TABLE 9-6Selected Epidemiologic Studies—Birth Weight Following Paternal Exposure

ReferencePrimary ExposureSample SizeOutcome/Main FindingsAdjustment Covariates
VIETNAM VETERANS
US Air Force Health Study—Ranch Hand veterans vs SEA veterans; births from service through 1993 in AFHS
Michalek et al., 1998aRanch Hands2,082 birthsNo association with IUGRAdjusted by stratification for father's race, mother smoking during pregnancy, mother's alcohol use, mother's age, father's age, father's military occupation
US CDC Vietnam Experience Study—Cross-sectional study, with medical examinations, of Army veterans: 9,324 deployed vs 8,989 nondeployed
CDC, 1989a,bMilitary service in VA1,771 Vietnam; 1,561 non-VietnamLBW/RR 1.1 (0.8–1.4)Maternal age and gravidity. Also model with smoking history, alcohol use, educational attainment, marital status, illicit drug use in military
US American Legion Cohort—American Legionnaires with service 1961–1975
Stellman et al., 1988US men deployed to SEA during Vietnam War, and other deployed men during same time period2,858 in SEA 3,933 deployed elsewhere (n = 6,081)“no difference between the birthweight of boys born to servicemen stationed in SEA compared to those born to controls, nor did girls' birthweight differs between two groups”Sex, age of father at time of child's birth, age of mother, mother smoking during pregnancy, military service in SEA and exposure to combat and AO—these were not multivariate adjusted models, so strong smoking effect might have had an influence. These appear to have all been independent models
Tasmanian Veterans with Service in Vietnam—Followup of Australian Vietnam veterans
Field and Kerr, 1988Military service in Vietnam~550LBW/RR 1.6 (1.0–2.5)RR calculated by committee member
OCCUPATIONAL—INDUSTRIAL
Lawson et al., 2004Wives of chemical workers highly exposed to TCDD-contaminated chemicals~500 exposed 600 referentsNo association with birth weight overallAdjusted for sex, education, parity, smoking, length of gestation, no stratification by sex
OCCUPATIONAL—HERBICIDE-USING WORKERS
DimichWard et al., 1996Chlorophenate, wood preservative in sawmill industry19,675 birthsNo association (ORs for SGA ~1)Sex, maternal and paternal age, birth yr, matching

NOTE: AFHS, Air Force Health Study; AO, Agent Orange; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; LBW, low birth weight; OR, odds ratio; RR, relative risk; SEA, Southeast Asia; SGA, small for gestational age; TCDD, 2,3,7,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; VA, US Department of Veterans Affairs.

From: 9, Fertility and Gestational Outcomes

Cover of Veterans and Agent Orange
Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2012.
Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Ninth Biennial Update); Board on the Health of Select Populations; Institute of Medicine.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2014 Mar 6.
Copyright 2014 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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