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Coffin JM, Hughes SH, Varmus HE, editors. Retroviruses. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 1997.

Cover of Retroviruses

Retroviruses.

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Table 1Retroviral Genes

GeneProperties/function of protein
Common to All Retroviruses
gag precursor to internal structural proteins
pro PR enzyme
pol precursor to RT and IN enzymes
env precursor to envelope glycoproteins
Accessory Genes
 HTLV/BLV (e.g., HTLV-1)
  tax transcription activator
  rex splicing/RNA transport regulator
 Lentiviruses (for primate lenti, e.g., HIV-1)
  tat activates transcription
  rev regulates splicing/RNA transport
  vif affects infectivity of viral particles
  vpr and/or vpx nef is present in virion; has nuclear localization signal; facilitates infectivity in quiescent cells; triggers CD4 endocytosis, alters signal transduction in T cells; enhances virion infectivity
  vpu integral membrane protein; triggers CD4 degradation; enhances virion release
  dut dUTPase (only in nonprimate lentiviruses); facilitates replication in certain cell types
 Type B (e.g., MMTV)
  sag superantigen
  dut dUTPase (NC-DU fusion)
 Type D (e.g., M-PMV)
  dut DU enzyme (NC-DU fusion)
 Spumaviruses (e.g., HSRV)
  bel1 activates transcription
  bel2 ?
  bet ?
 Piscine retroviruses (e.g., WDSV)
  orf A ?
  orf B ?
  orf C ?

From: Genetic Organization

Copyright © 1997, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

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