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Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Ninth Biennial Update); Board on the Health of Select Populations; Institute of Medicine. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2012. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2014 Mar 6.

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Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2012.

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Table 3-1Military Use of Herbicides in Vietnam (1961–1971)

Code NameChemical ConstituentsaConcentration of Active IngredientaYears UsedaAmount Sprayed
VAO EstimatebRevised Estimatea
Pink60% n-butyl ester, 40% isobutyl ester of 2,4,5-T961–1,081 g/L acid equivalent1961, 1965464,817 L (122,792 gal)50,312 L sprayed; 413,852 L additional on procurement records
Greenn-butyl ester of 2,4,5-T1961, 196531,071 L (8,208 gal)31,026 L on procurement records
Purple50% n-butyl ester of 2,4-D, 30% n-butyl ester of 2,4,5-T, 20% isobutyl ester of 2,4,5-T1,033 g/L acid equivalent1962–1965548,883 L (145,000 gal)1,892,733 L
Orange50% n-butyl ester of 2,4-D, 50% n-butyl ester of 2,4,5-T1,033 g/L acid equivalent1965–197042,629,013 L (11,261,429 gal)45,677,937 L (could include Agent Orange II)
Orange II50% n-butyl ester of 2,4-D, 50% isooctyl ester of 2,4,5-T910 g/L acid equivalentAfter 1968Unknown; at least 3,591,000 L shipped
WhiteAcid weight basis: 21.2% triisopropanolamine salts of 2,4-D, 5.7% picloramBy acid weight, 240 g/L 2,4-D, 65 g/L picloram1966–197119,860,108 L (5,246,502 gal)20,556,525 L
Blue powderCacodylic acid (dimethylarsinic acid) sodium cacodylateAcid, 65% active ingredient; salt, 70% active ingredient1962–196425,650 L
Blue aqueous solution21% sodium cacodylate + cacodylic acid to yield at least 26% total acid equivalent by weightAcid weight, 360 g/L1964–19714,255,952 L (1,124,307 gal)4,715,731 L
Total, all formulations67,789,844 L (17,908,238 gal)76,954,766 L (including procured)

From: 3, Exposure to the Herbicides Used in Vietnam

Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.


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