FIGURE 19.1. Phylogenetic trees of the three domains of cellular life (upper panel) and of the multicellular Eukarya (lower panel).

FIGURE 19.1

Phylogenetic trees of the three domains of cellular life (upper panel) and of the multicellular Eukarya (lower panel). The universal tree of life (upper panel) is inferred from maximum likelihood analysis of 1620 homologous nucleotide positions of small-subunit ribosomal RNA sequences from each organism. (The tree is redrawn, with permission, from Barns S.M. et al. 1996. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 93: 9188–9193, ©National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. The eukaryotic phylogeny is redrawn and modified, with permission, from Pollard T.D. et al. 2007. Cell Biology, 2nd Edition. Saunders, New York, ©Elsevier.) Common eukaryotic “model” organisms are indicated. Except for the sponge, all indicated species have had their genomes sequenced. (Gray dotted rings) Approximate time before present (mya = millions of years ago). Major groups are indicated by different colors and refer to specific chapters (see text for discussion). The unicellular alveolates (e.g., trypanosomes) and slime mold diverged more than 1 billion years ago. Thus, their branching points are not shown.

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From: Chapter 19, Evolution of Glycan Diversity

Cover of Essentials of Glycobiology
Essentials of Glycobiology. 2nd edition.
Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, et al., editors.
Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2009.
Copyright © 2009, The Consortium of Glycobiology Editors, La Jolla, California.

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