TABLE 5-1The Independent Dimensions of Sex/Gender in Humans

7 Dimensions of Sex Differences Typical Phenotypes
Female Male Variants
Genetic XX XY XO (Turner Syndrome), XYY (Kleinfelter Syndrome), XY′ (Y deletions), genetic mosaics
Gonadal Ovary Testis Streak gonads, ovatestis
Hormone Profiles Estrogens > androgens Androgens > estrogens Androgen receptors with low binding affinity, adrenal androgens
Reproductive Tract Uterus, fallopian tubes Vas deferens, prostate True hermaphrodite (hemiuterus), fused mullarian ducts
External Genitalia Labia, clitoris Scrotum, penis Hypospadia, microphallus, vaginal agenesis and hypoplasia
Secondary Sex Characteristics Breasts Beard Gynecomastia, hirsute
Anatomy and Metabolism Wide pelvis inlet and outlet, abdominal fat, delayed neutrophil apoptosis Tall, fast-twich muscles, low cardiac levels of heat shock protein 27 Such variables typically are continuous, as is height; thus, variants typically have values in the range typical of the opposite sex
Gender Identity I am a woman I am a man Turnim man, third gender, guevodoces, intersex
Sexual Orientation Men erotic Women erotic Homosexuality, lesbian, bisexuality
Sex Role Primary care-giver homemaker Construction worker, firefighter Such variables are typically continuous, as is parental care, and so variants are typically having values in the range typical of the opposite sex
Psychological Processes: Cognition, Emotion, Social Styles Verbal fluency, emotional intelligence, social aggression Visuospatial reasoning, physical aggression Such psychological processes typically are continuous, as is verbal fluency; thus, variants typically have values in the range typical of the opposite sex

From: 5, Sex/Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Health

Cover of Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment
Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate.
Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Assessing Interactions Among Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health; Hernandez LM, Blazer DG, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006.
Copyright © 2006, National Academy of Sciences.

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