IV 1.43 m262

: nonconditional constitutive formation of abnormal dauer-like larvae, forms true dauers in pheromone; dauers recover to arrested dauer-like state. OA1: m657. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-278 IV 0.06 m265

: sterile adult. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-279 IV 0.67 m261

: sterile adult. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-280 IV 1.40 m259

: sterile adult. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-281 IV 1.31 m247

: sterile adult. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-282 IV 1.31 m258

: early larval-lethal. OA1: m270 (sterile adult). [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-283

= let-282

let-284 IV 1.31 m267

: early larval-lethal. NA1 [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-285 IV N m248

: sterile adult. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-286 IV N m269

: sterile adult (Mel, progeny embryonic-lethal). NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-287 IV N m244

: sterile adult. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-288 IV 0.63 m306

: sterile adult. NA1. [Rogalski and Riddle 1988] [DR]

let-289 IV 3.17 s1133

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. OA2: s1253, s2006. [BC, DR]

let-290 IV 3.10 s1140

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. OA1: s1109? [BC, DR]

let-291 IV 3.27 s1139

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, DR]

let-292 IV 3.37 s1146

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, DR]

let-293 IV 3.01 s1166

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, DR]

let-294 IV 3.39 s1103

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, DR]

let-295 IV 3.13 s1175

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, DR]

let-296 IV 3.37 s1250

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, DR]

let-297 IV 3.39 s1989

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, DR]

let-298 IV N m656

: forms dauer-like larva; grows to sterile adult. NA1. [DR]

let-301 IV 7.75 s1134

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s1735. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-302 IV 6.86 s1159

: (lost) embryonic- or early larval-lethal. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-303 IV 2.5 s761

: lethal; s1160/Df embryonic- or early larval-lethal. [BC]

let-304 IV 0.5 s747

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-305 IV 4.5 s762

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-306 IV 7.5 s759

: larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-307 IV 4.63 s1171

: mid larval-lethal; s1171/Df similar. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-308 IV 4.63 s1705

: mid larval-lethal; s1705/Df similar. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-309 IV 5.79 s1115

: late larval-lethal; s1115/Df similar. OA1: s1770 (simi-lar). [Clark et al. 1988; Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-311 IV 4.89 s1195

: late larval-lethal; s1195/Df similar. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-312 IV 4.69 s1234

: late larval-lethal; s1234/Df similar. NA1. [Clark et al. 1988] [BC]

let-313 IV 9.39 s1135

: hemizygote is sterile adult. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-314 IV 7.78 s1206

: hemizygote is embryonic- or early larval-lethal. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-315 IV 7.96 s1101

: hemizygote is mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-316 IV 7.81 s1227

: hemizygote is early larval-lethal. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-317 IV 7.79 s1153

: hemizygote is embryonic- or early larval-lethal. OA1: s1182 (similar). [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-318 IV 9.39 s1218

: hemizygote is sterile adult. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-319 IV 9.39 s1754

: late larval-lethal; s1754/Df similar. OA1: s1233. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-320 IV 8.80 s1248

: hemizygote is sterile adult. OA1: s1757 (similar). [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-321 IV 9.39 s1228

: hemizygote is sterile adult. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-322 IV 9.07 s1238

: hemizygote is early to mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-323 IV 9.67 s1719

: sterile adult; s1719/Df similar. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-324 IV 9.53 s1727

: early larval-lethal; s1727/Df similar. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-325 IV 7.79 s1738

: mid larval-lethal; s1738/Df sterile adult. NA1. [Charest et al. 1990] [BC]

let-326 V 19.36 s1404

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s238 (mid larval-lethal). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-327 V 16.00 s247

: cs larval-lethal; slow developer, translucent adult. OA3: s1485, s1496 (morphological abnormalities, lethal 25°C), s1799. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-328

= unc-62

let-329 V 0.51 s575

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-330 V 11.37 s573

: mid larval-lethal; highly mutable. NA18: s1425 (early larval-lethal), s1429, s1463, s1468, s1497, s1515, s1517, s1518, s1583, s1638, s1702spo, s955, etc. Also s1433, s1497, s1518 (anomalous complementation, possible weaker alleles). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-331 V 2.80 s427

: cs mid larval-lethal or sterile adult. OA1: s1608 (slow development, sterile). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-332 V 0.56 s234

: embryonic-lethal. OA6: s369, s1021 (some escapers), s1441, s1464 (late embryonic-lethal), s1498, s1567. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-333

= rol-3

let-334 V 1.70 s908

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s383 (mid larval-lethal). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-335 V 0.89 s1439

: early larval-lethal. OA5: s232, s1412, s1476 (tends to coil), s1520 (escapers to sterile Evl adult), s1523. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-336 V 22.20 s1413

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s1420, s1495. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-337 V 0.46 s825

: mid larval-lethal. OA4: s1426 (early larval-lethal), s382, s1018, s1024. Some alleles early larval-lethal, some Mel. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-338 V 5.83 s1020

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: s503gri (similar) [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-339 V 0.56 s1444

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s1019 (cs Mel), s1469 (variable, embryonic- to mid larval-lethal). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-340 V 1.70 s1508

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s1022 (mid larval-lethal). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-341 V 5.39 s1031

: embryonic-lethal. OA>8: s1415, s1421, s1454, s1516, s1534, s1571, s2118fdi, ut58 (early larval-lethal, Clr phenotype), n1613ts (variable Vul phenotype at 25°C, some suppression by let-60[gf]) [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC, JC, MT]

let-342 V 4.88 s1029

: early larval-lethal; s1029/sDf27 similar, s1029/sDf50 is sterile adult. OA4: s1487, s1549, s1616, s1442 (weaker allele, s1442/ sDf50 is viable). Some alleles mid larval-lethal. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-343 V 0.56 s1025

: embryonic-lethal. OA5: s816, s1410, s1428, s1579, s1465 (cs, slow development). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-344 V 5.78 s376

: embryonic-lethal. OA1: s1555 (mid larval-lethal). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-345 V 4.55 s578

: mid larval-lethal. OA4: s1452, s1509, s1510, s1690fdi. Some alleles late larval-lethal. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-346 V 0.56 s1619

: mid larval-lethal. OA6: s373, s1026, s1575, s1580 (mid/late larval-lethal, Evl), s1630 (sterile adult, rescued by mating), s2166fdi. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-347 V 11.40 s1035

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-348 V 5.67 s1436

: early larval-lethal. OA3: s1622 (resembles s1436), s998gri, s1448 (slow development to Mel adult, embryonic-lethal), s1622. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-349 V N s217

: early larval-lethal. OA3: s502gri, s572 (cs, late larval-lethal), s1965uvi. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-350 V 2.70 s250

: sterile adult. OA1: s2126fdi. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-351 I 1.28 h43

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987; McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-352 I 0.15 h45

: late larval-lethal/sterile adult. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-353 I 1.46 h46

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-354 I 1.30 h79

: mid larval-lethal, no dominant effect. OA>20 (recessive-lethal). Also three dominant alleles: ct42, ct76, ct77 (all three alleles lead to recessive zygotic larval lethality, dominant embryonic Mel). [Howell and Rose 1990; Mains et al. 1990a] [HR, KR]

let-355 I 0.00 h81

: sterile adult. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-356 I 2.21 h83

: mid larval-lethal. OA3: h501, h679, h871. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-357 I 3.11 h89

: sterile adult. OA1: h132. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-358

= lin-6

let-359 I 0.37 h94

: sterile adult. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-360 I 5.12 h96

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-361 I 0.24 h97

: late larval/early adult lethal. OA3: h113, h116, h323gri. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-362 I 13.45 h86

: embryonic-lethal. OA1: h93. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-363 I 0.24 h98

: late larval-lethal. OA4: h111 (early adult arrest), h60, h114, h131 (lethal). [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-364 I 0.24 h104

: sterile adult. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-365 I 5.35 h108

: sterile adult. OA2: h129, h295 (sterile adult). [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-366 I 1.77 h112

: mid larval-lethal. OA6: h265 (lethal), etc. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-367 I 0.02 h119

: sterile adult. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (C12H4). [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-368 I 2.28 h121

: early larval-lethal. OA1: h826 (sterile adult, no rescue by mating). [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-369 I 2.22 h125

: early larval-lethal. OA1: h864 (mid larval-lethal). [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-370 I 0.01 h128

: sterile adult or Mel with larval lethality. OA1: h210. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-371 I 0.20 h123

: sterile adult. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-372 I 2.23 h126

: sterile adult. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-373 I 1.86 h234

: early larval-lethal. OA2: h570, h573 (early larval-lethal). [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-374 I 1.45 h251

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-375 I 0.61 h259

: leaky sterile adult. OA1: h391 (similar). [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-376 I 0.03 h130

: early larval-lethal. OA6: h416 (lethal), etc. CLONED: cosmid rescue (M01A12) [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-377 I 0.22 h110

: early larval-lethal. OA2: h443, h766. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-378 I 0.21 h124

: sterile adult. OA3: h181, h401, h563. CLONED: cosmid rescue (C07F10) [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-379 I 0.41 h127

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. OA2: h186, h712. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-380 I 0.94 h80

: late larval-lethal. OA2: h675, h831. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-381 I 0.90 h107

: embryonic- or early larval-lethal. OA2: h495, h747. CLONED: cosmid F26B1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-382 I 1.23 h82

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: h476. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-383 I 1.24 h115

: early to mid larval-lethal. OA3: h389, h527, h727. [Howell et al. 1987; McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-384 I 0.74 h84

: late larval-lethal or sterile adult. OA3: h388, h454, h865. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-385 I 1.36 h85

: early larval-lethal; highly mutable. OA>15: h578 (late larval-lethal), h940, etc. [Howell et al. 1987; McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-386 I 1.20 h117

: mid larval-lethal. OA4: h678, etc. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-387 I 0.90 h87

: mid to late larval-lethal. OA1: h183. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-388 I 0.42 h88

: early larval-lethal. OA2: h729, h843. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-389 I 1.56 h680

: early larval-lethal. OA10: h428, h106 (both early larval-lethal), h698 (late larval-lethal). Complex complementation; h698/h428 is fertile. [Howell et al. 1987; McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-390 I 1.23 h44

: late larval-lethal or sterile adult. NA1. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-391 I 0.87 h91

: late larval-lethal or sterile adult. OA3: h823 (early/mid larval-lethal), h736, h475. [Howell et al. 1987] [KR]

let-392 I 1.24 h120

: early larval-lethal. OA8: h122, etc. [Howell et al. 1987; McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-393 I 0.01 h225

: early larval-lethal. OA1: h375 (similar). CLONED: cosmid rescue (F40D12).

let-394 I 1.40 h262

: early to mid larval-lethal. OA6: h361 (sterile adult), etc. CLONED: cosmid rescue (T14D10). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-395 I 0.01 h271

: sterile adult, undeveloped gonad. NA1. CLONED: partial cosmid rescue (M01A12), to Mel with arrest at cleavage stage. [KR]

let-396 I 0.88 h217

: early larval-lethal. OA4: h354, etc. [KR]

let-397 I 1.24 h228

: early larval-lethal. OA2: h221, h445. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-398 I 1.31 h257

: arrests L2. NA1. CLONED: partial cosmid rescue (K01B11). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-399 I 1.34 h273

: L4-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-400 I 1.58 h269

: early to mid larval-lethal. OA5: h878, h590gri, etc. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-401 V 0.75 s193

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-402 V 0.33 s1526

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s127 (mid larval-lethal), s500gri. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-403 V 0.09 s1482

: early larval-lethal. OA3: s120 (mid/late larval-lethal), s246, s498gri. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-404 V 0.50 s119

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-405 V 0.89 s116

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s388, s829. Some alleles mid larval-lethal. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-406 V 0.62 s514

: mid larval-lethal (gri). NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (F58G4). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-407 V 1.88 s830

: early larval-lethal. OA3: s118, s1631 (early larval-lethal), s2122fdi. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-408 V 0.89 s827

: embryonic-lethal. OA1: s195 (late larval-lethal). CLONED: cosmid rescue (F18B11). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-409 V 1.61 s823

: early larval-lethal. OA6: s206 (early larval-lethal), s1480 (early larval-lethal, curls), s1507, s1528, s1546, s1547. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-410 V 0.48 s815

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: s1565 (similar). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-411 V 0.76 s1595

: mid larval-lethal. OA3: s223 (late larval-lethal), s1453, s1553. YAC rescue of s1553 (Y69E9). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-412 V 1.60 s1598

: sterile adult roller. OA1: s579 (Mel, embryonic lethality). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-413 V 1.43 s128

: embryonic-lethal. OA3: s1431, s1451, s1455. YAC rescue of s1451 (Y69E9). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-414 V 0.89 s114

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: s207. CLONED: cosmid rescue (F18B11). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-415 V 1.65 s1525

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s1505 (late larval-lethal), s129 (mid/late larval-lethal). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-416 V 1.61 s113

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-417 V 0.99 s204

: early larval-lethal. OA3: s1313, s1424, s1679fdi. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-418 V N s1617

: sterile adult, Evl, partial rescue at 15°C. OA1: s1045 (sterile Evl adult at 24°C, Mel [early larval-lethal] at 20°C). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-419 V 2.54 s1483

: early/mid larval-lethal. OA2: s219 (mid larval-lethal), s1539. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-420 V 2.70 s1046

: sterile adult, Evl. OA6: s723gri, s1058, s1478, s1573, s1584, s1603 (abnormal tail). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-421 V C s1477

: embryonic-lethal. OA3: s288 (leaky), s1460 (dumpy, mid larval-lethal), s1632 (dumpy, curls, escapers late larval-lethal, Evl). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-422 V C s194

: early larval-lethal. OA6: s738gri, s739gri, s1312, s1563, s1578 (ts, rescued at 15°C), s1548. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-423 V 0.82 s818

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s1550 (early/mid larval-lethal). YAC rescue of s1550 (Y69E9). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-424 V 1.44 s384

: sterile adult. OA2: s248, s1587 (similar). Mixed cosmid rescue. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-425 V 0.56 s385

: sterile adult. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-426 V 17.76 s1527

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s826 (mid larval-lethal). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-427 V 2.10 s1057

: sterile adult. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-428 V 2.70 s1490

: dumpy, late larval-lethal (ruptures). OA1: s1070 (sterile adult). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-429 V 0.62 s584

: sterile adult. OA1: s1597 (slow development, morphological abnormalities). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-430 V 5.67 s1042

: sterile adult. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-431 V 20.44 s1049

: sterile adult. OA1: s1044 (similar). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-432

= lin-40

let-433 V 1.61 s950

: sterile adult. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (T24H5). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-434 V 1.59 s1904

: sterile adult, gri. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (ZK307). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-436 V 1.25 s1403

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-437 V 20.98 s1405

: mid larval-lethal, abnormal tail. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-438 V 0.56 s2114

: fdi, lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-439 V 0.04 s1407

: early larval-lethal. OA3: s1503, s1522, s1524 (all similar) [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-440 V 2.70 s1411

: very early larval-lethal. OA4: s1440, s1552, s1560, s1589 (similar). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-441 V 2.04 s1414

: early larval-lethal (ts, leaky at 20°C, rescued at 15°C). NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-442 V 0.56 s1416

: early/mid larval-lethal. OA2: s1430ts (partial rescue to sterile adult at 15°C), s1535. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-443 V 0.87 s1417

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-444 V 0.41 s1418

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s1459, s1569 (Mel). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-445 V 1.15 s1419

: Mel (larval-lethal, tight coiler). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-447 V 21.52 s1457

: Mel (embryonic-lethal, arrest pre-lima bean); s1457/Df lays more eggs than homozygote. OA1: s1654fdi (resembles s1457) [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-448 V 20.98 s1363

: mut; mid/late larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-449 V 1.43 s1343

: mut; early larval-lethal. NA1. YAC rescue (Y69E9) [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-450 V 22.60 s2160

: fdi (lost). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-452 V 2.70 s1434

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-453 V 20.98 s2167

: lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-454 V 2.04 s1423

: mid larval-lethal; double cuticle, no pumping. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-455 V 7.07 s1447

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s1511 (similar). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-456 V 1.43 s1479

: early larval-lethal. NA1. YAC rescue (Y69E9). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-458 V 20.98 s1443

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-459 V 6.46 s1432

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: s1615 (Mel [embryonic-lethal], not rescued by mating). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-460 V 1.79 s1664

: early larval-lethal, fdi. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-461

= lag-2

let-462 V 0.04 s1594

: embryonic/early larval-lethal. OA3: s1481 (larval-lethal, molting problem), s1590, s1956uvi. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-463 V 0.47 s2168

: lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-464 V 1.59 s1504

: embryonic/early larval-lethal. OA1: s1530 (early larval-lethal). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-466 V 7.42 s1063

: Mel (early larval-lethal). OA1: s990 (Mes, maternal-effect sterile). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-467 V 1.74 s1521

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-468 V 0.56 s1533

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-469 V 0.48 s1582

: sterile adult, rescued by mating. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-470 V 1.99 s1581

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: s1629ts (slow development at 20°C, normal at 15°C). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-471 V 0.48 s1570

: Mel (early larval-lethal, rescued by mating). NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-472 V 0.48 s1605

: mid larval-lethal, morphological abnormalities. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-473 V 0.23 s1602

: early larval-lethal, trapped in old cuticle. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-474 V 1.43 s1577

: early larval-lethal. NA1. YAC rescue (Y69E9). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-475 V 1.99 s1606

: sterile adult. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-476 V 0.18 s1621

: ts; sterile adult at 20°C, rescued by mating; fertile at 15°C. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-478 V 9.04 s1620

: early larval-lethal; s1620/sDf50 is Mel (embryonic-lethal). NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-479 V 0.03 s1576

: sterile Evl adult, lays unfertilized eggs; rescued by mating; partial rescue at 15°C. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-480 V C s1607

: sterile adult, not rescued by mating. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-481 V L s1636

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-500 III/V N s2165

: embryonic-lethal (induced on eT1 ). NA1. [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

let-501 I 1.91 h714

: early larval-lethal. OA1: h498 (mid larval-lethal). [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-502 I 1.37 h392

: mid larval-lethal. OA5: h783 (late larval-lethal), h509 (sterile adult), ca201sd (embryonic arrest, early morphogenesis; ca201/+ sometimes abnormal), h732, h835 (both mid larval-lethal). All alleles probable dominant negatives. CLONED: encodes protein with similarity to human mytotonic dystrophy kinase. [Howell and Rose 1990] [HR, JM, KR]

let-503 I 1.46 h313

: sterile adult. OA1: h418 (similar). [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-504 I 1.53 h844

: late larval-lethal. OA3: h448 (sterile adult), h327, h888 (late larval-lethals). [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-505 I 1.53 h426

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-506 I 1.46 h300

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-507 I 1.46 h439

: leaky sterile adult. NA1. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-508 I 0.92 h452

: late larval-lethal. OA1: h995. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-509 I 1.91 h867

: leaky late larval-lethal/sterile adult. OA2: h521 (leaky sterile adult), h522. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-510 I 1.91 h740

: lethal. NA1. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-511 I 1.91 h755

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [Howell and Rose 1990] [KR]

let-512 I 0.69 h797

: mid larval-lethal. OA5: h351, etc. [KR]

let-513 I 0.57 h752

: sterile adult. NA1. [KR]

let-514 I 0.65 h753

: early/mid larval-lethal. NA1. CLONED: partial cosmid rescue (C32E7), to sterile adult, no oocytes. [KR]

let-515 I 2.50 h730

: early larval-lethal. OA3: h223 (late larval-lethal), h139, h149 (both Mel). [KR]

let-516 I 1.91 h144

: sterile adult. OA1: h456. [KR]

let-517 I 2.50 h264

: lethal. OA1: h757, h1398. [KR]

let-518 I 2.50 h316

: embryonic/early larval-lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-519 I 2.50 h405

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-520 I 1.64 h690

: L4-lethal. OA1: h1003 (similar). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-521 I 1.35 h704

: L4-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-522 I 1.73 h735

: early larval-lethal. OA2: h240, h519. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-523 I 1.73 h751

: early larval-lethal. OA1: h479. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-524 I 1.80 h442

: early larval-lethal. OA4: h53gri, etc. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-525 I 1.73 h874

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: h410. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-526 I 0.12 h185

: lethal. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (C01G8). [KR]

let-527 I 1.80 h207

: early larval-lethal. OA3: h209 (mid larval-lethal), h357 (some maternal rescue to Spe adult), h932 (early larval-lethal). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-528 I 1.40 h1012

: late larval-lethal. OA1: h58spo (similar). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-529 I 1.36 h238

: early larval-lethal. OA3: h249, h342, h516 (similar). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-530 I 0.02 h798

: early larval-lethal. OA5: h359, etc. CLONED: partial cosmid rescue (M01A12) of h798, to Mel (cleavage arrest). [KR]

let-531 I 0.36 h733

: late larval-lethal. OA1: h767. [KR]

let-532 I 0.39 h715

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (anomalous?). [KR]

let-533 I N h845

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-534 I 1.31 h260

: mid larval-lethal, coiler Unc. OA1: h196 (mid larval-lethal). CLONED: cosmid rescue (T14D10). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-535 I 2.42 h993

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: h999 (similar). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-536 I 3.11 h882

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-537

= mek-2

let-538 I 2.42 h990

: sterile adult. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-539 I 1.82 h938

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-540 I 2.03 h884

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-541 I 3.11 h886

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-542 I 1.94 h986

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-543 I 1.37 h792

: L4-lethal. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-544 I 1.27 h692

: sterile adult. NA1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-545 I 1.45 h842

: sterile adult, very few germ-line nuclei; no oocytes or sperm. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (T21G5). Possibly = glh-1. [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-546 I 15.00 h227

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-547 I 15.00 h277

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-548 I 11.55 h356

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-549 I 7.68 h193

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-550 I N h291

: sterile adult. NA1. [KR]

let-551 V 17.28 e2517

: early/mid larval-lethal at 20°C; sterile adult at 15°C; mutator-induced. [CB]

let-552 II 5.25 e2542

: most animals arrest as L1 hatchlings; small dumpy warped appearance; occasional escapers reach fertile adulthood, with extreme dumpy phenotype; rare progeny have same phenotype; spontaneous mutation. NA1. [CB]

let-553 II R e2617

: mut; Evl, often ruptures at L4 molt; normal spermatogenesis; Mel; variable embryonic arrest up to many cells; no morphogenesis; many distorted eggs, never laid. [CB]

let-571 I 7.88 h347

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-572 I 15.00 h220

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-573 I 8.17 h247

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-574 I N h317

: sterile adult. NA1. [KR]

let-575 I N h345

: lethal. OA1: h728. [KR]

let-576 I N h816

: early larval-lethal. OA1: h494. [KR]

let-577 I N h503

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-578 I N h512

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-579 I N h705

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-580 I N h709

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-581 I N h725

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: h876 (similar). [KR]

let-582 I N h726

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-583 I N h738

: early/mid larval-lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-584 I N h743

: sterile adult. OA1: h746 (similar). [KR]

let-585 I N h784

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-586 I N h846

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-587 I N h849

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-588 I 1.45 h318

: sterile adult, occasionally lays a few eggs. NA1. [KR]

let-589 I 1.91 h319

: Mel, embryonic arrest. NA1. [KR]

let-590 I 1.45 h320

: sterile adult. NA1. [KR]

let-595 I C h353

: lethal. OA1: h372. [KR]

let-598 I C h213

: lethal. OA1: h813. [KR]

let-599 I 0.12 h290

: sterile adult. NA1. [KR]

let-601 I 1.00 h281

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue (ZC338). [KR]

let-602 I 0.88 h283

: early larval-lethal. OA2: h374, h497. CLONED: mixed cosmid rescue (including C46H8); partial rescue to sterile adult, no oocytes. [JS, KR]

let-603 I 0.43 h289

: sterile adult (gonad tumorous mass). OA3: h408, h437, h812 (sterile adults). CLONED: partial cosmid rescue (C32E7); rescued to Mel. [KR]

let-604 I 1.23 h293

: sterile adult. OA1: h490 (similar). [KR]

let-605 I 1.30 h312

: sterile Unc adult; h312/Df sterile, Evl, strong coiler Unc. OA4 (all alleles Unc). [McKim et al. 1992] [KR]

let-606 I 1.05 h292

: sterile adult. NA1 [KR]

let-607 I 1.24 h402

: embryonic-lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-608 I 1.13 h706

: early larval arrest, lives 1−2 weeks. OA2. [KR]

let-610 I 1.13 h695

: sterile adult. NA1. [KR]

let-611 I 0.89 h850

: early/mid larval-lethal. OA2. CLONED: mixed cosmid rescue (including C48E7); rescue to sterile adult, no oocytes. [KR]

let-613 I C h198

: lethal. NA1. [KR]

let-651 IV 4.66 s1165

: mid larval-lethal. OA1: s1185 (mid larval-lethal, fails to complement let-91[s753]). [Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-652 IV 4.66 s1086

: mid larval-lethal; s1086/Df similar. NA1. [Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-653 IV 5.41 s1733

: early larval-lethal; arrest stage is late L1 to early L2; cystic excretory canals. OA2: s2270 (homozygote arrests L2 with vacuole anterior to posterior pharyngeal bulb, hemizygote arrests L1), s2377 (homozygote sterile adult, hemizygote arrests L2). CLONED: encodes predicted 694-aa secreted protein, with features characteristic of mucin glycoproteins. [Jones and Baillie 1995] [BC, NJ]

let-654

= sem-3

let-655 IV 4.95 s1748

: sterile adult, s1748/Df similar. NA1. [Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-656 IV 5.78 s1753

: sterile adult, s1753/Df similar. OA1: s1767 (similar). [Clark and Baillie 1992] [BC]

let-657 IV 4.59 s1254

: hemizygotes arrest as embryo/early larva. OA3: s1143, s1164, s1236. [BC]

let-658 IV 4.49 s1149

: hemizygote arrests as late larva. OA2: s1107, s1194. [BC]

let-659 IV 4.49 s1152

: hemizygote arrests as early larva. NA1. [BC]

let-660 IV 5.38 s1996

: sterile adult (leaky). NA1. [BC]

let-661 IV 5.61 s2203

: homozygote and hemizygote arrest as L2 larva. NA1. CLONED: partial cosmid rescue (K04H1). [BC]

let-662 IV 5.71 s2219

: homozygote and hemizygote arrest as leaky sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-664 IV 5.35 s2374

: homozygote and hemizygote arrest as sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-702 III 1.1 s2483

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-705 III 1.45 s2451

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-706 III 5.46 s2480

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-707 III 2.28 s2462

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-708

= let-764

let-713 III C s2449

: early/mid larval-lethal. OA1: s2470 (early larval-lethal). [BC]

let-714 III 1 s2582

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s2481 (mid/late larval-lethal), s2465 (sterile). [BC]

let-715 III 3.05 s2618

: variable sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-716 III 1.43 s2457

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s2626 (similar). [BC]

let-720 III 20.5 s2610

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-721 III C s2447

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-722 III 1.0 s2448

: early larval-lethal. OA2: s2588 (pka let-744 , mid larval-lethal), s2450 (pka let-772 , sterile adult). [BC]

let-723 III C s2434

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-725 III C s2454

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-728 III C s2573

: early/mid larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-733 III 2.34 s2621

: variable sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-734 III 2.3 s2479

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-737 III 2.82 s2477

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-744

= let-722

let-745

= let-765

let-747 III C s2456

: early/mid larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-749 III 2.36 s2467

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-754 III C s2622

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-755 III C s2600

: early/mid larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-758 III 5.46 s2607

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-759 III 4.52 s2595

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-761 III 1.68 s2461

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-764 III 1.5 s2616

: early larval-lethal. OA1: s2443 (pka let-708 , early larval arrest). [BC]

let-765 III 1.04 s2575

: early larval-lethal; L2 arrests with lineage abnormalities; in males, B.a and B.p equal in size; s2575/Df arrests at L1. OA1: s2630 (pka let-745 , mid larval-lethal). [BC]

let-766 III C s2463

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-767 III C s2464

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-768 III C s2592

: mid/late larval-lethal. OA2: s2482 (sterile), s2628 (later larval arrest). [BC]

let-771 III 1.5 s2442

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-772

= let-722

let-774 III C s2615

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-778 III 2.2 s2584

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-782 III 1.68 s2591

: variable sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-783 III C s2601

: embryonic or early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-786 III 1.43 s2631

: early larval-lethal. NA1. [BC]

let-789 III 2.2 s2606

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-852 II 3 cc502

: early larval-lethal. OA3: cc50 (mid larval-lethal), cc504 (late larval-lethal). [PD]

let-853 II 3 cc505

: embryonic-lethal. OA2. [PD]

let-854 II 3 cc507

: embryonic-lethal. OA1. [PD]

let-855 II 3 cc509

: early larval-lethal. OA8. [PD]

let-856 II 3 cc514

: mid larval-lethal. OA6. [PD]

let-857 II 3 cc516

: embryonic-lethal. OA5. [PD]

let-858 II 3 cc500

: embryonic-lethal. OA2. Two strongest alleles arrest at 1.5/2.5-fold elongation stage, often with head vacuoles; transgenically rescued animals survive to sterile adult; abnormal germ line. CLONED: partial cosmid rescued (F33A8), to viable sterile adult phenotype; 2.8-kb transcript, predicted 90-kD novel protein. [PD]

let-974 III 0.3 s230

: late larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, KR]

let-975 III 0.3 s255

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC]

let-976 III 0.3 s267

: lethal. NA1. [BC, KR]

let-977 III 0.3 s966

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC, KR]

let-978 III 0.3 s1050

: sterile adult. OA1: s377 (similar). [BC, KR]

let-979 III 0.1 s231

: lethal. NA1. [BC, KR]

let-980 III 0.1 s424

: mid larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, KR]

let-981 III 0.1 s453

: lethal. OA3: s222, s529 (larval-lethal), s1072 (sterile adult). CLONED: cosmid rescue (ZK643). [BC, KR]

let-982 III 0 s386

: lethal. NA1. [BC, KR]

let-983 III 0 s442

: lethal. OA1: s1080 (sterile adult). CLONED: partial cosmid rescue (F44E2). [BC, KR]

let-984 III 0 s428

: lethal. OA1: s294 (larval-lethal). [BC, KR]

let-985 III 0 s980

: larval-lethal. NA1. [BC, KR]

let-986 III 0 s1065

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC, KR]

let-987 III 0 s1078

: sterile adult. NA1. [BC, KR]

lev

lev amisole resistance abnormal [ZZ]. See also tmr.

lev-1 IV 8.05 e211

: (pka tmr-1 ) almost normal movement in absence of drugs; uncoordinated but not hypercontracted in 1 mM levamisole. ES2 ME3. OA>10: x22, e289, x577, etc. Also two rare semidominant alleles with uncoordinated phenotype: x21 (uncoordinated Egl-c, ME3), x63. CLONED: corresponds to acr-1 , encoding subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. [Lewis et al. 1980a,b, 1987b] [ZZ, MQ]

lev-7

= unc-63

lev-8 X 5.09 x15

: almost normal movement in absence of drugs; weakly resistant to 1 mM levamisole; body contracts but head does not; more resistant at 25°C. ES2 NA1. [Lewis et al. 1980a, 1987a] [ZZ]

lev-9 X 2.52 x16

: almost normal movement in absence of drugs; weakly resistant to 1 mM levamisole. ES2 OA2. [Lewis et al. 1980a, 1987a] [ZZ]

lev-10 I 23.83 x17

: almost normal movement in absence of drugs; weakly resistant to 1 mM levamisole. ES2 NA1. [Lewis et al. 1980a, 1987a] [ZZ]

lev-11 I 25.44 x12

: slightly long, uncoordinated, mild twitcher phenotype; grows well in 1 mM levamisole; strong semidominant suppressor of unc-90(e1463). ES3 ME2. OA6: x1 (twitcher), e1724 (lethal). Also Pat (paralyzed arrest at 2-fold) alleles: st536 (severe paralysis), st577, st566 (some pharyngeal pumping). Greatly reduced staining for tropomyosin, probably corresponds to structural gene tmy-1. [Lewis et al. 1980a; Williams and Waterston 1994] [HK, ZZ]

lfe

L et-23 fe rtility effector/regulator [PS].

lfe-1 IV N sy290

: suppresses sterility of let-23 mutations. [PS]

lfe-2 I N sy326

: suppresses sterility of let-23 mutations. [PS]

lgx

l in-12 and g lp-1 X -hybridizing [GS].

lgx-1 X 4.80

NMK. Encodes predicted protein with EGF-like repeats. [GS]

lgx-2 IV 3.15

NMK. Encodes predicted protein with EGF-like repeats. [GS]

lgx-3

= epi-1

lin

lin eage abnormal [CB].

lin-1 IV 8.36 e1777

: amb; adult hermaphrodite has multiple (one to four) vulval protrusions, often bursts at abnormal vulva during L4 molt. ES3 (adult)/ES1 (larvae) HME2; adult male has rudimentary ectopic hooks. ES1 ME0. OA>20: e1026, n431amb (phenotype resembles e1777), e1275 (weaker, slightly ts phenotype; ME1), n746, n1141, etc. CLONED: encodes predicted protein with strong similarity to ETS family transcription factors. [Ferguson and Horvitz 1985; Beitel et al. 1995; Katz et al. 1995] [GS, MT]

lin-2 X 7.49 e1309

: adult hermaphrodite Vul (penetrance 93%). ES2 (adult)/ES1 (larvae) HME2 ME3 (adult male wt). NA13: e1453amb (non-null, lower penetrance than e1309, 50% Vul), n105ts (penetrance 24% at 15°C, 90% at 25°C), n768 (weak allele, multiple vulval protrusions, penetrance at 21%), n397 (deletes most of gene), etc. CLONED: encodes predicted protein with PDZ domain, similarity to guanylate kinase, Drosophila Discs large; mutants delocalize LET-23. [Ferguson et al. 1985; Simske et al. 1996] [MT, SD]

lin-3 IV 4.81 e1417

: adult hermaphrodite Vul (penetrance 89%); HME2 ME2 (adult male wt). OA>10: n378 (resembles e1417), n1059 (early larval-lethal), n1058 (early larval-lethal/sterile adult), s751 (pka let-94 , late larval-lethal, s751/Df early larval-lethal), s1750 (homozygote and hemizygote mid larval-lethal), etc. CLONED: encodes proteins with similarity to EGF family; transgene overexpression leads to Muv (extra vulval differentiation). [Hill and Sternberg 1992; Katz et al. 1995] [BC, MT, PS]

lin-4 II 0.88 e912

: pdi; heterochronic, retarded; adult hermaphrodites have long, abnormal movement, Vul, lack adult cuticle. ES3 (adult) ES1 (larvae) HME0 (20°C)/HME1 (15°C). Adult males lack copulatory structures. ME0. OA1: ma161 (resembles e912). CLONED: encodes two small RNAs with no coding potential. [Lee et al. 1993; Wightman et al. 1993] [GR, VT]

lin-5 II 0.56 e1348

: thin, sterile, and uncoordinated after L1; all postembryonic divisions fail from defective cytokinesis, although DNA replication continues; no sexual maturation in either sex. ES3 ME0. OA1: e1457 (similar phenotypes). CLONED: cosmid rescue (C03G3) [Sulston and Horvitz 1981; Albertson et al. 1978] [MT]

lin-6 I 9.44 e1466

: thin, sterile, and uncoordinated after L1; most postembryonic divisions absent or defective from absence of DNA synthesis; Q and I divisions normal; no sexual maturation in either sex. ES3 ME0. OA1 (pka let-358 ). [Sulston and Horvitz 1981] [MT]

lin-7 II 22.94 e1413

: amb; adult hermaphrodite Vul (penetrance 98%); HME2 ME3 (adult male wt). OA>10: e974amb, n308 (both resemble e1413), n308cs (penetrance 95% at 15°C, 28% at 25°C), n385, n764, etc. CLONED: encodes predicted 33-kD protein with PDZ domain, similarity to junction-associated proteins; mutants delocalize LET-23. [Sulston and Horvitz 1981; Hoskins et al. 1996; Simske et al. 1996] [MT, SD]

lin-8 II 8.39 n111

: adult hermaphrodite wt, Muv in homozygotes with lin-9, lin-35, lin-36, or lin-37 . ME3 (male wt). Mosaic analysis indicates action is cell nonautonomous. OA1: n762. [Ferguson and Horvitz 1989; Hedgecock and Herman 1995] [MT]

lin-9 III 0.00 n112

: adult hermaphrodite wt, Muv in homozygotes with lin-8 or lin-38 . OA2: n942, n943 (both sterile non-Muv alone; sterile Muv with lin-8 , etc.). CLONED: encodes predicted 642-aa novel protein, hydrophobic, possible C-terminal transmembrane domains. [Ferguson and Horvitz 1989] [MT]

lin-10 I 2.49 e1439

: adult hermaphrodite Vul (penetrance 95%); HME2 ME3 (adult male wt). Similar phenotype in e1439/Df. OA>5: e1438, n299, n1299, n1329, n1638amb, etc. CLONED: encodes predicted 407-aa novel protein; antibody staining indicates ubiquitous, cytoplasmic. [Kim and Horvitz 1990] [MT, SD]

lin-11 I 4.88 n389

: adult hermaphrodite Vul (penetrance 100%); 2° lineages become symmetrical; HME0; slightly uncoordinated; adult male slightly uncoordinated; wt morphology. ME1. OA3: n382 (resembles n389), n672sd (n672/+ is 5% Vul), n566 (weaker allele HME2). CLONED: encodes LIM class homeoprotein; lin-11:lacZ expressed in some VPC 2° descendants, some gonadal cells, VC neurons, some head neurons. [Freyd et al. 1990] [MT]

lin-12 III 0.12 n941

: abnormal vulva, sterile, small; many lineage transformations. ES3 ME0. Also gf alleles: n137sd : adult hermaphrodite Muv, many lineage transformations. ES3 ME1 (n137/+ ME3). OA>15(gf): n177 (resembles n137), n676, n302, n379 (these alleles have semidominant Vul phenotype, probably less hypermorphic). Also intragenic revertants of dominant alleles OA>50 (ird): most have lf phenotype, e.g., n137n720, n676n909amb (resemble n941), n137n460ts (wt at 25°C, Muv at 15°C). Many other non-null alleles with tissue-specific effects, also Tcl-insertion null alleles. See also sel, lag, glp-1; Lag functions redundant with glp-1. CLONED: encodes 1429-aa protein, transmembrane receptor related to GLP-1, Drosophila Notch; 13 EGF-like repeats and other repeats in extracellular domain, 6 ANK repeats in intracellular domain; very extensive developmental and molecular analyses, many mutations sequenced. [Greenwald et al. 1983; Wilkinson et al. 1994; Wilkinson and Greenwald 1995] [GS]

lin-13 III 0.60 n387

: ts, mat; adult hermaphrodite Muv and sterile at 25°C, maternally rescued at 15°C (n387 progeny of n387/+ are wt but produce sterile F2 only); males have occasional ventral protrusions. ME0. n387/Df at 25°C is early larval-lethal. OA1: n388 (similar). CLONED: cosmid rescue (K04F4) [Ferguson and Horvitz 1985, 1989] [GS, MT]

lin-14 X 3.33 n526n540

: ird; lf allele (class II, ab), precocious heterochronic lineage alterations in ectoderm; abnormal development of vulva, endoderm, and mesoderm; abnormal cuticle formation; precocious dauer entry at L1 molt. ES2. Male more severely affected, only three molts, gonadal development abnormal; similar phenotype in n536n540/Df. OA>10: n179ts, etc.; also n355n679ird,ts (class V, ab+, only early events precocious), n360ts (class III, a+b, only late events precocious). Also gf alleles: n536sd (class I, retarded heterochronic alterations in many lineages; abnormal vulval development, cuticle formation, supernumerary molts, extra divisions in sex mesoblasts, intestine, etc.; gonadal lineages normal. ES3), n355sd (similar). Numerous intragenic revertants; for both lf and gf mutations, late lineages less affected if animal develops via dauer stage. CLONED: two 3.5-kb transcripts, differing 5′, encoding 70-kD novel proteins; antibodies stain nuclei; protein levels high in L1, reduced or absent later; gf mutations affect 3′UTR. [Ruvkun and Giusto 1989; Wightman et al. 1993] [GR, VT]

lin-15 X 22.32 n309

: adult hermaphrodite Muv, vulva either normal or nonfunctional, two to six ventral protrusions; some animals rupture during L4 molt; adult males have one to three ventral protrusions, rudimentary ectopic hook. ME0. Possibly enhanced phenotype in n309/Df. OA>10: e1763, n765ts (wt at 15°C, Muv at 25°C, maternal-effect Muv at 20°C), n767 (class-A allele, wt alone, Muv in homozygotes with lin-9,35,36,37), n744 (class-B allele, wt alone, Muv with lin-8,38), etc. CLONED: locus encodes two collinear transcripts, B (5′) and A (3′, SL2 trans-spliced); encode predicted 1440-aa and 719-aa novel proteins. [Ferguson and Horvitz 1989; Clark et al. 1994; Huang et al. 1994] [MT, PS]

lin-16 III 0.81 e1743

: thin, sterile, uncoordinated after L1; extensive failure of postembryonic divisions; no polyploid cells; most Vn.p cells join syncytium. [TU]

lin-17 I 7.63 n671

: adult hermaphrodite slightly uncoordinated, long, irregularly shaped tail, vulva may be nonfunctional; many hermaphrodites (50%) have single small protrusion posterior to vulvas; some gonadal abnormality and sterility; abnormally long excretory canals; diverse asymmetric cell divisions are symmetric or reversed. ES2. Male tail grossly abnormal, may rupture during L2 molt. ME0. OA4: n677 (resembles n671), n669 (less penetrant for Muv phenotype), e2257, etc. CLONED: encodes predicted membrane protein (seven transmembrane domains), 28% identity to Drosophila Frizzled. [Sternberg and Horvitz 1988; Herman et al. 1995; Sawa et al. 1996] [MT]

lin-18 X 8.15 e620

: some (<50%) hermaphrodites have single small protrusion posterior to vulva, occasional vulval rupture; polarity of 2° lineages variably disrupted; slight maternal-effect; slightly ts; e620/Df stronger phenotype. ES2 ME3 (males phenotypically wt). OA1: n1051amb,ts (resembles e620). [Ferguson et al. 1985] [MT, PS]

lin-19 III 2.51 e1756

: normal L1, extra cell divisions in most postembryonic lineages (about 4-fold increase; extra cells smaller, but differentiate); sterile. ES3 (adult) ME0 NA1. CLONED: encodes predicted 697-aa protein, 28% identity to yeast Cdc53p. [Kipreos et al. 1996] [NJ]

lin-20

= vab-3

lin-21 III 0.46 e1751

: sd; uncoordinated, abnormal migration of Q neuroblasts, both QL and QR migrate posteriorly; ectopic V ray papillae; reverts spontaneously to wt. NA1. Molecular data indicate e1751 is a tandem duplication of ∼100 kb that includes mab-5 . [Hedgecock et al. 1987] [NJ, CF]

lin-22 IV 6.87 n372

: V1−V4 divide like V5, resulting in multiple ectopic postdeirids in hermaphrodites and males, and multiple ectopic rays in males; males also have hermaphroditic Pn.ps and are mostly missing lateral alae. ES1 (hermaphrodite) ES2 (male) ME2. OA1: n1113. CLONED: predicted protein has similarity to bHLH proteins, Drosophila Hairy. [Horvitz et al. 1983; Waring et al. 1992] [CF, MT]

lin-23 II 0.38 e1883

: extra cell divisions in all postembryonic lineages, apparently stochastic; sterile, eggs undergo many cell divisions, no morphogenesis. ES3 (adult) ME0. OA3: e1924, e1925, e1521 (pka stu-1 , thin, sterile, loopy, uncoordinated). CLONED: predicted protein has similarity to yeast Cdc4p. [Miller et al. 1993] [NJ]

lin-24 IV 5.71 n432

: sd; adult hermaphrodite Vul (n432 95% Egl, n432/+ 55% Egl); Pn.p cells degenerate, dependent on ced-2,5,10. ES2 ME3 (male wt). Probably neomorphic, n432/nDf27 is 54% Egl, +/nDf27 is wt. OA1: n1057amb (non-null, n1057 and n1057/Df are wt, n1057/+ is 33% Egl). Null phenotype probably wt. [Ferguson et al. 1987; Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT]

lin-25 V 4.51 e1446

: adult hermaphrodite Vul, 11% sterile; VPC all 3° except P6.p; suppresses lin-1, let-60(gf), not lin-12(gf). ES2 HME1 ME0 (males morphologically wt). OA9: n545ts (resembles e1446 at 25°C; 8% Vul at 15°C), n1063, ku78, ar90 (probable null, resembles e1446), etc. CLONED: encodes predicted 1139-aa novel protein. [Tuck and Greenwald 1995] [GS]

lin-26 II 0.48 n156

: adult hermaphrodites Vul (>99%), slightly small and fat; HME1; general hypodermal and support cell defects, hypodermal cells die or neuralize; 2% sterile. ES2. Males very small scrawny, rounded tail; ME0. n156/Df is larval-lethal. OA4: mc1, mc2 (both embryonic-lethal), pk38tci, mc15 (deletion derivative). CLONED: encodes predicted zinc finger transcription factor; antibody stains hypodermis, support cells, uterine cells. [Labouesse et al. 1994] [MT, ML]

lin-27 I N b151

: ts, mat, mn; at 25°C, hermaphrodite sterile with ball-shaped gonad; other lineage abnormalities (e.g., M descendants); male sterile with normal gonad morphology. NA1. [DH, JK]

lin-28 I 2.71 n719

: precocious heterochronic alterations in many ectodermal lineages, more severe than lin-14(null); precocious abnormal vulva development; Egl; abnormal cuticle formation; only three molts; hermaphrodite and male V5.pa make ray cells in L2; gonadal development normal; late lineages less affected if animal develops via dauer stage. ES3 ME0. OA3: n947, n1119, n1120 (all resemble n719). CLONED: 1.5- and 1.6-kb transcripts, encode predicted Y-box protein. [Liu and Ambros 1991; Arasu et al. 1991] [GR, VT]

lin-29 II 4.28 n333

: retarded heterochronic alterations in L4 seam cells; no adult alae formed; supernumerary divisions; also Egl, Evl; phenotype not affected by development via dauer stage. ES3 ME0 (males have short spicules). OA3: n546 (smg-suppressible), n1440, n836, ga94 (adult cuticle but abnormal vulva). CLONED: 1.8- and 2.4-kb transcripts (different 5′), present throughout larval development, maximal L4; 2.4 kb encodes 50-kD protein with five zinc fingers; antibody shows LIN-29 stage-specific expression in nuclei of seam cells, hyp-7 of L4, some vulval nuclei also. [Rougvie and Ambros 1995] [VT, GR]

lin-30 III N e1908

: many late embryonic and postembryonic lineage failures due to abnormal cytokinesis; variable; homozygous-viable. NA1. [Mitani et al. 1993] [NJ]

lin-31 II 5.25 n301

: adult hermaphrodite Muv, vulva either functional or nonfunctional protrusion; 0−4 small ventral protrusions; VPC cells adopt 1°/2°/3° fate at random. ES3 (adult). Male gross morphology wt, ME0; similar phenotype in n301/Df; mosaic analysis indicates cell-autonomous action. OA>10: e1750, e2181, n376, n428, n1301. CLONED: 1.5-transcript, expressed throughout development, encodes predicted 237-aa protein with similarity to Fork head/HNF-3 transcription factors; lin-31:GFP expressed in P3.p−P8.p. [Miller et al. 1993, 1996] [SD]

lin-32 X 14.12 e1926

: many neuroblasts adopt hypodermal fates (Q, postdeirid, ray neuroblasts make only seam or syncytial nuclei); Q/V5 embryonic division delayed; various embryonic sensory neurons absent or displaced; loopy foraging; anterior rays most affected; mutant phenotypes more severe in e1926/Df. ES1 (hermaphrodite) ES3 (adult male). OA2: u282 (stronger, 90% of males lack rays; also lack PLM, AVM, PVM neurons, hence touch-insensitive in tail), bx46 (intermediate phenotype). CLONED: encodes predicted bHLH transcription factor, 66% identity to Drosophila Atonal; transgene overexpression leads to ectopic ray papillae. [Zhao and Emmons 1995] [EM, KP]

lin-33 IV 2.54 n1043

: sd; adult hermaphrodite Vul (n1043 95% Egl, n1043/+ 77% Egl); Pn.p cells undergo cell death (ced-2,5,10-dependent). ES2 ME3 (male gross morphology wt). OA1: n1044 (similar). Null phenotype uncertain. [Ferguson et al. 1987; Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT]

lin-34

= let-60

lin-35 I 0.74 n745

: almost wt alone (reduced fertility); Muv (extra vulval differentiation) in homozygotes with lin-8, lin-38, or lin-15(n767). ES2. OA1: n373 (similar). [Ferguson and Horvitz 1989] [MT, PS]

lin-36 III 0.42 n766

: wt alone; Muv in homozygotes with lin-8, lin-38, or lin-15(n767); mosaic analysis indicates autonomous action in VPC. ES2 ME3. OA3: n772 (similar), n750, etc. CLONED: encodes predicted 926-aa novel protein. [Ferguson and Horvitz 1989] [MT, PS]

lin-37 III 0.77 n758

: wt alone; Muv in homozygotes with lin-8, lin-38, or lin-15(n767). ES2 NA1. [Ferguson and Horvitz 1989] [MT, PS]

lin-38 II 12.81 n751

: almost wt alone (reduced fertility); Muv in homozygotes with lin-9, lin-35, lin-36, lin-37, or lin-15(n744). ES2. OA1: n761 (similar). [Ferguson and Horvitz 1989] [MT, PS]

lin-39 III 0.65 n709

: ts; some or all P3.aap−P8.aap (presumptive VC neurons) die in hermaphrodites (ES1); variably Egl (ES2); variably abnormal vulval divisions; multiple defects in specification of fates in midbody. ME3. OA1: n1490, mu26. CLONED: encodes homeoprotein (pka ceh-15 ) related to Drosophila Dfd/Scr; lin-39:lacZ expressed in central body region of egg, larva, adult. [Clark et al. 1993; Wang et al. 1993] [CF, MT]

lin-40 V 8.35 e2173

: sterile Evl adult, multiple defects; males very abnormal. ES3 ME0. OA>15: s1053 (pka let-432 ), s1345mut, s1351mut, s1669fdi, s1675fdi, s1704, s1916uvi, etc. Homozygous developmental arrest stages range from early/mid larval-lethal to Mel (early larval-lethal); sterile and Mel adults are Evl; complex complementation, at least five classes; high mutation frequency; also dominant effects on sperm number (dominant increase in Df/+, decrease in some alleles). [Johnsen and Baillie 1991] [BC]

lin-41 I 4.89 ma104

: heterochronic defect in L4/A switch. [VT]

lin-42 II 12.78 n1089

: precocious HSN differentiation; heterochronic defect in L4/A switch. [MT, VT]

lin-43 I 1 ma103

: thin sterile Evl adult, patches of adult alae missing; general failure of L3 and L4 seam cell divisions, and other cell divisions; probable cell cycle defect. NA1. [VT]

lin-44 I 1.60 n1792

: polarities of B, F, U, T divisions reversed; n1792/Df similar; mosaic analysis indicates nonautonomous action. OA1: n2111 (similar). CLONED: encodes member of Wnt family; lin-44:lacZ and lin-44:GFP expressed in tail tip hypodermis. [Herman et al. 1995] [EH, MT, SP]

lin-45 IV 3.27 sy96

: subviable, >90% die as rod-like L1, escapers mostly Egl, Vul; suppresses lin-15 Muv; impenetrant P12 to P11 transformation; partial maternal rescue of larval lethality; effects on male development resemble F and U ablation. OA1: n2018cs (most animals Vul or inviable at 15°C, 25% non-Vul at 25°C). CLONED: pka raf-1 ; encodes 813-aa predicted protein with extensive similarity to raf kinases; dominant-negative transgene frequently Vul. [Han et al. 1993] [MH, MT, PS]

lin-46 V 6

Mutation suppresses Lin-28; some lateral hypodermal cells divide at fourth molt rather than form alae; enhanced by starvation. [VT]

lin-47 X 1.83 sy32

: males have abnormal spicules; B-cell lineage defect, possibly additional defects. [PS]

lin-48 III 7.54 sy234

: males have abnormal spicules; defects in B, F, and U lineages. [PS]

lin-49 IV 3.97 sy238

: males have short crumpled spicules; defects in F and U lineages; both males and hermaphrodites sickly and have some “scarring” at the rectum; sy238/Df animals arrest at mid-larval stage, heavy scarring at int/rect junction; males have B-lineage defect. OA1: s1198 (stronger, mid larval-lethal). [PS, BC]

lin-50

= egl-38

lir

li n-26- r elated [ML].

lir-1 II 0.48 pk96

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; encodes predicted protein related and 5′to lin-26. [ML]

lir-2 II 0.48

NMK. Encodes predicted protein related and 5′to lin-26. [ML]

lmr

l a m inin r eceptor-related [CGC].

lmr-1 III 2.69

NMK. Cross-hybridization to laminin receptor probe. [GS]

lon

lon g [CB].

lon-1 III 1.68 e185

: ∼50% longer than wt at all stages, markedly tapering tail and head; low penetrance tendency to form constriction behind head, may result in auto-decapitation; eggs elongated. ES3. Male bursa elongated. ME0. OA5: e43, e1820, n1130, etc. (some have stronger Lon phenotype than e185, all show some decapitation). [Brenner 1974] [MT]

lon-2 X 6.17 e678

: ∼50% longer than wt at all stages; some embryonic lethality. ES3. Male bursa slightly elongated, ME3 (ME0 at 25°C?). OA4: e405, e434, n1346, n1630, etc. (all similar to e678). [Brenner 1974]

lon-3 V 4.16 e2175

: mut; adult about 50% longer than wt. ES3 (adult) ME1. NA1. [CB, KE]

lrp

L DL- r ece p tor-related [GS]. LDL, low-density lipoprotein.

lrp-1 I 2.18

NMK. Encodes predicted protein of 4753 aa, extensive homology with mammalian LRP (4525 aa). [Yochem and Greenwald 1993] [GS]

lrx

lr p X -hybridizing [GS].

lrx-1 V 3.73

NMK. Cross-hybridization to lrp-1 probe. [GS]

M to N

mab

m ale ab normal [CB].

mab-1

= smg-1

mab-2 I 0.35 e1241

: adult male missing 6−18 copulatory rays as a result of variable failures of V and T lineages; bursa often grossly distorted. ME0/ME1. Hermaphrodite gross phenotype normal; late hypodermal V and T divisions variably defective. ES1 (hermaphrodite) ES3 (adult male). NA1. [Hodgkin 1983; Link et al. 1988] [CB]

mab-3 II 1.67 e1240

: adult male tail morphology grossly abnormal, often with hermaphrodite tail spike; adult male synthesizes yolk proteins; V lineages abnormal, other defects. ES3 (adult male) ME0. Hermaphrodite wt. OA4: e1921ts, e2093 (similar but slightly weaker phenotypes than e1240), e2093, e2212. [Shen and Hodgkin 1988] [CB]

mab-4 III 8.20 e1252

: adult male has swollen bursa. ES3 ME1. Adult hermaphrodite has protruding vulva. ES2 NA1. [Hodgkin 1983; Link et al. 1988] [CB]

mab-5 III 0.55 e1239

: postembryonic lineages and migrations in preanal region generally abnormal; adult male tail morphology thin, grossly abnormal; V rays missing, T rays present; sex mesoblast lineages, etc., abnormal. ES3 (male) ME0. Hermaphrodite gross phenotype wt, but V divisions, Q migrations, coelomocytes all abnormal. ES1 (hermaphrodite). Mosaic analysis indicates cell-autonomous; similar mutant phenotypes in e1239/Df. OA>8: e1936, e2011 (Q24och), e2088 (all resemble e1239), etc. Also bx54sd (dominant missense, ray fusion phenotype). See also lin-21. CLONED: HOM-C member, encodes homeoprotein related to Antennapedia; extensive molecular analysis. [Kenyon 1986; Cowing and Kenyon 1992; Salser and Kenyon 1996] [CF]

mab-6 II 0.95 e1249

: adult male has very swollen bursa. ES2 ME1. Hermaphrodite wt. NA1. [Hodgkin 1983; Link et al. 1988] [CB]

mab-7 X 19.15 e1599

: adult male slightly small, all bursal rays swollen; bursal fan reduced. ES2 ME1. Hermaphrodite slightly dumpy. ES2. OA1: e2150. [Hodgkin 1983; Link et al. 1988] [CB]

mab-8 II 1.21 e1250

: adult male has swollen bursa, adult hermaphrodite has protruding vulva. ES2 ME1 NA1. [Hodgkin 1983; Link et al. 1988] [CB]

mab-9 II 14.49 e1245

: amb; male tail morphology and development grossly abnormal, B lineage defective, resembles Y lineage; also probable F to U lineage transformation; many males die or rupture during L4 molt; e1245/Df similar. ES3 (male) ME0. Hermaphrodite grossly wt, sometimes constipated as a result of rectal abnormalities. OA2: e2410, e2376 (weaker allele). [Chisholm and Hodgkin 1989]

mab-10 II 3.04 e1248

: adult male has slightly swollen bursa, reduced fan, thin rays; some adult males have supernumerary molt, second adult cuticle; e1248/Df more severe. ES2 ME0. Hermaphrodite has slightly protruding vulva. ES2 NA1. [Hodgkin 1983; Link et al. 1988] [CB, CL]

mab-11

= smg-2

mab-12 IV 15.43 e2166

: adult male has swollen bursa; adult hermaphrodite has protruding vulva. ES2 ME1. [Hodgkin et al. 1989]

mab-13

= smg-3

mab-14

= smg-4

mab-15

= smg-5

mab-16

= smg-6

mab-17 I N e2167

: adult male has bulged tail tip, loss of T rays; unstabilized hyp7 retraction, defective fan. NA1. [CB, EM]

mab-18 X 1.95 bx23

: ray 6 to ray 4 transformation, resulting in fused double ray 4. OA1: bx79. See also vab-3. CLONED: mab-18 activity provided by shorter transcripts from vab-3 , encoding only homeodomain; mab-18:GFP expressed in ray 6 sublineage from L4 onward. [Zhang and Emmons 1995] [CZ, EM]

mab-19 X 2.83 bx38

: variable loss of T rays (lineage defect), some retention of tail spike, gonad morphology defects; hermaphrodite brood size reduced to 100; partly suppressed by many dpy mutations, or stress; synthetic-lethal with many unc-17 alleles; bx38/Df is lethal. OA1: bx83 (similar). [Sutherlin and Emmons 1994] [EM]

mab-20 I 10.41 bx24

: displacements and fusions in rays 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9; R1,2,4 probably transformed to R3; variable bulges in posterior body region. OA1: bx61ts (weaker). [Baird et al. 1991; Chow and Emmons 1994] [EM]

mab-21 III 3.61 bx53

: transformation of thick ray 6 to a thin ray, which is anteriorly displaced and fuses with ray 4 (>95%); tenth ray derived from T.apapa, between rays 5 and 7, found in ~50% of sides scored; both males and hermaphrodites have slightly shorter body length (~85% of wt); reduced brood size; males backward Unc, reduced mating efficiency; mosaic focus cell autonomous for R6, nonautonomous for T.apapa; probable hypomorph, bx53/Df is embryonic-lethal. OA2: bx41, sy155 (similar). CLONED: encodes predicted 386-aa novel protein. [Baird et al. 1991; Chow et al. 1995] [KC, EM, PS]

mab-22 III N bx59

: ts; extensive loss of rays at 25°C, not 15°C; divisions appear normal, possible ray assembly defect. NA1. [EM]

mab-23 V 2.47 e2518

: spo; no phenotype in hermaphrodite, male tail very swollen, rays indistinct. ME0. Vancouver wild isolate KR314 is naturally homozygous for e2518. [CB]

mab-24 I N e2169

: variable V5 and V6 ray loss or misplacement; uncoordinated, poor backing, forward coiler. [EM]

mab-25 I N bx27

: ts; male tail swollen, fan reduced, missing ray; wrinkled; ts-lethal. [EM]

mab-26 IV 29.20 bx80

: sd; fusions among all rays; also head, body, and (especially) tail deformities; bx80/+ shows impenetrant R4 to R3 transformation. [Chow and Emmons 1994] [EM]

mab-27 X 17.01 sy202

: males have abnormal spicules; both males and hermaphrodites exhibit a slight “loopy” Unc; possibly also very weakly penetrant lineage defect. NA1. [PS]

mad

ma ternal effect d umpy [MQ].

mad-1 I 25 qm39

: hatchlings short and deformed, resemble Dpy-17; at later stages variable, anterior body short, posterior half thin; high larval lethality; full zygotic rescue, almost complete maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mad-2 I 6 qm62

: adults short, lethargic but hyperactive for foraging movement, very rapid pumping after touch; tails abnormal in both sexes; very slow development; high larval lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue. OA1: qm58. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mad-3 V 5.8 qm64

: hatchlings of variable length, shortest die; adults short, unhealthy; high embryonic and larval lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mah

mah i (uncoordinated in Japanese) [TN].

mah-2 X 1.32 cn110

: ts, sd; rigid paralysis on shift to 30°C, reversible on shift-down. NA1. [Hosono et al. 1985]

mai

m itochondrial A TPase i nhibitor [BL].

mai-1 X 13.05

NMK. Upstream transcript in operon with gpd-2,3; encodes predicted homolog of mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor, but lacks import signal. [Spieth et al. 1993]

mal

m aternal effect m al formed (morphologically abnormal) [MQ].

mal-1 IV 9.5 qm27

: variable, dorsal protrusions on head and tail, head frequently twisted; high embryonic and larval lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mal-2 V 24 qm31

: variably deformed; frequently hypertrophic ventral side of head; high embryonic and larval lethality; no zygotic rescue, full maternal rescue. OA2: qm16, qm35. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mal-3 I 0.8 qm34

: head frequently deformed because buccal opening displaced ventrally, dorsally, or laterally; some embryonic lethality, very high larval lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mal-4 II 0.7 qm36

: hypertrophic left side of the head, usually anterior to terminal bulb of pharynx; high larval lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mau

ma ternal effect u ncoordinated [MQ].

mau-1 V 19.5 e2507

: variable Unc (kinking, coiling, or paralysis); Egl; neuroanatomical defects; some lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue. OA1: qm6. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mau-2 I 2.42 qm4

: kinky Unc, Egl; neuroanatomical defects; short excretory canals; Egl; some lethality; full zygotic rescue, almost complete maternal rescue, no maternal rescue of Egl. OA2: qm5, qm40. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mau-3 IV 3.5 qm10

: Unc, progressive paralysis, abnormal muscle anatomy; full zygotic and maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mau-4 X 24 qm45

: Unc, stiff posterior body, withered tail; some lethargy; full zygotic rescue, almost complete maternal rescue. OA2: qm18, qm19 (both ts alleles, wt at 15°C, mutant 20°C, lethal 25°C). [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mau-5 III 15 qm17

: progressive sluggishness and jerky forward movement; Egl; abnormal muscle anatomy; full maternal and zygotic rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mau-6 V 3 qm50

: progressive paralysis, full paralysis, and rapid death after fourth molt; some larval lethality; complete zygotic rescue, almost complete maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mau-7 IV 28 qm56

: Unc, lethargic, kinky jerky ratchet-like movements in reverse; constipated (E.p); some lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mau-8 IV 3.45 qm57

: Unc, lethargic, kinky jerky ratchet-like movements in reverse; constipated (E.p); some lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mec

mec hanosensory abnormality [TU]. Defects in avoidance response to light touch.

mec-1 V 0.62 e1066

: (pka che-4 ) touch-insensitive; lethargic; microtubule cells lack extracellular mantle, often displaced; some amphidial neurons also displaced, defective fasciculation. ES2 ME2. OA>50: e1292, e1336, u39amb, etc. Most alleles resemble e1066 but may lack amphidial neuron displacement. [Perkins et al. 1986]

mec-2 X 4.61 u8

: amb; touch-insensitive; lethargic. ES2. OA>50: e75 (pka che-9 ; recessive, ME3), u7cs, e1084 (probable null), e1514, e1608dm, u284sd, etc. Alleles vary in phenotype from weak recessive to strong dominant Mec; complex complementation. CLONED: encodes predicted 440-aa protein with central similarity to human stomatin (65% identity over 247 aa); mec-2:lacZ expressed in cell bodies and processes of touch cells, some other neurons. [Chalfie and Au 1989; Huang et al. 1995] [TU]

mec-3 IV 4.63 e1338

: touch-insensitive; lethargic; microtubule cells small and lacking processes, ALM and PLM cells displaced. ES2 ME2. OA>10: e1498, e1612, u467amb, etc. Also revertant allele e1498u124 (ALM and PLM processes abnormally long). CLONED: encodes LIM class homeoprotein, expressed in touch receptors, FLP, PVD; extensive molecular analysis. [Way and Chalfie 1989; Xue et al. 1993; Wang and Way 1996] [JW, TU]

mec-4 X 24.08 u52

: amb; touch-insensitive; lethargic. ES2 ME2. OA>50: e1339 (weak allele, sometimes touch sensitive in tail), e1497, u45ts, etc. Also dominant Deg alleles: e1611dm (pka mec-13 , touch-insensitive, microtubule cells become vacuolated and die in e1611 and e1611/+; neomorphic. ES2 ME3. Intragenic revertants (e.g., e1611 e1879) resemble u52. OA2 (dominant). CLONED: encodes protein related to mammalian ENaC sodium channel subunit; deg alleles are bulky missense changes at A442; see also deg-1, mec-10. [Driscoll and Chalfie 1991; Hong and Driscoll 1994; Lai et al. 1996] [TU, ZB]

mec-5 X 22.41 e1340

: touch-insensitive; lethargic; mantle of microtubule cells not stained by peanut lectin. ES2 ME3. OA>30: e1503ts, e1504, e1790, etc. (many are ts). CLONED: encodes 329-aa collagen. [Chalfie and Au 1989; Huang and Chalfie 1994; Du et al. 1996] [TU]

mec-6 I 1.46 e1342

: touch-insensitive; lethargic; suppresses Deg phenotype of mec-4 (dm), deg-1 (dm), deg-2 (dm). ES2 ME3. OA>10: e1609spo, u247ts (may be Mec only in head), e1472, u450gri (deletion null), etc. CLONED: encodes degenerin homolog, related to MEC-4, MEC-10. [Chalfie and Au 1989; Huang and Chalfie 1994] [MP, TU, ZB]

mec-7 X 1.31 e1343

: sd, ts; touch-insensitive; lethargic at 25°C; microtubule cells lack 15-protofilament microtubules; e1343/+ variably touch-insensitive at 25°C, wt at 15°C. ES2 ME3. OA>30: n434dm (dominant at all temperatures), e1506 (recessive at all temperatures), e1527, u278 (missense, causes ectopic touch cell branching), u443 (deletion null), etc. Most alleles incompletely dominant and ts. CLONED: encodes β-tubulin; antibody stains strongly in touch cells, weakly in some others (FLP, PVD); 45 alleles sequenced. [Savage et al. 1989; Hamelin et al. 1992; Gu et al. 1996] [NW, TU]

mec-8 I 3.70 e398

: amb; touch-insensitive; lethargic; disrupted fasciculation of amphid and phasmid channel cilia; Dyf; synthetic-lethal with some unc-52 alleles (e444); Pat. ES2 ME2. NA16: mn364 (recessive-lethal, Pat), mn412 (Mel, Gro), u74, u456, rh170, mn472, u391. See also smu. CLONED: encodes protein with two copies of RNP-predicted RNA-binding domain. [Perkins et al. 1986; Lundquist et al. 1996] [SP, NJ, EH, TU]

mec-9 V 2.11 u27

: amb; touch-insensitive; lethargic. ES2 ME2. OA>30: e1494, e1852, u164amb, etc. CLONED: 2-kb and 3-kb transcripts, trans-spliced to SL1 and SL2, encode protein with Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor domains, EGF-like repeats; mec-9:GFP expressed in touch cells and PVD (3-kb promoter) or more extensively (2-kb promoter). [Chalfie and Au 1989; Huang and Chalfie 1994; Du et al. 1996] [TU]

mec-10 X 0.57 e1515

: touch-insensitive; lethargic. ES2 ME3. OA5: e1715, etc. CLONED: encodes 724-aa degenerin protein, related to MEC-4, DEG-1, vertebrate ENaC sodium channel components. [Huang and Chalfie 1994] [MP, TU, ZB]

mec-11

= mec-7

mec-12 III 10.34 e1605

: touch-insensitive; lethargic. ES2 ME3. NA15: e1607 (weaker allele), u94sd (u94/+ touch-insensitive in head only), u241sd, etc. Weak alleles often lack synaptic branch of AVM; strong alleles have few microtubules in microbule cell processes, no 15-protofilament microtubules. CLONED: encodes α-tubulin (pka tba-3 ); mec-12:lacZ expressed in touch cells, some other neurons also. [Chalfie and Au 1989; Gu et al. 1996] [NW, SQ, TU]

mec-13

= mec-4

mec-14 III 0.76 u55

: touch-insensitive; lethargic. ES2. OA8: u82, u296, etc. [Chalfie and Au 1989; Huang and Chalfie 1994; Gu et al. 1996] [TU]

mec-15 II 1.83 u215

: ts; touch-insensitive; lethargic. ES2 (25°C). OA4: u75, etc. (all alleles partially ts). [Chalfie and Au 1989; Huang and Chalfie 1994; Gu et al. 1996] [TU]

mec-16

= tab-1

mec-17 IV 3.55 u265

: larvae touch-sensitive, older animals touch-insensitive; mec-3:lacZ expression not maintained in touch cells. NA1. [Chalfie and Au 1989; Way and Chalfie 1989] [TU]

mec-18 X N u228

: touch-insensitive; lethargic. OA5: u69, u138, u182, etc. [Chalfie and Au 1989; Huang and Chalfie 1994; Gu et al. 1996] [TU]

mef

related to vertebrate MEF 2 transcription factors [KM].

mef-2 I 3.4

NMK. Encodes homolog of vertebrate MEF2; lacZ fusions indicate transcription after 1.5-fold stage in a few head cells, more extensive in most tissues except gut from 3-fold stage on, to adulthood; cosmid F27D1. [KM]

mei

mei otic abnormality [KK].

mei-1 I 2.61 b284

: Mel, embryonic lethality, abnormal oocyte meiosis leading to lethal aneuploidy; normal male meiosis. OA>20: ct46dm,ts (gf allele, normal meiosis followed by abnormal mitoses), intragenic revertants of ct46, e.g., ct44 ct99 (putative null, abnormal meiosis), ct46 ct82 (antimorphic), ct46 ct103 (viable, weak Him), additional phenotypic classes. See also mei-2, mel-26, zyg-9. CLONED: two transcripts encoding 472- and 475-aa predicted proteins with similarity to ATPases; antibody stains meiotic spindles I and II. [Mains et al. 1990b; Clark-Maguire and Mains 1994a,b] [HR]

mei-2 I 1.24 ct102

: Mel, embryonic arrest as mass of cells without morphogenesis; abnormal oocyte meiosis; dominant suppressor of mei-1 (dm), mel-26 (dm). OA1: ct98 (dominant suppressor of mei-1 [dm], slight recessive Mel, weak Him, viable). [Mains et al. 1990b] [HR]

mek

M AP kinase kinase or e rk k inase [MH].

mek-1 ?

NMK. Encodes predicted protein related to mammalian MEK. [MH, MT, FK]

mek-2 I 5.55 n2678

: sterile, Vul; suppresses Muv phenotype of let-60 (gf). OA: h294 (pka let-537 ), n2156 (both similar to n2678), n1859, n1989, n2537 (weaker allele, some fertility), n1859, n1989 (weak alleles, homozygous viable but much early larval lethality, rod-like morphology), q425 (pka glv-1, sterile Vul adult hermaphrodite, makes sperm but no oocytes, all VPC tertiary), ku114 (viable, suppresses let-60 [gf]), etc. CLONED: 55% identity to human MEK1. [Church et al. 1995; Kornfeld et al. 1995a; Wu et al. 1995] [EJ, KR, MH, MT]

mel

m aternal- e ffect- l ethal [KK].

mel-1 II 0.33 it19

: strict maternal-effect embryonic-lethal. OA1: b315. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-2 II LC it20

: strict maternal-effect embryonic-lethal. OA1: it22. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-3 II 0.33 b281

: strict maternal-effect embryonic-lethal. OA1: it8. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-4 II LC it43

: strict maternal-effect embryonic-lethal. OA1: it12ts (6% viable). [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-5 II LC b314

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, some zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-6

= mel-8

mel-7 II LC it36

: strict maternal-effect embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-8 II 1.12 it39

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, 71% zygotic rescue by mating with males. OA>15: b312 (stronger allele, only 19% rescue), it3, it27 (pka mel-6 ), t1120, t1152, etc. Highly mutable gene. [Kemphues et al. 1988a] [GE]

mel-9 II 1.12 b293

: ts; maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, some escapers; reasonable zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-10 II 0.57 it10

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal (0.5% hatch), no zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-11 II 1.12 it26

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, extensive zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-12 II 0.57 it42

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, leaky, some zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-13 II 3.36 b306

: strict maternal-effect embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-14 II RC it24

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal (0.2% egg hatch), slight zygotic rescue. OA2: b291, b292. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-15 II 5.62 it38

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, leaky. OA1: it7ts (0.9% egg hatch at 25°C, extensive zygotic rescue). [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-16 II RC b298

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-17 II RC b299

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, leaky, some zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-18 II 3.37 b300

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, slight zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-19 II 3.37 b310

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, leaky, no zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-20 II RC b317

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, complete zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-21

= mex-1

mel-22 II 5.62 it30

: maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, no zygotic rescue. NA1. [Kemphues et al. 1988a]

mel-23 III 3.83 ct45

: dm, ts; dominant maternal-effect-lethal at 25°C, recessive nonconditional lethal; at 25°C, all embryos from ct45/+ mothers have early defects, arrest at 28-cell stage; also dominant zygotic defects in male tail. NA1. [Mains et al. 1990a] [HR]

mel-24 IV 4.05 ct59

: sd, ts; dominant maternal-effect-lethal, variable; at 25°C, many progeny from ct59/+ mothers arrest during embryogenesis; homozygotes nonconditional Mel. NA1. [Mains et al. 1990a] [HR]

mel-25 V 2.87 ct60

: dm, ts; dominant maternal-effect-lethal at 25°C, recessive nonconditional sterile; at 25°C, progeny from ct60/+ mothers have early defects, arrest at early morphogenesis; also dominant zygotic defects in male tail. [Mains et al. 1990a] [HR]

mel-26 I 3.56 ct61

: dm, ts; dominant maternal-effect-lethal; at 25°C, most embryos from ct61/+ mothers have early cleavage defects, arrest prior to morphogenesis; at 15°C, impenetrant maternal-effect Vab; more severe defects in progeny from homozygous mothers. OA1: revertant ct61sb4 is a recessive maternal-effect-lethal. [Mains et al. 1990a] [HR]

mel-27 III 1.07 e2561

: mm; embryos arrest with about 100 cells that do not adhere to each other and resemble a bag of marbles; no tissue differentiation; homozygous mutant mothers slightly clear and sick, with hypodermis variably pulled away from cuticle along the body. NA1. [JA]

mel-28 III 2.38 e2567

: mm; polar bodies sometimes large, mitotic spindles look weak; DNA does not separate properly at mitotic divisions when viewed in tubulin/DNA-stained embryos; globs of DNA can be seen at midbodies, and sometimes most of the DNA goes to one cell. NA1. [JA]

mel-29 V 2.22 e2596

: mm; embryos arrest as balls of cells with gut granules, twitching, hypodermis, and neurons, but they appear to lack pharyngeal tissue. NA1. [JA]

mel-30 II 1.98 e2595

: mm; embryos arrest as balls of cells with gut granules, twitching, hypodermis, and neurons, but apparently lacking pharyngeal tissue; founder cell divisions slow relative to P-cell divisions. NA1. [JA]

mel-31 III 2.2 s2438

: variable sterile or Mel (embryonic-lethal). NA1. [BC]

mes

m aternal- e ffect s terile [SS].

mes-1 X 6.31 bn7

: ts; grandchildless; at 25°C, 70% of progeny develop into sterile adults; P2 and P3 divisions variably defective, P4 transformed into D-like muscle precursor, generating additional muscle cells, no germ cells. OA9: bn74 (deletion null, ts impenetrant Mes resembling bn7), bn24, q222, etc. (all ts, impenetrant). CLONED: cosmid rescue (C38D5). [Strome et al. 1995]

mes-2 II 23.01 bn11

: grandchildless; progeny undergo normal embryogenesis but develop into agametic adults; few germ cells made; XO germ line less affected; normal P granule staining. OA2: bn27, bn48. CLONED: 2.5-kb transcript, encodes SET domain protein, closest similarity to Drosophila Enhancer of zeste. [Capowski et al. 1991] [SS]

mes-3 I 0.38 bn35

: grandchildless; progeny undergo normal embryogenesis but develop into agametic adults; few germ cells made; normal P granule staining; XO germ line less affected. OA4: bn53 (stronger allele), bn21ts (100% sterile 25°C, 2% 16°C; T-shift suggests action in early embryo). CLONED: 3.1-kb transcript, encodes predicted 754-aa novel protein; transcripts not restricted to germ line; in operon with dom-3. [Capowski et al. 1991; Paulsen et al. 1995] [SS]

mes-4 V 5.29 bn50

: grandchildless; progeny undergo normal embryogenesis but develop into agametic adults (only ten germ cells made); normal P granule staining; XO germ line much less affected. OA3: bn23, bn58, bn67 (all similar). [Capowski et al. 1991] [SS]

mes-5 III 1.69 bn37

: ts; grandchildless; progeny undergo normal embryogenesis but develop into agametic adults. [Capowski et al. 1991] [SS]

mes-6 IV 3.92 bn66

: grandchildless; progeny undergo normal embryogenesis but develop into agametic adults. OA3: bn38, bn64, bn69. CLONED: encodes predicted protein with WD40 repeats.; in operon with dom-6 . [Capowski et al. 1991] [SS]

mev

me thyl v iologen (paraquat) resistance abnormal [TK].

mev-1 III 2.33 kn1

: 4-fold increase in paraquat sensitivity; hypersensitive to high oxygen concentration; reduced brood size, reduced life span, increased age-associated fluorescence; rare supernumerary divisions in gut cells. [Honda et al. 1993] [TK, TM]

mev-2 X 18.74 kn2

: increased paraquat sensitivity. [TK, TM]

mev-3 I 0.51 kn3

: increased paraquat sensitivity, hypersensitive to oxygen. [TK, TM]

mex

m uscle in ex cess [JJ].

mex-1 II 5.38 zu121

: maternal-effect-lethal mutation, resulting in four AB granddaughters of the eight-cell-stage embryo following a pattern of development nearly identical to the posterior blastomere MS; this results in embryos that produce excess muscle and pharynx. OA9: zu120, zu122, zu140, zu173, zu221, it9 (pka mel-21 ). [Mello et al. 1992b] [JJ, KK]

mex-2 II N

: Mutation maternal-effect-lethal, leading to production of excess muscle cells, like Mex-1. [JJ]

mex-3 I 17.42 zu142

: maternal-effect-lethal mutations, resulting in the production of excess muscle; excess muscle derived from the anterior blastomere AB of the two-cell-stage embryo. OA8: zu155, zu203, zu205, zu208, zu211, etc. CLONED: encodes novel predicted protein with two KH domains; mRNA accumulates at anterior pole of zygote after fertilization. [JJ]

mig

cell mig ration abnormal [CB].

mig-1 I 16.68 e1787

: abnormal migration of Q neuroblasts (both QL and QR migrate anteriorly); HSN migration also abnormal; Egl. ES1. OA3: n1354, n1654. [Hedgecock et al. 1987; Desai et al. 1988] [NJ]

mig-2 X N rh17

: variable abnormal migration of Q neuroblasts, HSN cells, CAN cells, etc.; Egl; uncoordinated; axon defects. OA1. [Hedgecock et al. 1987; Desai et al. 1988] [NJ]

mig-3

= unc-39

mig-4 III 5.2 rh51

: phenotype resembles Dig-1; gonad primordium detached from body wall in embryo, variable attachment in mid-L1; abnormal Z1 and Z4 migrations; pharynx twisted. OA1. [Hedgecock et al. 1987] [NJ]

mig-5 II 0.79 rh147:

ts, mat; complex phenotype, abnormal cell migrations; cell lineage and cell fate defects; often two linker cells in male; rh147/Df similar; both maternal and zygotic rescue. OA1: rh94 (weaker). CLONED: encodes predicted 666-aa intracellular protein; three domains with high similarity to Drosophila Dishevelled, Discs large. [Hedgecock et al. 1987] [NJ]

mig-6 V 1.02 e1931

: distal tip cells fail to migrate, sterile. OA2: oz90, oz113. [Hedgecock et al. 1987] [NJ, BS]

mig-7

= daf-12

mig-8 X 2.07 rh50

: distal tip cells fail to reflex, fail to express unc-5:lacZ; see also daf-12. [Hedgecock et al. 1987] [NJ]

mig-10 III 0.31 ct41

: incomplete CAN, HSN, ALM migrations; shortened excretory canals; additional defects; mosaic analysis indicates nonautonomy, possible hypodermal focus. OA1: e2527. CLONED: encodes predicted 650-aa protein with similarity to human Grb7, Grb10, including pleckstrin homology domain. [Desai et al. 1988] [LK]

mig-11 III 1.42 ct78

: defective CAN migrations; other migrations defective at low penetrance. [LK, CX]

mig-12 II N n1706

: defective HSN migration, Egl, insensitive to serotonin. OA1 (mu71). [Desai et al. 1988] [CF]

mig-13 X 5.78 mu31

: defects in migration of cells descended from QR; positions of a few other cells (BDU, ALM, left coelomocytes) sometimes abnormal; HSN wt. [CF]

mig-14 II 20.84 mu71

: QL descendants migrate to anterior, QR descendants and HSNs have shortened migrations, BDU posteriorly displaced; mild Egl. [CF]

mig-15 X 1.63 rh148

: QL migration resembles QR; pleiotropic defects in hypodermis. [CF]

mlc

m yosin l ight c hain [TR].

mlc-1 X 24.11

: Deletion mutants (e.g., sup-10 [n184]) viable, normal muscle; increased lethality of mlc-2 (0); resembles mammalian nonmuscle MLC; expressed in both pharynx and body wall; not trans-spliced. [Cummins and Anderson 1988] [TR]

mlc-2 X 24.11

: Deletion mutant exhibits pharyngeal pumping defect, 10% reach fertile adulthood (most males reach adulthood); deletion of both mlc-1 and mlc-2 leads to lethal arrest as short lumpy paralyzed L1/L2; resembles mammalian nonmuscle MLC; expressed in both pharynx and body wall; SL1 trans-spliced. [Cummins and Anderson 1988; Rushforth et al. 1993] [TR]

mlc-3 III 0.61

NMK. Encodes alkali (essential) MLC; >40% identity to vertebrate and invertebrate MLC; transcripts of 1.05 and 0.75 kb. [TR]

mog

m asculinization o f g erm line [JK].

mog-1 III 0.99 q223

: hermaphrodite germ line makes 300−500 sperm, no oocytes; no somatic defects; males wt; q223/Df similar. OA5: q151, q161, q370, q471 (all similar), q473 (viable, some oogenesis, more at 15°C). mog-1;fem-1 or mog-1;fem-3 double-mutant hermaphrodites make oocytes, but are Mel (variable embryonic arrest). [Graham and Kimble 1993]

mog-2 II 4.66 q75

: ts Mog; at 25°C, hermaphrodite germ line makes mostly sperm, rare abnormal oocytes; mostly fertile at 15°C, but no viable progeny (Mel); also Mel if feminized by fem-3 . NA1. [Graham et al. 1993]

mog-3 III 3.02 q74

: ts Mog; at 25°C, most hermaphrodites make only sperm, 13% make “ooids”; at 15°C, fertile but Mel; also Mel if feminized by fem-3. NA1. [Graham et al. 1993]

mog-4 II 24.00 q233

: ts Mog; at 25°C, incompletely penetrant Mog; hermaphrodite germ line makes mostly sperm, some abnormal oocytes; at 15°C, sterile, non-Mog; Mel if feminized by fem-3. NA1. [Graham et al. 1993]

mog-5 II 0.87 q449

: ts Mog; at 25°C, fully penetrant Mog; hermaphrodite germ line makes only sperm; at 15°C, sterile non-Mog; Mel if feminized by fem-3. NA1. [Graham et al. 1993]

mog-6 II 2.86 q465

: ts Mog; at 25°C, fully penetrant Mog; hermaphrodite germ line makes only sperm; at 15°C, sterile non-Mog; Mel if feminized by fem-3. NA1. [Graham et al. 1993]

mom

m ore o f M S (additional MS-like pharyngeal tissue) [JJ].

mom-1 X 3.2 zu188

: pka bop-1, maternal-effect embryonic-lethal; E blastomere makes pharyngeal and muscle tissue (similar to MS blastomere); cleavage plane of ABar also altered. OA7: or10, or46, or65, or70, se2, zu204, zu237. [JJ]

mor

mor phological abnormality (round nose) [CB].

mor-1 III 1.29 e1071

: head less pointed than wt, slightly rounded nose, especially at 25°C. ES2 (adult) ME3 NA1. [Lewis and Hodgkin 1977; Hodgkin 1983]

mor-2 IV 2.04 e1125

: head less pointed than wt, rounded nose. ES2 (adult) ME3. OA1: e2015 (similar). [Hodgkin 1983]

mpk

m a p k inase [SD].

mpk-1 III 3.80 ku1

: (pka sur-1 ) suppresses activated ras ( let-60 [gf]), variable Vul, cs Egl, rod-like early larval lethality phenotypes; impenetrant defects in P6.p lineage. OA>10: ku30 (lineage defects), ku33, ku34, ku38 (all Egl), n2521 (activated ras suppressor, normal lineage alone; mosaic analysis indicates cell autonomy), oz140, pk79tci, etc. CLONED: encodes 375-aa predicted protein, 75−80% identical to mammalian MPK, closest to ERK2 subfamily. [Lackner et al. 1994; Wu and Han 1994] [MH, MT, SD]

mpk-2 II 2.84

NMK. Encodes predicted MAP kinase. [Lackner et al. 1994] [SD]

mrp

m ultidrug r esistance associated p rotein family [NL].

mrp-1 X N

: Deletion allele viable, increased sensitivity to cadmium and arsenite; encodes predicted protein similar to human MRP. [NL]

mrp-2 X N

NMK. Encodes predicted protein similar to human MRP. [NL]

mrp-3 ?

NMK. Encodes predicted protein similar to human MRP. [NL]

mrp-4 ?

NMK. Encodes predicted protein similar to human MRP. [NL]

msp

m ajor s perm p rotein [BA].

msp-3 II 3.57

NMK. Encodes major sperm protein MSP (16 kD); in cluster of three genes including msp-3. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-10 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-56 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-19 IV 1.61

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-113 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-24 IV 4.58

NMK. Transcribed pseudogene for MSP; msp-77 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-29 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-152 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-31 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-152 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-32 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-152 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-33 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-152 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-36 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-77 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-37 IV 4.58

NMK. Pseudogene for MSP; msp-77 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-38 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-77 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-40 II 3.7

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-3 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-41 II 3.7

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-3 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-45 II 2.69

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); defines msp-45 cluster (five genes, one pseudogene). [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-46 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-45 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-47 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-45 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-48 II 3.0

NMK. Pseudogene for MSP; msp-45 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-49 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-45 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-50 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-45 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-51 IV 1.61

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-113 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-52 IV 1.61

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-113 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-53 IV 1.61

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-113 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-54 IV 1.61

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-113 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-56 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); sequenced; defines msp-56 cluster (three genes). [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-60 II 1.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-142 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-61 II 1.0

NMK. Pseudogene for MSP; msp-142 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-62 II 1.0

NMK. Pseudogene for MSP; msp-142 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-63 II 1.0

NMK. Pseudogene for MSP; msp-142 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-64 II 1.0

NMK. Pseudogene for MSP; msp-142 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-70 IV 4.6

NMK. Pseudogene for MSP; msp-77 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-71 II 3.07

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); near msp-152 . [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-72 V 2.39

NMK. Pseudogene for MSP. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-74 II 3.0

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); near msp-45 . [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-76 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); near msp-56 . [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-77 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); defines cluster of three genes, three pseudogenes. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-78 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); near msp-56 . [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-81 IV 4.58

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); msp-56 cluster. [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-113 IV 1.61

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); defines cluster of at least six genes including msp-19 and msp-113 (both transcribed). [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-142 II 1.03

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); defines cluster of two genes, four pseudogenes including msp-142 (transcribed). [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

msp-152 II 3.21

NMK. Encodes MSP (16 kD); defines cluster of five genes including msp-152 (transcribed). [Ward et al. 1988] [BA]

mtl

m e t a l lothionein [CR].

mtl-1 V 0.24

NMK. Encodes 75-aa metallothionein; accumulates after exposure to CdCl2; mtl-1:lacZ expressed constitutively in pharynx and in intestine after cadmium treatment or heat shock; response lower in adult. [Freedman et al. 1993]

mtl-2 V 5.79

NMK. Encodes 63-aa metallothionein; accumulates after exposure to CdCl2; mtl-1:lacZ expressed in intestine after cadmium treatment or heat shock. [Freedman et al. 1993]

mua

mu scle a ttachment abnormal [NJ].

mua-1 II 0.04 rh160

: progressive paralysis, with loss of muscle-to-cuticle attachments; both muscle-muscle and muscle-hypodermis links lost from L2 onward; may lead to secondary Gon, Egl defects, etc.; detachment suppressed by muscle mutants such as unc-54 ; rh160/Df similar. NA1. CLONED: encodes predicted 246-aa protein with three zinc fingers, Sp1 family. [NJ]

mua-2 III 10.21 rh119

: progressive detachment of muscles during larval development. [NJ]

mua-3 III 1.78 rh169

: progressive detachment of muscles during larval development, possibly defective in reformation of muscle-cuticle links at each molt. CLONED: encodes predicted 3617-aa protein with transmembrane domain, large extracellular domain containing 52 EGF repeats, 5 LDL repeats, etc. [NJ]

mua-4 III 1.79 rh177 :

progressive detachment of muscles during larval development. [NJ]

mua-5 IV C rh179

: progressive detachment of muscles during larval development. OA1: rh180. [NJ]

mua-6 X 23.52 rh85

: progressive paralysis, defective muscle attachments like Mua-1; poor growth; most homozygotes arrest as larvae; adults Egl; Smg-suppressible. NA1. [NJ]

mua-7 III R

Mutation leads to defective muscle attachment. [NJ]

mud

m aternal-effect u ncoordinated and d umpy [MQ].

mud-1 III 3.2 qm21

: hatchlings of variable length, very poor movement; adults short, kinky Unc; very high embryonic and larval lethality; full zygotic and maternal rescue, except for incomplete maternal rescue of Dpy phenotype. OA1: qm22. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mum

m aternal-effect u ncoordinated and m alformed (morphologically abnormal) [MQ].

mum-1 IV 4.6 qm32

: variably deformed body, pharynx; severe Unc, strong kinker or paralyzed; defects in neuroanatomy, excretory system, gonads; high embryonic and larval lethality; extensive (>95%) maternal and zygotic rescue; qm32/Df lethal. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mum-2 IV 4.4 qm33

: variably deformed body, pharynx; severe Unc, strong kinker or paralyzed; defects in neuroanatomy, excretory system, gonads; high larval lethality; extensive (>95%) maternal and zygotic rescue; qm33/Df sterile. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mum-3 III 3 qm46

: variably deformed body, pharynx; severe Unc, strong kinker or paralyzed; defects in neuroanatomy, excretory system, gonads; some larval lethality; complete maternal and zygotic rescue. NA1. [Hekimi et al. 1995] [MQ]

mup

mu scle p ositioning abnormal [NJ].

mup-1 II 7.76 e2430

: ts; viable, inappropriately attached or detached muscles; dumpy; phenotype least severe at 20°C; suppressed by dpy-2,10,11; some maternal rescue; weakest allele. OA9: e2485ts, e2436, e2347, e2434, e2439 (strong allele, mostly embryonic arrest at 3-fold stage or kinked L1, extensive misattachment of muscles), etc. [Goh and Bogaert 1991]

mup-2 X 2.89 e2346

: ts; embryonic temperature shift leads to lethal mispositioning and deformity of body-wall muscle; larval temperature shift leads to sterility, defects in oviduct muscle. OA1: up1 (nonconditional, lethal with arrest as kinked larva; probable null, nonsense mutation). CLONED: encodes troponin T homolog. [Myers et al. 1996] [EE, UG]

mup-4 III 0.73 mg36

: lethal, embryonic arrest at 3-fold, defective muscle attachment, abnormal hypodermis; muscle cells collapse from ventral side, retract from head and tail; some embryos arrested earlier; mosaic analysis indicates focus in AB. OA>5: ar60, mg23, mg36, s2433, etc. [BC, EE, GR]

mut

mut ator [CB].

mut-1 ? e1396

: possible mutator locus. [DR]

mut-2 I 2 r459

: mutator, increased transposition of Tc1 and Tc3, Tc4, etc.; 1.7% Him. [Collins et al. 1987] [TW]

mut-3 ? r456

: mutator, increased transposition of Tc1; 1.5% Him. [Collins et al. 1987]

mut-4 I 1.5 st700

: mutator, increased transposition of Tc1. [Mori et al. 1988a]

mut-5 II 1 st701

: mutator, increased transposition of Tc1; mut-4 -derived. [Mori et al. 1988a]

mut-6 IV 3 st702

: mutator, increased transposition of Tc1; mut-4 -derived. [Mori et al. 1988a]

myb

myb (vertebrate oncogene)-related [CGC].

myb-2 X 21.83

NMK. Possible myb homolog? [CGC]

myo

myo sin (heavy chain, class II) [CB].

myo-1 I 1.86

NMK (but may correspond to let-75 ). Encodes pharyngeal myosin. [Dibb et al. 1989; Avery 1993a; Okkema et al. 1993]

myo-2 X 7.74

NMK. Encodes pharyngeal myosin. [Dibb et al. 1989; Okkema and Fire 1994]

myo-3 V 3.79 st386

: severe Pat (paralyzed embryonic arrest at 2-fold stage); very abnormal muscle ultrastructure, no MYO-3 staining. OA2 (Pat): st563, st565. Also duplication alleles: e1407sd (pka sup-3 , partial suppressor of certain mutations of muscle genes unc-15, unc-54, unc-87), e1390, etc. Also supersuppressor alleles (unstable). All probably tandem duplications or further amplifications of myo-3 . See also sus-1 . [Dibb et al. 1989; Maruyama et al. 1989; Williams and Waterston 1994]

myo-4

= unc-54

ncc

n ematode c ell c ycle-associated [CB]. See also cdc.

ncc-1 III 0.69

NMK. Encodes 38-kD protein, homolog of fission yeast p34 cdc2 kinase, 65% identity to human cdc2 but has sequence PSTAVR rather than PSTAIR; can complement some alleles of budding yeast Cdc28p. [Mori et al. 1994] [PS]

ncl

n u cl eoli abnormal [CB].

ncl-1 III 0.60 e1865

: abnormal large nucleoli in most cells; intestinal and germ-line nucleoli not markedly larger. ES1. Cell autonomous, widely used cell marker for mosaic analysis. OA1: e1942 (similar phenotype). [Herman 1989; Hedgecock and Herman 1995] [NJ]

ncl-2 IV 4.14 e1896

: abnormal refractile nucleoli especially in germ cells; few ribosomes, abnormal nucleoli seen in EM sections; progressive deterioration; sterile. ES2 NA1. [NJ]

nex

an nex in family [CGC].

nex-1 III 2.1

NMK. Encodes protein with 42% identity to bovine annexin IV; antibody stains pharyngeal grinder, gland cells, spermathecal folds. [Creutz et al. 1996] [CGC]

nex-2 III 2.4

NMK. Encodes predicted protein with annexin similarity. [Creutz et al. 1996] [CGC]

nex-3 III 3.7

NMK. Encodes predicted protein with annexin similarity. [Creutz et al. 1996] [CGC]

nhr

n uclear h ormone r eceptor superfamily [AE].

nhr-1 X 24.12 pk43

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; encodes member of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily (pka crf-1 ); predicted 439 aa; deletion (associated with sup-10 [n184]) probably homozygous viable. [BH, AE]

nhr-2 I 0.30

NMK. Encodes member of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily (pka crf-2 ); 50% identity to mouse thyroid hormone receptor in zinc finger region; NHR-2 present in embryonic nuclei at two-cell stage, ubiquitous until gastrulation, later diminishes; transcript in maternal germ line; antisense expression leads to posterior necrosis in L4, adult. [Seydoux and Fire 1994; Seydoux et al. 1996] [AE, GR]

nhr-3 IV 4.58

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Cosmid ZZH8. [AE]

nhr-4 X 17.00

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. YAC Y52F5, etc. [AE]

nhr-5 IV 13.02

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. YAC Y73F8. [AE]

nhr-6 III 6.31

NMK. Similarity to steroid hormone receptor. Sequenced: C48D5.1. Also named ceb-1, cnr-8. [Kostrouch et al. 1995] [AE]

nhr-7 IV 4.98

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. YAC Y72H7, etc. [AE]

nhr-8 IV 3.41

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. YAC Y50A3, etc. [AE]

nhr-9 III 0.78

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Sequenced: ZK418.1. [GR]

nhr-10 III 0.77

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Sequenced: B0280.8. [GR]

nhr-11 IV 4.05

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. YAC Y54B5. [AE]

nhr-13 V 14.96

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. YAC Y50H8, etc. [AE]

nhr-17 X 7.49

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Sequenced: C02B4.2 [AE]

nhr-18 V 14.54

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Cosmid W02G2. [AE]

nhr-19 II 1.59

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Sequenced: E02H1.7 [AE]

nhr-20 III 3.81

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Sequenced: F43C1.4 [AE]

nhr-21 II 0.35

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Sequenced: F21D12.1? [AE]

nhr-22 II 0.25

NMK. Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Sequenced: K06A1.4 [AE]

nmy

n onmuscle my osin [CGC].

nmy-1 X 13.33

NMK. Encodes predicted nonmuscle myosin heavy chain. [DU]

nob

k nob -like tail ( no b ackside) [BW].

nob-1 III 13.89 ct223

: early L1-lethal with normal head, spherical gut, round posterior; defect in E cell arrangement at 100-cell stage; affects pal-1:lacZ expression; ct223/Df similar. OA2: ct351 (similar), ct230 (weaker, viable; abnormal tail, 65% fertile; males have missing rays, crumpled spicules). [BW]

nob-2

= pal-1

nob-3 I 3.70 ct315

: homozygotes L1-lethal or embryonic-lethal, malformed posterior. CLONED: cosmid rescue. [BW]

nob-5

= unc-62

nop

no p seudocleavage [KK].

nop-1 III 1.5 it142

: mat; embryos from homozygous nop-1 mothers have no pseudocleavage contractions or furrow during the first cell cycle; abnormal actin distribution; normal cytoplasmic streaming and partition; 79% of embryos hatch and grow into fertile adults. [Rose et al. 1995]

not

no se t ouch response abnormal [KP].

not-1

= eat-4

not-3

= glr-1.

nuc

nuc lease [CB].

nuc-1 X 7.05 e1392

: amb; major endodeoxyribonuclease reduced >95%; condensed chromatin persists after programmed cell death; DNA in intestinal lumen not degraded. ES1 ME3. OA2: n887 (resembles e1392), n334 (weaker allele). [Hedgecock et al. 1983; Ellis et al. 1991a] [MT]

O to R

odc

o rnithine d e c arboxylase [SF].

odc-1 V 0.61 pc13

: null allele (partial excision of Tc1 insert pk32), no detectable ODC activity; no obvious phenotype; hermaphrodite brood size reduced 35%; encodes 423-aa protein, homologous to other eukaryotic ODCs. [Macrae et al. 1995] [SF]

odr

od o r ant response abnormal [CX].

odr-1 X 12.52 n1930

: defective chemotaxis to some volatile odorants. OA2: n1933, n1936 (similar). [Bargmann et al. 1993]

odr-2 V 0.63 n1939

: defective chemotaxis to some volatile odorants; n1939/Df similar. OA2: n2148, n2145. CLONED: encodes predicted ~200-aa protein, GPI-linked. [Bargmann et al. 1993] [CX]

odr-3 V 4.40 n2150

: reduced response to all volatile odorants; defective osmotic avoidance; some chemotactic defects; cilia of sensory neuron AWC stunted. OA1: n2046 (weaker phenotypes). [Bargmann et al. 1993]

odr-4 III 0.90 n2144

: defective chemotaxis to some volatile odorants; n2144/Df similar. NA1. [Bargmann et al. 1993]

odr-5 X 1.64 ky9 :

defective chemotaxis to some volatile odorants, same subset as Odr-1. NA1. [Bargmann et al. 1993]

odr-7 X 7.90 ky4

: defective chemotaxis to some volatile odorants; nonsense mutant. OA1: ky55 (defective chemotaxis to diacetyl, other responses normal; missense). CLONED: encodes predicted protein with similarity to NHR DNA-binding domain; odr-7:GFP expressed only in AWA sensory neurons. [Sengupta et al. 1994] [CX]

odr-8 IV

: Mutant phenotype resembles Odr-4. OA4. [CX]

odr-9 ? ky27

: diacetyl response defective. [CX]

odr-10 X 2.19 ky32

: diacetyl response defective. [Sengupta et al. 1996] [CX]

ogr

o ocyte- and g erm-line- r elated [KK].

ogr-1 V 5.79

Tc1 insert, no phenotype; 3.3-kb transcript, oogenesis-associated; 2.8-kb ORF encoding novel predicted protein. [Guo and Kemphues 1995] [DT, KK]

ooc

ooc yte formation abnormal [SP].

ooc-1 II 3.04 mn250

: mat, mm; hermaphrodites lay fertilized eggs that do not hatch. ES3 (progeny) NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984]

ooc-2 II 0.59 mn249

: mat, mm; hermaphrodites lay fertilized eggs that do not hatch. ES3 (progeny) NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984]

ooc-3 II 3.45 mn241

: mat, mm; hermaphrodites lay fertilized eggs that do not hatch. ES3 (progeny) NA1. [Sigurdson et al. 1984]

ooc-4 III 2.26 e2078

: sterile, abnormal, or missing oocytes; some spermatogenesis; males fertile. [CB]

ops

ops in-related [CGC].

ops-1 I 1.37

NMK. Cross-hybridization to opsin probe. [BC]

ops-2 V 1.06

NMK. Cross-hybridization to opsin probe. [BC]

ops-3 III 0.63

NMK. Cross-hybridization to opsin probe. [BC]

ops-4 III 6.40

NMK. Cross-hybridization to opsin probe. [BC]

ops-5 X 2.45

NMK. Cross-hybridization to opsin probe. [BC]

ora

O nchocerciasis- r elated a ntigen family [MQ].

ora-1 IV 3.54 eDf28 :

(pka e927) deletes unc-24 and ora-1 , no apparent phenotype other than Unc-24; encodes predicted protein related to 22-kD antigenic protein from Onchocerca volvulus. [MQ]

ora-2 X 18.0

NMK. Encodes predicted protein related to ora-1 and 22-kD antigenic protein from Onchocerca. Cosmid F40E10. [MQ]

osm

osm otic avoidance defective [PR].

osm-1 X 23.99 p808

: fails to avoid 4 M fructose or 4 M NaCl; poor chemotaxis to NaCl; normal thermotaxis; fails to take up FITC; Daf-d; severely shortened axonemes, ectopic assembly of ciliary structures and microtubules in many sensory neurons. ES1 ME2. OA>10: p816 (similar phenotype, lower fertility), e1803, e1804, p808, p816, m530mut, etc. CLONED: encodes predicted 1738-aa protein, very acidic; related to human brain protein of unknown function. [Perkins et al. 1986; Starich et al. 1995]

osm-2

= che-3

osm-3 IV 2.26 p802

: fails to avoid 4 M fructose or 4 M NaCl; nonchemotactic; defective dauer formation; normal thermotaxis; fails to take up FITC; eliminates distal segment of amphid channel; cilia in other ciliated neurons normal; octopamine-deficient. ES1 ME3. OA>7: e1806, e1811, hf3 (pka caf-1 , resistant to 30 mM caffeine, Dyf), etc. CLONED: encodes 672-aa kinesin-like protein; osm-3:lacZ expressed in all 26 sensory neurons with external openings. [Tabish et al. 1995; Starich et al. 1995]

osm-4

= daf-10

osm-5 X 12.20 p813

: fails to avoid 4 M fructose or 4 M NaCl; poor chemotaxis to NaCl; normal thermotaxis; fails to take up FITC; Daf-d; severely shortened axonemes, ectopic assembly of ciliary structures and microtubules in many sensory neurons; also males suicidal, poor mating. ES1 ME1. OA>6: m184, mn397. [Perkins et al. 1986; Starich et al. 1995] [SP, DR]

osm-6 V 3.44 p811

: fails to avoid 4 M fructose or 4 M NaCl; poor chemotaxis to NaCl; normal thermotaxis; fails to take up FITC; Daf-d; severely shortened axonemes, ectopic assembly of ciliary structures and microtubules in many sensory neurons. ES1 ME1. OA>6: m511, m533mut. CLONED: cosmid R07A10. [Perkins et al. 1986; Starich et al. 1995] [SP, DR]

osm-7 III 21.48 n1515

: defective osmotic avoidance; defective chemotaxis; slow pharyngeal pumping; FITC uptake normal. NA1. [CX, MT, JT]

osm-8 II 0.68 n1518

: defective osmotic avoidance. NA1. [MT, JT]

osm-9 IV 3.26 n1601

: defective in osmotic avoidance, also in nose touch avoidance (Not); Adp (partly defective adaptation to isoamyl alcohol and butanone); normal chemotaxis. OA5: n1516, n1603, n2473, ky10 (similar). [Colbert and Bargmann 1995] [JT, KP, MT]

osm-10 III 0.65 n1602

: specifically defective in osmotic avoidance; normal chemotaxis; normal garlic avoidance; normal nose touch response. NA1. CLONED: cosmid rescue. [Bargmann et al. 1990] [CX, KP]

osm-11 X 23.49 n1604

: defective osmotic avoidance. NA1. [MT, JT]

osm-12 III 13.33 n1601

: defective osmotic avoidance. NA1. [MT, JT]

ost

ost eonectin [CGC].

ost-1 IV 29.28

NMK. Encodes predicted protein with 38% identity to mammalian extracellular matrix protein SPARC/Osteonectin; ost-1:lacZ expressed in body wall muscle, vulval muscle; transgene overexpression leads to deformity, variable locomotion defects. [Schwarzbauer and Spencer 1993]

pag

pa ttern of reporter g ene expression abnormal [CGC].

pag-1 III 1.88 ls2

: homozygotes exhibit overexpression of mec-7 -lacZ fusion transgene; recessive; some additional axonal defects. ES1 OA4. [EA]

pag-3 X 19.49 ls20

: homozygotes exhibit misexpression of the mec-7 gene, mec-7 lacZ and mec-4 lacZ fusion genes in the BDU neurons; also causes a reverse kinker uncoordinated phenotype and occasional axonal guidance errors in the PLM and BDU neurons. NA1. [Jia et al. 1996] [EA]

pal

p osterior al ae [CF].

pal-1 III 2.63 e2091

: adult males lack V6-derived rays, alae extend into tail region; V6 lineage transformed into V1−V4; cell autonomous action; variable additional defects, some embryonic lethality. OA3: mu13 (similar to e2091), ct224 (pka nob-2 , lethal with arrest at hatching, severely deformed posterior, deletion null), ct281. CLONED: 1.25- and 1.45-kb transcripts, encode homeoprotein (pka ceh-3 ) with similarity to Drosophila Caudal, mouse Cdx-1. [Waring and Kenyon 1991; Waring et al. 1992] [CF, BW]

pal-2 IV 4.05 e2260

: adult males have ectopic alae extending into tail region; slight ray abnormalities and mispositioning; tail seam probably transformed to body seam; e2260/Df similar; hermaphrodite wt. ME2 NA1. [Hodgkin et al. 1989] [CB]

par

embronic par titioning abnormal [KK].

par-1 V 5.92 b274

: mat; homozygous hermaphrodites produce embryos that arrest with many differentiated cells, no detectable gut granules; first cleavage symmetrical, defective P granule localization. ES3 (progeny). OA>10: it51, it90 (both missense changes in kinase domain), e2012, it32, it102, lw7 (leaky, Mes), lw39gri (deletion), etc. CLONED: 4.4-kb transcript, germ-line-enriched, encodes predicted 1192-aa Ser/Thr kinase; antibody staining indicates 126-kD protein with specific asymmetric membrane localizations in early blastomeres. [Kemphues et al. 1988b; Guo and Kemphues 1995] [JJ, KK]

par-2 III 24.71 it46

: ts, mat; homozygous hermaphrodites produce 90% (16°C) to 99% (25°C) arrested embryos, escapers sterile; abnormal early cleavages, both spindles transverse at second cleavage (failure of P1 rotation), defective P granule localization. ES3 (progeny). OA7: it5ts (weaker phenotype), e2030 (Mes, grandchildless), it87 (weak), jb2, etc. All ts; temperature shift indicates not needed after second cleavage. CLONED: encodes predicted novel protein; antibody staining indicates specific asymmetric cortical localizations in early blastomeres. [Cheng et al. 1995] [KK]

par-3 III 1.44 e2074

: amb; maternal-effect-lethal mutation, affects first two embryonic cell cycles; abnormal pseudocleavage, streaming, P granule localization; second cleavage spindle orientation variable, often both longitudinal (ectopic rotation in AB). OA5: it54 (leaky, Mes), it71amb (null), it62, it91. CLONED: encodes predicted 138-kD novel protein; antibody staining indicates specific asymmetric peripheral localizations in early blastomeres. [Cheng et al. 1995] [KK]

par-4 V 13.74 it47

: ts; maternal-effect-lethal at 25°C; arrest as multicellular mass, no morphogenesis, no gut granules; abnormally small and round eggs; abnormal early cleavages, etc.; 4% hatch at 15°C, develop to sterile adult. OA9: it33 (nonconditional, fully penetrant Mel; putative null); it57ts (viable at 15°C, Mel at 25°C), it74, it75, it120, etc. [Morton et al. 1992] [KK]

par-5 IV 5.31 it55

: maternal-effect-lethal; second cleavage spindles transverse, asters spherical (resembles Par-2); most embryos lack gut granules. OA1. [Morton et al. 1992] [KK]

par-6 I 13.9 zu170

: spo; maternal-effect-lethal, resembles Par-3 but terminal arrest with more gut differentiation; improper P granule localization; dominant suppressor of weak par-2 mutations. OA2: zu174, zu222. [JJ, KK]

pat

p aralyzed a rrest at embryonic t wo-fold stage [RW].

pat-2 III 0.02 st543

: severe Pat phenotype; disrupted assembly of myofilament lattice. OA6: st422, st538, st567 (weaker, some pharyngeal pumping), etc. CLONED: encodes α integrin. [Williams and Waterston 1994] [RW]

pat-3 III 4.52 st423

: severe Pat phenotype; disrupted myofilament lattice. OA>8: st564 (weaker allele), st423, st552, st564, rh54 (embryonic-lethal, mosaic analysis indicates autonomous defects in cell attachment, morphogenesis, etc.), rh151 (sterile), rh96 (mild; short excretory canals, variable Mig defects). CLONED: 3-kb transcript, encodes β integrin. [Williams and Waterston 1994; Gettner et al. 1995] [CF, NJ, RW]

pat-4 III 27.19 st552

: severe Pat phenotype. OA3: st551, st579, st580 (all similar). [Williams and Waterston 1994] [RW]

pat-5

= egl-19

pat-6 IV 28.00 st561

: severe Pat phenotype. OA1: st570 (weaker, some pharyngeal pumping). [Williams and Waterston 1994] [RW]

pat-8 IV 2.98 st554

: severe Pat phenotype; some pharyngeal pumping. [Williams and Waterston 1994] [RW]

pat-9 X 23.00 st558

: severe Pat phenotype; some pharyngeal pumping. [Williams and Waterston 1994] [RW]

pat-10 I 0.47 st568

: severe Pat phenotype; some pharyngeal pumping. OA1: st575. Probably corresponds to tnc-1 , encoding troponin C. [Williams and Waterston 1994] [HK, RW]

pat-11 I 0.44 st541

: mild Pat phenotype; paralyzed pharyngeal muscles. [Williams and Waterston 1994] [RW]

pat-12 III 26.59 st430 :

mild Pat phenotype; some pharyngeal pumping. [Williams and Waterston 1994] [RW]

pbo

pBo c contraction step (posterior body) of defecation defective [JT].

pbo-1 III 3.58 sa7

: posterior body contraction during defecation very weak or absent; aBoc and E.p steps, and cycle period, normal; constipated; very slow growing. NA1. [Thomas 1990] [JT]

pbo-2

= egl-8

pbo-3 II N sa304

: extra pBoc in about 20% of cycles, other aspects of motor program normal; weak phenotype. OA1: sa290. [JT]

pbo-4 X 2.2 sa300

: pBoc weak but often present, slightly constipated, non-Egl; apparently normal feeding. NA1. [JT]

pbo-5 V 2.3 sa242

: pBoc step of defecation motor program completely absent; other aspects of motor program and timing normal; apparently normal feeding. NA1. [JT]

pbo-6 IV 3.5 sa243

: pBoc step of defecation motor program completely absent; other aspects of motor program and timing normal; apparently normal feeding. NA1. [JT]

pbo-7 V 3.1 sa297

: pBoc step of defecation motor program completely absent; other aspects of motor program and timing normal; apparently normal feeding. NA1. [JT]

pcm

p rotein c arboxyl m ethyltransferase [CGC].

pcm-1 V 1.3 qa201

: Tc1 insertion, enzyme null, viable, reduced dauer survival; encodes 225-aa protein, 53% identical with human L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase; methylates L-isoaspartyl peptides in vitro. [Kagan and Clarke 1995]

pdi

p rotein d isulfide i somerase [TP].

pdi-1 III 5.70

NMK. Encodes protein disulfide isomerase. Cosmid C14B1. [TP]

pel

p harynx and el ongation-defective [JR].

pel-1 ?

Most severe mutations lead to absence of discernible pharynx, reduced number of cells expressing pharyngeal antigens. OA2. [JR]

pel-2 IV N

Mutant blocked in late stages of pharyngeal differentiation and morphogenesis. [JR]

pel-3 I N

Mutant exhibits nearly complete elongation, variably blocked in pharyngeal morphogenesis. [JR]

pel-4 III N

Mutant blocked in late stages of pharyngeal differentiation and morphogenesis. [JR]

pes

p atterned e xpression s ite [UL]. Loci conferring patterned expression on inserted reporter transgenes.

pes-1 IV 1.2 pk72

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; resident gene encodes two predicted proteins with 45−50% identity to Drosophila Fork head transcription factor, diverged class; pes-1:lacZ expressed in some embryonic nuclei, transiently in subset of early AB descendants, all early D descendants, and in Z1, Z4 from end of migration to early L1. Clone UL#24C7, cosmid F57F11. [Hope 1991, 1994] [UL]

pes-2 I 9.0

NMK. Resident gene encodes novel protein; pes-2:lacZ expressed in many nuclei from 14-cell stage (not C, D, or P4), after 200 min only in ABn, especially hypodermis. Clone UL#100G5, cosmid F56G4. [Young and Hope 1993] [UL]

pes-3 III 0.13

NMK. pes-3:lacZ expressed in nuclei of body wall muscles, vulval muscles. Clone UL#4F5, cosmid ZK506. [Hope 1991] [UL]

pes-4 ?

NMK. pes-4:lacZ expressed in nuclei of three rectal epithelial cells, from L1 to adult; also dispersed expression in pharynx. Clone UL#26D10, not located on physical map. [Young and Hope 1993] [UL]

pes-5 II 4.25

NMK. pes-5:lacZ expressed strongly in most embronic nuclei from 28-cell stage; not detected beyond comma stage or postembryonically. Clone UL#38E5, cosmid T27D12. [Young and Hope 1993] [UL]

pes-6 IV 3.15

NMK. pes-6:lacZ expressed throughout H-shaped excretory cell, also in nuclei of lateral hypodermis. Clone UL#64A1, YAC 55E1. [Young and Hope 1993] [UL]

pes-7 I 27.1

NMK. pes-7:lacZ expressed in all ganglia, ventral nerve cord; predominantly nuclear, some in neurites, vulva, spermatheca; staining from embryonic elongation onward. Clone UL#25C4, cosmid K04H8. [Young and Hope 1993] [UL]

pes-8 X 0.70

NMK. pes-8:lacZ expression in three rectal epithelial cells from L1 onward, spermatheca from L4, uterus in adult (Ut-1, Ut-2, Use); adult male proctodeum. Clone UL#38E12, cosmid F18G5. [Young and Hope 1993] [UL]

pes-9 V 5.9 pk22

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; pes-1:lacZ expressed in nuclei of 2–8 cells in early embryo (28−80-cell stage). Clone UL#80G8, YAC Y40H4. [Young and Hope 1993] [UL]

pes-10 ? pk74

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; no maternal transcripts, zygotic transcripts present transiently in each somatic lineage from four-cell stage; pes-10:lacZ expression similar. [Seydoux and Fire 1994] [PD]

pes-22 X 6.3

NMK. pes-22:lacZ expressed behind pharyngeal terminal bulb, probably lobes of excretory gland cell; L1 larvae have apparent gut nuclear staining. Clone UL#161G10, cosmid K05B2. [UL]

pes-23 X 2.18

NMK. pes-23:lacZ expressed in cells of uterus wall, staining luminal near spermatheca, basolateral or cytoplasmic nearer vulva. Clone UL#9F7, cosmid F14B8. [Hope 1991] [UL]

pex

p achytene ex it [EJ].

pex-1 I 14.5 dx8

: sterile; pachytene exit blocked in hermaphrodite oogenesis; germ-line phenotype resembles mpk-1 and mek-2 mutants. NA1. [EJ]

pgl

P g ranu l e abnormality [SS].

pgl-1 IV 3.3 ct131

: germ-line P granules unstained by some (not all) monoclonal antibodies; 5% sterile, Mes if grown at 26°C. CLONED: cosmid rescue (B0318). [SS]

pgp

P g lyco p rotein family [NL].

pgp-1 IV 6.10 pk17

: deletion derived from pk28tci, no apparent drug sensitivity or other phenotype. CLONED: encodes 1321-aa P glycoprotein, 61−65% identical to mammalian P glycoproteins; transcripts relatively low, peak early; pgp-1:lacZ expressed in intestine, throughout development; tagged PGP-1 detected in gut apical membrane. [Broeks et al. 1995] [NL]

pgp-2 I 0.42

NMK. Encodes P glycoprotein, 61−65% identical to mammalian P glycoproteins; transcripts low in egg, higher subsequently. [Lincke et al. 1993] [NL]

pgp-3 X 3.18 pk18

: deletion derived from pk30tci, increased sensitivity to colchicine and to chloroquine; gross phenotype wt. CLONED: encodes 1254-aa P glycoprotein, 61−65% identical to mammalian P glycoproteins; transcripts present throughout development; pgp-1:lacZ expressed in intestine, throughout development; tagged PGP-3 detected in apical membranes of gut and of excretory cell. [Broeks et al. 1995] [NL]

pgp-4 X 3.17 pk34, pk82

: Tc1 insertions, no known phenotype; encodes predicted 1265-aa P glycoprotein similar to PGP-3 (75% identity); pgp-4:lacZ expressed only in excretory cell. [Lincke et al. 1993] [NL]

pha

pha rynx development abnormal [GE].

pha-1 III 5.93 e2123

: ts; at 25°C, zygotic embryonic-lethal, pharynx fails to undergo late differentiation and morphogenesis; early pharynx development normal. OA>5: e2468 (unconditional), t1001ts, e2286 (weak, 38% hatch and arrest), t1002 (weak, some survival to late larval arrest), etc. See also extragenic suppressors: sup-35,36,37. CLONED: 2.2-kb embryonic transcript, encodes 491-aa predicted protein with some similarity to bZIP transcription factors; pha-1:lacZ expressed transiently in all pharyngeal precursor cells. [Granato et al. 1994] [GE]

pha-2 X 19.41 ad572

: misshapen pharynx; worms hatch with pharynx of correct gross shape, but disorganized, with nuclei misplaced; most homozygotes arrest in L1, escapers grow up to become very starved adults with deformed pharynges with abnormally small terminal bulb, thick nucleated isthmus; weakly cs (more survival beyond L1 at 25°C than at 15°C). ES2 ME3 NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

pha-3 IV 5.68 ad607

: misshapen pharynx, isthmus tapered, thinner at the front, rather than uniform; corpus also deformed; metacorpus often open when relaxed; no larval arrest, very slow growth; ad607/Df grow more slowly, usually or always sterile. ES2 NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

pha-4 V 25.18 q490

: zygotic-lethal; embryonic arrest with no pharynx, absence of pharyngeal antigens; intestine not connected to rectum, some rectal cells often missing; most embryos fail to elongate; q490/Df similar. OA6: q400, n2498, q506 (similar), q500 (weaker), etc. [Mango et al. 1994a] [JK]

phm

ph aryngal m uscle abnormal [DA].

phm-1

= unc-89

phm-2 I 9.41 ad538

: pharyngeal grinder cannot assume full forward position, terminal bulb muscles appear short (too strong?); space behind the grinder usually distorted into a continuously open cavity; male spicules protrude. ES2 ME0. OA1: ad597. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

phm-3 III 12.28 ad493

: pharyngeal muscle birefringence reduced, pharyngeal contractions feeble. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Avery 1993a] [DA]

pho

acid pho sphatase, intestinal [JM].

pho-1 II 1.20 ca101

: electrophoretic variant in major acid phosphatase, no other phenotype. NA1. Purified protein is homodimeric glycoprotein, 55-kD subunit; activity detected at luminal edge of most gut cells, but not of six most anterior. [Beh et al. 1991] [JM]

pie

p harynx, i ntestine in e xcess [JJ].

pie-1 III 17.25 zu154

: maternal-effect-lethal, often with two distinct pharynges; additional pharynx and intestinal tissue from P2 (transformed to EMS fate). OA1. CLONED: encodes zinc finger protein, localized to nuclei of germ-line blastomeres. [Mello et al. 1992b, 1996; Mango et al. 1994b] [EU, JJ]

plg

copulatory pl u g formation [CB].

plg-1 III 0.63 e2001

: dm, spo; males lay down gelatinous blob over vulva of mated hermaphrodites; allele isolated from natural C. elegans strain from Stanford, California. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Barker 1994] [CB]

pop

po sterior p harynx-defective [JJ].

pop-1 I 5.40 zu189

: mut; maternal-effect embryonic-lethal, no MS-derived pharyngeal cells; MS blastomere adopts the fate of sister blastomere E; resulting embryos have twice the wt amount of gut. NA1. CLONED: encodes predicted 487-aa protein with HMG box; antibody stains nuclei of oocytes, early blastomeres. [Lin et al. 1995] [JJ]

ppp

p yro p hos p horylase family [PK].

ppp-1 II 0.19

NMK. Upstream gene in operon with tra-2 . [Kuwabara and Shah 1994] [PK]

prk

p im (mammalian oncogene)- r elated k inase [NL].

prk-1 III 0.80 pk25

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; encodes predicted protein with 40% identity to murine Pim1, but longer C-terminus. [NL]

prk-2 III 8.5 pk26

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype; encodes predicted protein with 40% identity to murine Pim1, but longer C-terminus. [NL]

pry

p oly r a y [CF].

pry-1 I 22.17 mu38

: adult males make no alae but instead have ectopic rays; hermaphrodites sometimes Muv; descendants of QR stay in the posterior; postderid often missing; causes late ectopic expression of lin-39, mab-5, and egl-5 . See also spy. [CF]

ptl

p rotein with t au- l ike repeats [CGC].

ptl-1 III 26.3

NMK. Two transcripts, differing 3′ends, encoding proteins of 413- and 453-aa, containing, respectively, four and five tandem repeats; 50% identical to vertebrate tau/MAP repeats. [CGC]

pun

p harynx un attached [BW].

pun-1 I N ct359 :

lethal; L1 larval arrest; buccal capsule not attached to buccal hypodermis; variable dumpy to severely disrupted hypodermis. [BW]

pvp

PVP interneurons abnormal [NJ]

pvp-1 X 3.55 rh114

: PVP axons fail to stain with MAb 44; no other phenotype detected. [NJ]

rab

rab family [NM].

rab-3 II 1.21 y250

: mild Unc, Che, Egl defects; Ric. OA1: y251 (similar; both y250 and y251 are missense alleles). Encodes homolog of mammalian rab3 (73% identity to human Rab3a); dominant-negative transgene leads to Ric, some Unc, or L1 lethality like cha-1 (0). [NM]

rac

rac related [CGC].

rac-1 IV 3

NMK. 1.7- and 0.9-kb transcripts, encode 191-aa predicted protein with 82% identity to human Rac1 (Ras superfamily). [Chen et al. 1993a]

rad

rad iation sensitivity abnormal [SP].

rad-1 I 6.21 mn155

: extremely hypersensitive to UV, X, and γ irradiation, not to UV psoralen. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982; Hartman and Marshall 1992] [PH]

rad-2 V 1.10 mn156 :

extremely hypersensitive to UV, X, and γ irradiation; some sensitivity to chronic MMS treatment; not hypersensitive to UV psoralen. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982; Hartman and Marshall 1992] [PH]

rad-3 I 1.47 mn157

: extremely hypersensitive to UV, not to X irradiation; hypersensitive to chronic MMS treatment (L1 arrest in 0.1 mM); reduced brood size (58% of wt); reduced photoproduct excision; not hypersensitive to UV psoralen. ES1 ME3. [Hartman et al. 1988; Hartman and Marshall 1992] [PH]

rad-4 V 9.46 mn158

: cs; hypersensitive to UV and to acute MMS treatment, not to X irradiation; reduced X chromosome nondisjunction (partly suppresses some him mutations); reduced brood size (34% of wt at 20°C); <25% eggs hatch at 15°C. ES1 ME2 NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982] [PH]

rad-5 III 2 mn159

: ts; hypersensitive to UV and X irradiation, not to MMS; reduced brood size at 20°C (7% of wt); sterile at 25°C; increased spontaneous mutability. ES2 ME2 NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982] [PH]

rad-6 III 3.46 mn160

: hypersensitive to UV and X irradiation, not to MMS; hermaphrodites less viable (<50%) than males at 25°C, equal viability at 15°C. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982] [PH]

rad-7 IV 6.05 mn161

: hypersensitive to UV, not to X irradiation or MMS; reduced brood size (25% of wt); not hypersensitive to UV psoralen. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982; Hartman and Marshall 1992] [PH]

rad-8 I 0.47 mn163

: hypersensitive to UV, not to X irradiation or MMS; reduced brood size (7% of wt); young hermaphrodites lay many inviable eggs; hypersensitive to paraquat, high oxygen concentration (lethal at 60%) (see also mev); increased life span at 16°C. ES1 ME0 NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982; Ishii et al. 1994] [TJ, TK, PH]

rad-9 III 2 mn162

: hypersensitive to UV, not to X irradiation or MMS; reduced brood size (9% of wt). ES1 ME1 NA1. [Hartman and Herman 1982] [PH]

raf

raf (oncogene)-related [CGC].

raf-1

= lin-45

ram

ra y m orphology abnormal [PB].

ram-1 I 9.92 bx34

: adult males have lumpy, amorphous ray morphology; bx34/+ has variably swollen ray tips; fails to complement unlinked ram Mutations; hermaphrodite wt. ME3 NA1. [Baird and Emmons 1990] [PB]

ram-2 II 1.74 bx39

: ts; adult males have lumpy, amorphous ray morphology; bx39/+ has variably swollen ray tips; fails to complement unlinked ram mutations; hermaphrodite wt. ME3 NA1. [Baird and Emmons 1990] [PB]

ram-3 II 19.74 bx32

: adult males have lumpy, amorphous ray morphology; bx32/+ has variably swollen ray tips; fails to complement unlinked ram mutations; hermaphrodite wt. ME3 NA1. [Baird and Emmons 1990] [PB]

ram-4 IV 0.21 bx25

: ts; adult males have lumpy, amorphous ray morphology; bx25/+ has variably swollen ray tips; fails to complement unlinked ram mutations; hermaphrodite wt; bx25/Df similar. ME3. OA?: bx48, bx56ts (possible alleles). [Baird and Emmons 1990] [PB]

ram-5 X 17.71 bx30

: adult males have lumpy, amorphous ray morphology; bx30/+ has variably swollen ray tips; fails to complement unlinked ram mutations; hermaphrodite wt. ME3 NA1. [Baird and Emmons 1990] [PB]

rbp

R NA- b inding p rotein family. See also rnp.

rbp-1 ?

NMK. Encodes hnRNP-like protein. Acc # D10877. [Stenico et al. 1994]

rec

rec ombination abnormal [KR].

rec-1 I 25 s180

: increases meiotic recombination in gene clusters, reduces recombination on chromosome arms; distribution of crossovers in Rec-1 approximates physical map. ES1 ME3 NA1. [Rose and Baillie 1979b; Zetka and Rose 1995b] [KR]

rho

rho -related [CGC]

rho-1 ?

NMK. 2-kb RNA, encodes 192-aa protein with 88% identity to human RhoA; immunofluorescence indicates 24 kD, ubiquitous, enriched in nerve ring and tip of head; not located on physical map; see also cdc-42, rac-1. [Chen and Lim 1994]

ric

r esistant to i nhibitors of c holinesterase [RM]. Inhibitors are drugs such as lannate, aldicarb, trichlorfon. See also lan (lannate-resistant), lar (lannate-resistant), tcf (trichlorfon-resistant).

ric-1 III 0.68 e239

: (pka lar-5), resistant to cholinesterase inhibitors. OA2: n1337 (pka ric-5 ). [Bargmann et al. 1990; Nguyen et al. 1995] [CX, RM]

ric-2

= snt-1

ric-3 IV 3.5 md158 :

Unc; small, slow growing, resistant to cholinesterase inhibitors. [Nguyen et al. 1995] [RM]

ric-4 V 2.11 md1088

: Unc; slow movement, great difficulty backing; small, slow growing, resistant to cholinesterase inhibitors. OA2: md1136, md1192. CLONED: encodes predicted protein with similarity to SNAP-25 (57% identity to Drosophila SNAP-25). [Nguyen et al. 1995] [RM, TY]

ric-5

= ric-1

rnp

rnp (RNA binding) domain containing [TY].

rnp-1 V 3.70 pk73

: Tc1 insertion, no known phenotype. CLONED: encodes predicted 305-aa protein with two RNP domains, one NBP zinc finger; downstream gene in operon with dpy-30 . [Hsu et al. 1995] [TY]

rok

r egulator o f k inase [PS].

rok-1 IV 6.3 sy187

: negatively regulates vulval differentiation; at 20°C, no phenotype alone; at 25°C, some excess vulval differentiation; more in sli-1 (sy243) background. [PS]

rol

rol ler [CB].

rol-1 II 7.55 e91

: adults left-handed rollers. ES3 (adult) ME1. OA1: sc22ts (left roller, slightly dumpy adult at 25°C). [Cox et al. 1980]

rol-2

= dpy-2

rol-3 V 1.45 e754

: adults left-handed rollers. ES3 (adult) ME1. OA1 (viable): e202. Also lethal alleles (high forward mutation rate), OA>10: s126, s422 (pka let-333 ), s742gri, s833, s1040ts (lethality suppressed by srl-1 or srl-2 ), s1408, s1519, etc. Lethal arrest for most alleles early/mid larval. CLONED: cosmid rescue (B0340). [Cox et al. 1980; Barbazuk et al. 1994] [BC]

rol-4 V 4.38 sc8

: adults and L4 larvae left-handed rollers. ES3 (adult) ME2. OA2: b238ts (at 25°C, rolls only in adult, wt at 16°C). [Cox et al. 1980]

rol-5

= sqt-1

rol-6 II 0.81 e187

: adults, L3, and L4 larvae right-handed rollers. ES3 (adults, late larvae) ME0. Similar phenotype in e187/Df. OA6 (recessive): sc90, n1177 (both have no phenotype alone but fail to complement e187). Also intragenic revertants e187 n1270 (wt), etc.; null phenotype probably wt. Also neomorphic allele: su1006dm (both su1006 and su1006/+ severe right-handed rollers in L3, L4, adult; phenotype more extreme than e187). su1006 widely used as dominant transformation marker (ES3 ME1). CLONED: encodes collagen, sqt-1 family. [Cox et al. 1980; Kramer et al. 1990; Mello et al. 1992a; Park and Kramer 1994] [CH]

rol-7

= dpy-10

rol-8 II 0.88 sc15

: adults left-handed rollers. OA1: sc102. [Kusch and Edgar 1986] [BE]

rol-9 V 25.18 sc148

: adults strong right-handed roller, late larvae weak roller; sc148/+ sometimes very weak roller. ES3 (adult). OA1: sc149. [BE]

rop

Ro (Ro) ribonucleo p rotein family [LR].

rop-1 V 2.4

NMK. Encodes predicted 643-aa protein, 36% identity to human and Xenopus Ro proteins; antibody detects 69-kD protein, which coprecipitates with and binds to small Y RNA encoded by yrn-1. [Van Horn et al. 1995; Labbe et al. 1995] [LR]

rpc

R NA p olymerase, type III ( C ).

rpc-1 IV 3.31

NMK. 4.8-kb transcript, strong hybridization to largest subunit of yeast RNA polymerase III. [Riddle and Bird 1989] [DR]

rpl

r ibosomal p rotein of l arge subunit [CGC]. Numbering follows standard scheme for eukaryotic ribosomes.

rpl-29 ?

NMK. 0.6-kb transcript, trans-spliced to SL1; encodes predicted ribosomal protein (87% identical to yeast). [Bektesh et al. 1988] [DH]

rpl-37 III 6.99

NMK. Trans-spliced to SL1; encodes predicted ribosomal protein L37 (54% identical to rat). [Bektesh et al. 1988] [DH]

rps

r ibosomal p rotein of s mall subunit [CGC]. Numbering follows standard scheme for eukaryotic ribosomes.

rps-16 ? N

NMK. Encodes predicted ribosomal protein S16; downstream gene in operon with fib-1. [Zorio et al. 1994] [BL]

rrn

r ibosomal RN A [CGC].

rrn-1 I 29.99

Structural locus for rRNA (pka NOR); ∼55 tandem copies of 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNAs; mutation let (e2000) (pka let-209) associated with partial deletion; also eDp20 (I;II) duplicates this locus; mutation e2345 is transgene induced break in rrn-1 . [Ellis et al. 1986] [PD]

rrp

r as- r elated p rotein [MH].